You are on page 1of 30


Guided by

Mr. Pratik B. Patel

Prepared by

Sr. No PEN Name

1 130840105003 Bhadja Jitenkumar C.
2 130840105005 Dankhara Nikunj D.
3 130840105008 Gajera Vivek G.
4 130840105009 Gajera Zavin R.

Process Classification
Chemical processes can be classified as batch,
continuous or semi-batch and as either transient or
steady state
Batch process is one in which the feed is charged into
the system at the beginning of the process, and the
products are removed all at once some time later
Continuous process is when the inputs and outputs flow
continuously across the boundaries throughout the
duration of the process.
Semi-batch process is a process in which its inputs are
nearly instantaneous but the outputs are continuous or
vice versa
If the values of all process variables in a process do not
change with time, the process is said to be operating
at steady state. If any changes with time, transient
or unsteady state operation exists

One of the main responsibilities of chemical
engineers is to create/construct/ analyse chemical
processes (or, at least, to understand the existing
The layout of a chemical process is called process
flow sheet (PFS) or process flow diagram (PFD)
PFS or PFD can be for just a single process unit or for
the whole process, either simple or complicated process.

Examples of PFS or PFD

PFD for a water-softening by ion-exchange process

Normally, a PFS or a PFD comprises:
All major process equipments/units
Lines entering or leaving the process/unit and/or lines
connecting two or more process equipments/units (these
lines are called streams)
Flow rate of each stream
Composition of each stream
operating conditions of each stream and/or
unit/equipment (e.g., T, P)
Energy/heat needed to be added to and/or removed
from any particular part of the process or the entire

Some important symbols of process equipments

Material balance are based on :
Law of Conservation of Mass
The law states that mass can neither be created nor
Material balance equations are the manifestation of the
The design of a new process or analysis of existing one
is not complete until it is established that the inputs
and outputs of the process satisfy the material balance
Material Balance Equation
Suppose methane, is a component of both input
and output of a process
qin(kg CH4/h) Process qout(kg CH4/h)
If the flow rates of input and output are found to be
different. Possible explanations are .
1. methane is leaking
2. methane is consumed or generated in a reaction
3. methane is accumulating in the process vessel
4. wrong measurement

General Material Balance Equation

A balance on a material in a process system may be

written as:
Input + generation - output - consumption =
The equation may be written for any material that
enters or leaves any process system
It can be applied to the total mass or total moles of
this material or to any atomic species involved in the

EXAMPLE:The General Balance Equation
Each year 50,000 people move into a city, 75,000 people
move out, 22,000 are born, and 19,000 die.
Write a balance on the population of the city.
SOLUTION Let P denotes people:
Input + generation - output - consumption =

Each year the city's population decreases by 22,000 people.

Two types of balances may be written for
any system;
differential balances and
integral balances

Differential balances indicate what is

happening in a system at an instant of time. Each
term is a rate and has a unit of quantity unit per
Integral balances describe what happens
between two instant of time. Each term of the
equation is an amount of the quantity with a
corresponding unit

Balances on Steady- State Processes
The process is said to be operating at steady-state
when all process variables do not change with time.
The accumulation term in a balance must equal to
zero to ensure that the amount/mass of material in the
process do not change with time

Input + generation - output - consumption = 0

Input + generation = output + consumption

The generation and consumption terms are applied
only when chemical reaction is involved
if there is no reaction,
Input =output 12
Balances on Steady- State Continuous Processes
(Continuous Distillation Process)
One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture of benzene
(B) and toluene (T) containing 50% benzene by mass is
separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass flow
rate of benzene in the top stream is 450 kg B/h and that of
toluene in the bottom stream is 475 kg T/h. The operation
is at steady state. Write balances on benzene and
toluene to calculate the unknown component flow
rates in the output streams.

450 kg B/hr
q1 (kg T/hr)

500 kg B/hr
500 kg T/hr
475 kg T/hr
q2 (kg B/hr)
no reaction,
rate of input = rate of output
450 kg B/hr
q1 (kg T/hr)

500 kg B/hr
500 kg T/hr
475 kg T/hr
q2 (kg B/hr)

EXAMPLE: Balances on a Batch Mixing Process
Two methanol-water mixture are contained in
separate flasks. The first mixture contains 40 wt %
methanol, and the second contains 70% methanol. If
200 g of the first mixture are combined with 150 g of
the second, what are the mass and composition of
the product.

