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Guided by

Prepared by

1 130840105003 Bhadja Jitenkumar C.

2 130840105005 Dankhara Nikunj D.

3 130840105008 Gajera Vivek G.

4 130840105009 Gajera Zavin R.

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY AND

RESEARCH 1

Process Classification

Chemical processes can be classified as batch,

continuous or semi-batch and as either transient or

steady state

Batch process is one in which the feed is charged into

the system at the beginning of the process, and the

products are removed all at once some time later

Continuous process is when the inputs and outputs flow

continuously across the boundaries throughout the

duration of the process.

Semi-batch process is a process in which its inputs are

nearly instantaneous but the outputs are continuous or

vice versa

If the values of all process variables in a process do not

change with time, the process is said to be operating

at steady state. If any changes with time, transient

or unsteady state operation exists

2

One of the main responsibilities of chemical

engineers is to create/construct/ analyse chemical

processes (or, at least, to understand the existing

processes)

The layout of a chemical process is called process

flow sheet (PFS) or process flow diagram (PFD)

PFS or PFD can be for just a single process unit or for

the whole process, either simple or complicated process.

3

Examples of PFS or PFD

4

Normally, a PFS or a PFD comprises:

All major process equipments/units

Lines entering or leaving the process/unit and/or lines

connecting two or more process equipments/units (these

lines are called streams)

Flow rate of each stream

Composition of each stream

operating conditions of each stream and/or

unit/equipment (e.g., T, P)

Energy/heat needed to be added to and/or removed

from any particular part of the process or the entire

process

5

Some important symbols of process equipments

6

Material balance are based on :

Law of Conservation of Mass

The law states that mass can neither be created nor

destroyed

Material balance equations are the manifestation of the

law

TOTAL MASS INPUT = TOTAL MASS OUTPUT

The design of a new process or analysis of existing one

is not complete until it is established that the inputs

and outputs of the process satisfy the material balance

equation.

Material Balance Equation

Suppose methane, is a component of both input

and output of a process

qin(kg CH4/h) Process qout(kg CH4/h)

unit

If the flow rates of input and output are found to be

different. Possible explanations are .

1. methane is leaking

2. methane is consumed or generated in a reaction

3. methane is accumulating in the process vessel

4. wrong measurement

8

General Material Balance Equation

written as:

Input + generation - output - consumption =

accumulation

The equation may be written for any material that

enters or leaves any process system

It can be applied to the total mass or total moles of

this material or to any atomic species involved in the

process

9

EXAMPLE:The General Balance Equation

Each year 50,000 people move into a city, 75,000 people

move out, 22,000 are born, and 19,000 die.

Write a balance on the population of the city.

SOLUTION Let P denotes people:

Input + generation - output - consumption =

accumulation

10

Two types of balances may be written for

any system;

differential balances and

integral balances

happening in a system at an instant of time. Each

term is a rate and has a unit of quantity unit per

time

Integral balances describe what happens

between two instant of time. Each term of the

equation is an amount of the quantity with a

corresponding unit

11

Balances on Steady- State Processes

The process is said to be operating at steady-state

when all process variables do not change with time.

The accumulation term in a balance must equal to

zero to ensure that the amount/mass of material in the

process do not change with time

STEADY STATE means ACCUMULATION = 0

The generation and consumption terms are applied

only when chemical reaction is involved

if there is no reaction,

Input =output 12

Balances on Steady- State Continuous Processes

(Continuous Distillation Process)

One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture of benzene

(B) and toluene (T) containing 50% benzene by mass is

separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass flow

rate of benzene in the top stream is 450 kg B/h and that of

toluene in the bottom stream is 475 kg T/h. The operation

is at steady state. Write balances on benzene and

toluene to calculate the unknown component flow

rates in the output streams.

450 kg B/hr

q1 (kg T/hr)

500 kg B/hr

500 kg T/hr

Distillation

475 kg T/hr

q2 (kg B/hr)

13

no reaction,

rate of input = rate of output

450 kg B/hr

q1 (kg T/hr)

500 kg B/hr

500 kg T/hr

Distillation

475 kg T/hr

q2 (kg B/hr)

14

EXAMPLE: Balances on a Batch Mixing Process

Two methanol-water mixture are contained in

separate flasks. The first mixture contains 40 wt %

methanol, and the second contains 70% methanol. If

200 g of the first mixture are combined with 150 g of

the second, what are the mass and composition of

the product.

