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Psychology 1

SENSATION
presented by:
angemar r. mirasol
James Michael jungco
Jan dale Kaiser rubite
Prince jussel abapo
INTRODUCTIO
As N
man lives, vast information are continuously accepted by the
senses or sense organs. Every second of life, the senses are functioning to
connect the internal or physiological body to the external world or vice-
versa. Through man’s development in life (from birth to death), the senses
are continuously affected by one stimulus after another. Information are
presented for man to be used in making decisions. The sense organs gain
information about the world through different sources of energy that can be
sensed; e.g.: physical touch, temperature, taste, scent, light and sound.
Sensation
The process of accepting the stimulus by the sense organ.
Perception
The giving of interpretation or meaning to the stimulus by the brain to respond
appropriately.

Stimulus
Is any form of energy that can cause, awareness or change to the consciousness (light
waves, sound waves, temperature, chemical state-liquid, solid, gaseous, etc.). These stimuli
are then modified and accepted by the accessory structures (eyes, ears, nose, tongue,
skin, etc.).
Receptors
Are specialized cells responsible for detecting specific type of energy as a result of
transduction.
Transducion
Is the process of changing the stimulus sense into energy for neural activity.

Psychophysics
Is the relationship between the physical and psychological environment. It connects the
external and internal world of an individual. Psychophysics aims to examine the sensitivity
of the individual to various stimuli. Then it determines the psychological perception on the
stimulus. The process assesses the presence and intensity of the stimulus. Furthermore,
the presence of the stimulus depends on the cognition, experience, culture, personality and
what the individual expects, desires and wants to perceive.
Absolute Threshold
Is the least quality and quantity of a stimulus that can be sensed and perceived consequently.
It is the smallest intensity of energy that can be perceived 50 percent of the time. A person
who can detect the weakest stimulus is said to be sensitive or with high threshold. For human
senses to perceive or detect stimulus, it must depend on a background level or should be
under ideal condition. Absolute threshold on certain or same stimuli may vary depending on
different people’s perception. A coin dropped on a quite street can be heard unless the ear has
a defect though this is not possible on a busy street.
SENSES ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
Light ----------------------------- Sees a candlelight 30 miles away on a clear, dark night
Sound ----------------------------- Hears the tick of a watch 20ft. away under silent situation
Touch ----------------------------- Feels wing of a fly 1cm. Away from the cheek
Taste ----------------------------- Taste the sweetness of one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
Smell ----------------------------- Smells the scent of one drop of perfume diffused in a 3-room apartment
Difference Threshold
Difference threshold or Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is the minimum difference in
intensity between two small stimuli when caused by a smallest change. It does not only
determine the presence or absence of stimulus but also detect whether the two small stimuli
are different or the same. For example, in comparing light of objects, it can easily be detected
which one is lighter or heavier; however if two heavy objects with a slight difference are
compared, it will be difficult to distinguish which is heavier unless the difference is pound or
more.
Weber’s Law - The ratio between the original intensity and the change in magnitude after the
nineteen-century German physiologist Ernst Weber.
Weber’s Law is JND = KI, where I is the Intensity of the stimulus and K is the Constant
fraction which varies according to the different sensory systems for the different aspects of
sensation.
SENSES K (Constant Fraction)
Pitch -------------------------------------- .003
Brightness -------------------------------------- .017
Weight -------------------------------------- .020
Loudness -------------------------------------- .100
Pressure on skin -------------------------------------- .140
Saltiness of taste -------------------------------------- .200

Example:
If an object weighed 30lb (I), the JND would be (.02x30 = 0.6lb) which means 0.6lb increase is
important before a change can be detected.
The value of K denotes the capability to know the difference. The higher the value of K from the
constant fraction, the less sensitive a sense is to stimulus difference.
Fechner’s and Steven’s Law
Since JND is the minimum detectable change. Fechner reasoned that constant increase in
physical energy will result continuously to smaller increases in one’s own magnitude. Gustav
Fechner suggested that Weber’s Law can be utilized to understand the perception or
psychological experience on the magnitude of stimulus. The tendency of JND is to grow larger,
since JND has already the smallest K. For JND to progress larger, it needs an increase of
energy from the stimulus.

