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Example 1

motor has a synchronous reactance of 0.8 W/phase. The

internal voltage is 300 V. If the power angle is 30o,

determine the following

a) The power

b) The torque

c) The pull-out torque of the motor

Example 1 Solution

3

Output power :

Vt E f 266 300

P sin sin 30 o 50 k W

Xs 0.8

b) Output torque:

50,000

T 400 N .m

2

1200

60

266 300

sin 90 o

Tmax 0.8 800 N .m

2

1200

60

Example 2

pole, 60-Hz synchronous motor has a synchronous

reactance of 1.95 W/phase. Neglect all losses. Compute

the maximum power and torque which this motor can

deliver if it is supplied with power directly from a 60-Hz,

2300-V supply. Assume field excitation is maintained

constant at the value which will result in unity power

factor at rated load.

Example 2 Solution

Rated kVA = 2000X0.746 = 1492 kVA, three phase

= 497 kVA/phase

Rated voltage = 2300/1.732=1328 V per phase

Rated current = 497000/1328 = 374 A/phase-Y

374 A 1328 V

729 V

1515 V

From the phasor diagram,

E f Vt 2 I a X s 1328 2 374 1.95 1515 V

2 2

1328 1515

Pmax 3 3096 kW three phase

1.95

2

s 2 60 8 rad / sec

30

Tmax 3096 123 .2 kN.m

8

Example 3

to a 4-kV, 60-Hz line draws a current of 320 A and

absorbs 2000 kW. Calculate

b. The power factor

c. The reactive power absorbed

d. The number of poles on the rotor

Example 3 Solution

2217

225

Example 4

60-Hz operates at unity power factor. The line voltage

suddenly drops to 1.8 kV, but the exciting current remains

unchanged. Explain how the following quantities are

affected.

b. Power angle,

c. Position of the rotor poles

d. Power factor

e. Stator current

Example 4 Solution

a. The speed is constant, hence the load does not know that

the line voltage has dropped. Therefore, the mechanical

power will remain unchanged

b. P=(VtEf/Xs)sin, P, Ef and Xs are the same but Vt has fallen;

consequently sin must increase, which means that

increases

c. The poles fall slightly behind their former position,

because increases

d. Terminal voltage is smaller than before, the motor internal

voltage is bigger than the terminal voltage and as a result,

the power factor will be less than unity and leading

e. As power factor is less than unity, apparent power S is

greater now. The terminal voltage is smaller, I S 3Vt

will increase

Example 5

reactance of 10 W/phase. The stator is connected in wye, and

the motor operates at full-load (4000 hp) with a leading power

factor of 0.89. If the efficiency is 97%, calculate the

following:

a. The apparent power

b. The line current

c. The internal voltage per phase with corresponding

phasor diagram

d. The power angle

e. The total reactive power supplied to the system

f. The approximate maximum power [in hp] the motor

can develop without pulling out of step

Example 5 Solution

a ) P0 4000 0.746 2984 k W

Pi 2984 3076 k W

0.97

S 3076 3457 k VA

0.89

b) I a 3457

3 6.9

289 .3 A

3

Ia

270 Vt

IaXs

Ef

E f Vt 2 I a X s 2 E f Vt cos 90 0 27 0 5889 V

2

Example 5 Solution (contd)

Vt E f 3076000

d ) P0 _ per phase sin 25.9 0

Xs 3

3984 5889

f ) Pmax 3 sin 90 0 7039 k W 9436 hp

10

Example 6

a synchronous reactance of 16 W/phase and a stator resistance

of 0.2 W/phase. The excitation voltage is 2400 V, and the

moment of inertia of the motor and its load is 275 kg.m2. We

wish to stop the motor by short-circuiting the armature while

keeping the dc rotor current fixed. Calculate

a. The power dissipated in the armature at 600 r/min

b. The power dissipated in the armature at 150 r/min

c. The kinetic energy at 600 r/min

d. The kinetic energy at 150 r/min

e. The time required for the speed to fall from 600 r/min

to 150 r/min

Example 6 Solution

a ) Z Ra2 X s2 0.2 2 16 2 16 W jXs Ra

+

Current per phase Ia

+

Ef Ef

Ia 2400 150 A Vt=0

Z 16

Power dissipated in all three phases

Pdissipated 3 I a2 Ra 3 150 2 0.2 13.5 kW

b) Becausethe exciting currentis fixed, the int ernal voltageis proportional to speed

Consequently , when the speed dropsto 150 r / min

E f 2400 150

600

600 V

The frequencyis also proportional to the speed, and so

f 60 150

600

15 Hz

The synchronous reac tan ce is also proportional to the speed, and so

X s 16 150

600

4 W

Example 6 Solution (Contd)

The newimpedance per phaseat 150 r / min is

Z Ra2 X s2 0.2 2 4 2 4 W

Current per phase

E

I a f 600 150 A

Z 4

Power dissipated in all three phases

Pdissipated 3 I a2 Ra 3 150 2 0.2 13.5 k W

As the short circuit currentremains unchanged, power dissipated in

three phasesis the same.

K E1 5.48 10 3 Jn 2 5.48 10 3 275 600 2 542 .5 k J

d ) The k ineticenergyat 150 r / min is

K E 2 5.48 10 3 275 150 2 33.9 k J

Example 6 Solution (Contd)

W K E1 K E 2 542 .5 33.9 508 .6 k J

The energyis lost as heat in the armatureresis tan ce. The time for the speed

to drop from600 r / min to 150 r / min is

P W 13.5 508 .6 t 37.7 sec .

t t

The motor would stop much soonerif externalresistors were conected

acrossthe stator ter min als.

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