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HOMEOSTASIS

dr. Hawin Nurdiana, M.Kes


WELLCOME TO PHYSIOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIO = FUNCTION/FAAL


ATAU KERJA (sesuatu yg ada hub. dgn
mekanisme) & LOGY= LOGOS ILMU.

Ilmu faal: suatu ilmu yg mempelajari mekanisme


fungsionil regulatory system yg menjaga
secara optimal integritas internal environment
dlm menunjang proses kehidupan mahluk hidup
(the basic unit of living matter)
What is homeostasis?
maintaining the internal environment at a
constant level or between narrow limits
Blood pH is one aspect that must be
maintained at all times
What are some other examples?
Additional Concepts:

The internal environment of the


organism: mostly composed of the
extracellular fluid

The ECF includes


plasma
interstitial fluid
How does the organism stay
alive?
Organ systems work together to
maintain a relatively constant internal
environment to which the cells are
exposed
In other words: the organ systems
carry out homeostasis
INTEGUMENTARY MUSCULAR SKELETAL NERVOUS ENDOCRINE CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM
LYMPHATIC RESPIRATORY DIGESTIVE URINARY REPRODUCTION
SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM
Mechanisms of Homeostasis
Sensory receptors Effector
Detect stimulus Carry out response
Integration
Selects response
Negative Feedback

Situation in which a change in a certain


direction provides information that causes
a system to change less in that direction

Maintenance of body temperature


Positive Feedback

Situation in which a change in a certain


direction provides information that causes a
system to change more in that direction

Childbirth
Hemostasis system
Potensial aksi syaraf
How does homeostasis work?
Feedback loops!
Rate of metabolic
chemical reactions Positive feedback loop

Blood Excess temperature


Heat in body
temperature in perceived by brain
hypothalamus

Heat loss
from air
cooling skin

Negative feedback loop


Water level
homeostasis
Gas level homeostasis
Response to Heat
Sweating
Dilating Blood Vessels
Response to Cold
Environment

Shivering
Constriction of dermal
blood vessels
Thermoregulation in ectotherms
Regulation of glucose levels
Positive Feedback Mechanisms

Characteristics:
1.Time limitation
2.Intensification of stress
Typical Positive Feedback
Process

Stress Sensor Control Center

Intensifies Effector
Homeostatic Regulation of Child Birth through
Positive Feedback
Nerve endings in the uterine
Uterine Pressure of Fetus on
wall carry afferent messages
contraction the Uterine Wall
to the Hypothalamus

Intensifies

Production and Release


Increasing strength of of Oxytocin into the
uterine contractions Blood
Feedback in Coagulation

Positive feedback mini-loops are built into pathway to speed up


production of chemicals needed to form the clot.
Harmful Effects of Positive Feedback

Positive feedback can be harmful. Two specific


examples of these harmful outcomes would be:
1. Fever can cause a positive feedback within
homeostasis that pushes the body temperature
continually higher. If the temperature reaches 45
degrees centigrade (113 degrees Fahrenheit) cellular
proteins denature bringing metabolism to a stop
and death.
2. Chronic hypertension can favor the process of
atherosclerosis which causes the openings of blood
vessels to narrow. This, in turn, will intensify the
hypertension bring on more damage to the walls of
blood vessels.