Draw a flowchart of the process, using
boxes or other symbols to represent
process units (reactors, mixers, separation
units, etc.) and lines with arrows to
represent inputs and outputs.

100 mols/hr C2H6

2100 mols/hr
2000 mols/hr Air
0.0476 mol C2H6/ mol

0.21 mol O2/ mol 0.200 mol O2/ mol

0.79 mol N2/ mol 0.752 mol N2/ mol

The chart must be fully labeled with values of
known variables at the locations of the streams

For example a stream contains 21 mole % O2 and

79%N2 at 320C and 1.4 atm flowing at a rate 400
mol/h might be labeled.

the total amount or flow rate of the stream and
the fractions of each component,
Or directly as the amount or flow rate of each

Assign algebraic symbols to unknown streams [such as
(kg solution/min), x (lbm N2/lbm), and n (kmol C3H8)] and
write their associated units on the chart

When labeling component mass or mole fractions of a
stream the last one must be 1 minus the sum
of the others.
If you are given that the mass of stream 1 is half that of
stream 2, label the masses of these streams m and 2m
rather than ml and m2;
if you know that there is three times as much nitrogen (by
mass) in a stream as oxygen, label the mass fractions of O2
and N2 y(g O2/g) and 3y(g N2/g) rather than yl and y2.

If a volumetric flow rate of a stream is given,

convert to mass or molar flow rate since balances are
not normally written in volumetric quantities

Degree of Freedom Analysis
Draw and label flow chart
Count the unknown variables on the flow
chart, nunknowns
Count the independent equations relating
them, nindep eqns
ndf = nunknowns - nindep eqns
If ndf = 0, the problem is solvable
If ndf>0, the problem is underspecified, need
to provide more information/equations.
If ndf0, the problem is overspecified, more
equations than unknowns, redundant and
possibly inconsistent information.

An experiment on the growth rate of certain organisms
requires an environment of humid air enriched in oxygen.
Three input streams are fed into an evaporation chamber
to produce an output stream with the desired composition.
A: Liquid water, fed at a rate of 20.0 cm3/min
B:Air (21 mole% O2, the balance N2)
C: Pure oxygen, with a molar flow rate one-fifth of
the molar flow rate of stream B. The output gas is
analyzed and is found to contain 1.5 mole % water. Draw
and label a flowchart of the process, and calculate all
unknown stream variables.

Dr.Riham Hazzaa 22
Flowchart Scaling and Basis of Calculation

The procedure of changing

the values of all stream
amounts or flow rates by a
proportional amount while
leaving the stream
compositions unchanged is
referred to as scaling the
flow chart.
Scaling up: if the final
stream quantities are larger
than the original quantities,
Scaling down: if they are

Suppose you have balanced a process and the amount or
flow rate of one of the process streams is n1.
You can scale the flowchart to make the amount or
flow rate of this stream n2 by multiplying all stream
amounts or flow rates by the ratio n2/n1.

It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous
feed of 1250 lb-moles/h. Scale the flowchart accordingly.
The scale factor is:

Before scaling

After scaling

Material balance on single unit process
General Procedure for Material Balance Calculations
1. Choose as a basis of calculations an amount or flow rate of one
of the process streams
2. Draw a flowchart of the process. Include all the given variables
on the chart and label the unknown stream variables on the
3. Write the expressions for the quantities requested in problem
4. Convert all mass and molar unit quantities to one basis
5. Do the degree of freedom analysis. For any given information
that has not been used in labeling the flowchart, translate it into
equations in terms of the unknown variables
6. If nDF = 0, write material balance equations in an order such that
those involve the fewest unknowns are written first
7. Solve the equations and calculate the additional quantities
requested in the problem statement
8. Scale the quantities accordingly 28
Example :An aqueous solution of NaOH contains
20% NaOH by mass. It is desired to produce an
8% NaOH solution by diluting a stream of 20%
solution with a stream of pure water.
Calculate the ratios (liters H2O/kg feed solution)
and (kg product solution/kg feed solution).

NaOH balance (input = output).

Total mass balance (input = output).

Ratios requested in problem statement.