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REFORMATION

REFORMATION WAS A MOVEMENT TO REFORM


THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION IN EUROPE
IT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 1510-1550.
MEN BEGAN TO QUESTION THE PRACTICES &
ADMINISTRATION OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.
THIS LED TO A BREAK UP OF THE CHURCH INTO 2
GROUPS ROMAN CATHOLICS AND
PROTESTANTS. THE PROTESTANTS CAME UP WITH
THEIR OWN TEACHINGS AND PRACTICES.
CONTI
THERE WERE 3 GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO WERE
AGAINST THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.
(1) THE ORDINARY PEOPLE WHO WERE
DISSATISFIED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE
CHURCH AND WHO SAW THE BISHOPS AND
ABBOTS AS PART OF A WEALTHY OPPRESSIVE
RULING CLASS.
(2) THE EDUCATED MIDDLE CLASS IN VARIOUS
EUROPEAN CITIES WHO FELT THAT THE CHURCH
HIERARCHY WAS FEUDAL AND THAT THEY COULD
MANAGE THE AFFAIRS OF THEIR CITIES.
CONTI
(3) KINGS AND PRINCES WHO HAD LONG
DISPUTED THE POWERS OF THE CHURCH ON
MATTERS OF PROPERTY, TAXES, LEGAL
JURISDICTION AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE.
THESE RULERS WANTED TO BE MASTERS OF
THEIR OWN LAND AND BE FREE FROM ANY
INTERFERENCE FROM THE CHURCH.
MARTIN LUTHER
REFORMATION MOVEMENT WAS STARTED BY MARTIN
LUTHER, A PRIEST AND PROFESSOR FROM
WITTENBERG UNIVERSITY, GERMANY.
HE ASKED CHRISTIANS TO FOLLOW THE TEACHINGS OF
CHRIST AS FOUND IN THE BIBLE AND NOT FOLLOW
BLINDLY THE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE CHURCH.
HE BELIEVED THAT EVERY MAN SHOULD DECIDE FOR
HIMSELF WHAT WAS RIGHT AND WHAT WAS WRONG.
THAT THE POPE HAD NO RIGHT TO BE HEAD OF THE
CHURCH.
HE ASKED HIS FOLLOWERS TO CHALLENGE THE
EXCESSES OF THE CHURCH ESP. ON INDULGENCES.
CONTI
LUTHER POSTED 95 THESES (ABUSES) AT THE CHURCH
AT WITTENBERG.
LUTHER WAS BRANDED AN HERETIC AND
EXCOMMUNICATED IN 1521.
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR, CHARLES V (1519
1556) WAS AFRAID THAT IF LUTHER UPSET THE
ROMAN CHURCH, HE WOULD ALSO UPSET THE HOLY
ROMAN EMPIRE.
BUT LUTHER WON THE SUPPORT OF THE PEOPLE IN
GERMANY. BY THE TIME OF HIS DEATH IN 1546, MANY
STATES IN GERMANY HAD TURNED PROTESTANT.
CONTI
HIS IDEAS SPREAD ALL OVER EUROPE.
(SWITZERLAND,DENMARK, NORMAY,
SWEDEN).
HIS BREAK AWAY GROUP CAME TO BE KNOWN
AS THE LUTHERANS.
LUTHERS CHURCH WAS GOVERNED BY
BISHOPS, EACH LOOKING AFTER A DIOCESE.
(TERRITORIAL DIVISION OF A CHURCH)
JOHN CALVIN
JOHN CALVIN WAS A FRENCHMEN, A TRAINED
PRIEST AND LAWYER. HE FLED TO SWITZERLAND
TO PRACTICE HIS TEACHINGS.
CALVIN LIKE LUTHER INSISTED THAT TRUE
CHRISTIANS SHOULD FOLLOW THE BIBLE.
HE URGED HIS FOLLOWERS TO WORK HARD AND
EARN THEIR LIVING THROUGH HONEST WAYS.
CALVIN REJECTED THE INSTITUTION OF THE
BISHOPS/PRIESTS AS PRACTICED BY THE
CATHOLICS, LUTHERANS OR ANGLICANS.
CONTI
HE INSISTED THAT THEIR CHURCH BE
ADMINISTERED BY PRESBYTERS (ELDERS)
THEIR CHURCH CAME TO BE KNOWN AS THE
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
HIS IDEAS SPREAD TO HUNGARY, POLAND AND
BOHEMIA AND SCOTLAND.
REFORMATION IN ENGLAND
IN ENGLAND, THE KING TOOK ADVANTAGE OF
THE REFORMATION MOVEMENT TO FREE HIS
COUNTRY FROM CONTROL OF THE ROMAN
CATHOLIC CHURCH.
KING HENRY VIII (1509-1547) WANTED TO
DIVORCE HIS WIFE CATHERINE (AS HE HAD NO
MALE HEIR).
WHEN THE POPE REFUSED HIM PERMISSION HE
CALLED THE PARLIAMENT TO PASS THE ACT OF
SUPREMACY WHICH DECLARED HIM AS HEAD OF
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
CONTI
ALL HIS SUBJECTS WERE ASKED TO
ACKNOWLEDGE THE KING AS HEAD OF THE
CHURCH AND NOT THE POPE.
HENRY CLOSED ALL THE MONASTERIES IN
ENGLAND AND SEIZED ALL LAND BELONGING
TO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
HIS CHURCH CAME TO BE KNOWN AS THE
CHURCH OF ENGLAND OR ANGLICAN
CHURCH.
CONTI
BY 1560, THE PROTESTANT MOVEMENT HAD
BEEN AFFIRMED.
THE UNITY OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
(LATIN CHRISTENDOM) HAD BEEN BROKEN.
ALTHOUGH THE PROTESTANTS DIFFERED IN
MANY WAYS BUT THEY ALSO HAD MANY THINGS
IN COMMON. ALL REJECTED PAPAL AUTHORITY.
THE REFORMATION MOVEMENT HAD A
PROFOUND EFFECT ON THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY.
CONTI
RELIGIOUSLY EUROPE WAS DIVIDED INTO 2
BLOCS - CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS.
RELIGION ALSO DETERMINED POLITICAL
BOUNDARIES.
ITALY, FRANCE, SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
REMAINED STAUNCHLY CATHOLIC STATES.
CONTI
ALL PROTESTANT CLERGY COULD MARRY.
PROTESTANT CHURCHES REPLACED LATIN
WITH THE VERNACULAR LANGUAGES.
ALL PROTESTANTS GAVE UP THEIR
OBLIGATORY CONFESSIONS.
ALL DECLARED THE ONE TRUE SOURCE OF THE
CHRISTIAN BELIEF WAS THE BIBLE.