15

Flowchart

Draw a flowchart of the process, using

boxes or other symbols to represent

process units (reactors, mixers, separation

units, etc.) and lines with arrows to

represent inputs and outputs.

2100 mols/hr

2000 mols/hr Air

0.0476 mol C2H6/ mol

16

The chart must be fully labeled with values of

known variables at the locations of the streams

79%N2 at 320C and 1.4 atm flowing at a rate 400

mol/h might be labeled.

17

the total amount or flow rate of the stream and

the fractions of each component,

Or directly as the amount or flow rate of each

component.

18

Assign algebraic symbols to unknown streams [such as

(kg solution/min), x (lbm N2/lbm), and n (kmol C3H8)] and

write their associated units on the chart

19

When labeling component mass or mole fractions of a

stream the last one must be 1 minus the sum

of the others.

If you are given that the mass of stream 1 is half that of

stream 2, label the masses of these streams m and 2m

rather than ml and m2;

if you know that there is three times as much nitrogen (by

mass) in a stream as oxygen, label the mass fractions of O2

and N2 y(g O2/g) and 3y(g N2/g) rather than yl and y2.

convert to mass or molar flow rate since balances are

not normally written in volumetric quantities

20

Degree of Freedom Analysis

Draw and label flow chart

Count the unknown variables on the flow

chart, nunknowns

Count the independent equations relating

them, nindep eqns

ndf = nunknowns - nindep eqns

If ndf = 0, the problem is solvable

If ndf>0, the problem is underspecified, need

to provide more information/equations.

If ndf0, the problem is overspecified, more

equations than unknowns, redundant and

possibly inconsistent information.

21

An experiment on the growth rate of certain organisms

requires an environment of humid air enriched in oxygen.

Three input streams are fed into an evaporation chamber

to produce an output stream with the desired composition.

A: Liquid water, fed at a rate of 20.0 cm3/min

B:Air (21 mole% O2, the balance N2)

C: Pure oxygen, with a molar flow rate one-fifth of

the molar flow rate of stream B. The output gas is

analyzed and is found to contain 1.5 mole % water. Draw

and label a flowchart of the process, and calculate all

unknown stream variables.

Dr.Riham Hazzaa 22

23

Flowchart Scaling and Basis of Calculation

the values of all stream

amounts or flow rates by a

proportional amount while

leaving the stream

compositions unchanged is

referred to as scaling the

flow chart.

Scaling up: if the final

stream quantities are larger

than the original quantities,

Scaling down: if they are

smaller.

24

Suppose you have balanced a process and the amount or

flow rate of one of the process streams is n1.

You can scale the flowchart to make the amount or

flow rate of this stream n2 by multiplying all stream

amounts or flow rates by the ratio n2/n1.

25

It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous

feed of 1250 lb-moles/h. Scale the flowchart accordingly.

The scale factor is:

26

Before scaling

After scaling

27

Material balance on single unit process

General Procedure for Material Balance Calculations

1. Choose as a basis of calculations an amount or flow rate of one

of the process streams

2. Draw a flowchart of the process. Include all the given variables

on the chart and label the unknown stream variables on the

chart

3. Write the expressions for the quantities requested in problem

statement

4. Convert all mass and molar unit quantities to one basis

5. Do the degree of freedom analysis. For any given information

that has not been used in labeling the flowchart, translate it into

equations in terms of the unknown variables

6. If nDF = 0, write material balance equations in an order such that

those involve the fewest unknowns are written first

7. Solve the equations and calculate the additional quantities

requested in the problem statement

8. Scale the quantities accordingly 28

Example :An aqueous solution of NaOH contains

20% NaOH by mass. It is desired to produce an

8% NaOH solution by diluting a stream of 20%

solution with a stream of pure water.

Calculate the ratios (liters H2O/kg feed solution)

and (kg product solution/kg feed solution).

29

NaOH balance (input = output).

30

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