SENSES ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
Light ----------------------------- Sees a candlelight 30 miles away on a clear, dark night
Sound ----------------------------- Hears the tick of a watch 20ft. away under silent situation
Touch ----------------------------- Feels wing of a fly 1cm. Away from the cheek
Taste ----------------------------- Taste the sweetness of one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
Smell ----------------------------- Smells the scent of one drop of perfume diffused in a 3-room apartment
Webner’s Law
The rule that a constant percentage of magnitudechange is necessary to detect a
difference.

SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY
A theory explaining why people detect signals, which are always enbedded in
noise, in some situation but not in others.

SENSITIVITY BIAS
In signal detection theory, the threshold level In signal detection theory, a person’s willingness to
for distinguishing between a stimulus and report noticing a stimulus.
noise, the lower the threshold, the greater the
sensitivity
ATTENTION
The art of focusing on particular information, which allows it to be processed more fully than
what is not attended to,

Pop-out
Occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it that is immediately
evident.
VISION
Transduction- the process whereby physical energy is converted by a sensory neuron into
neuron impulses
Pupil- the opening in the eye to which the light passes.
Iris- the circular muscle that adjust the size of the pupil
Cornea- the transparent covering over the eye, which serves partly to focus the light onto
back of the eye.
Lens- the flexible disk under the cornea that focuses light omto the back of the eye.
Accomodation- the adjust the shape of the lens
Retina- a sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to neural
impulses
Fovea- the small, central region of the retina
2 kinds of cells in the retina
Rods
-are very sensitive to light but register only the shades of gray. Each eye contains 100-120
million rod
Cones
-respond strongly to one of the three wavelengths and that play a key role in producing color
vision. Allows us to see color.

DARK ADAPTATION COLOR BLINDNESS
-the process whereby exposure to -an inability to perceive hue, either acquired by brain damage or inherited
darkness causes eye to become
more sensitive, allowing for better
vision in the dark.
Visual problems
MYOPIA/nearsightedness- difficulty in focusing on distant objects since the eyeball is too
long to focus the image on retina
HYPERMETROPIA/farsightedness- difficulty focusing on near objects since the eyeball is too
short.
ASTIGMATISM- a defect in the curvature of the cornea or lens causing blurriness and can be
corrected with eyeglass or contact lenses

Perceptual constancy Brightness and color constancy
The perception of characteristics that occurs Seeing objects as having the same lightness
when an object or quality looks the same even brightness or color in different situation.
through the sensory information striking the eye
changes
HEARING
MAJOR DIVISIONS:
1. OUTER EAR
2. MIDDLE EAR
3. INNER EAR

PINNA/ AURICLE- the skin covered cartillageprotruding on the side of the head
AUDITORY CANAL- contains lining of tiny hairs and wax glands which lubricates and protect
the inside of the ear by trapping dirt and insects.
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE/ EARDRUM- causes the sound waves to vibrate to match thesound
produce
3 smallest bones in the body:
malleus/ hammer, incus/ anvil, stapes/ stirrup
Cochlea- from the Greek word snail, it is where the inner ear begins.
Basilar membrane- composed of hair cells, it is where the different frequencies of sound are
coded into different nerve impulses.
Hair cells- cells with stiff hairs along the basilar membrane of the inner ear that when moved,
produce nerve impulses sent to brain.
Pitch- how high or low a sound seems.
Volume- the strength of a sound.
Place theory- by Georg von Bekesy, depends on pitch
Frequency theory- by William Rutherford, explains how low frequency sound
SOMATIC SENSATION
Includes the skin senses of touch, temperature, pain and kinesthesia

3 layers of skin
*epidermis/ outermost
*dermis/ dermis
*subcutaneous/ lowest

Receptors for touch
*Meissner’s corpuscles
*Merkel’s disk
*Pacinian corpuscles
The most sensitive parts are lips and the fingers. The back part of the body is insensitive
Gustatory sensation
Gustatory sense or olfactory sense
-refered to as chemical sense
Taste buds- the receptors for gustation
*the taste cells die the generate new cells about every 10 days

Olfactory sensation
Stereochemical theory
-states that there are 7 basic odor: ethera (chemical), floral (flowers), minty (spearmint), pungent
(vinegar), camphoraceous (mothball), musky (perfume), and putrial (raw fish or meat)
Chromotographic theory
-explains that different smells are perceived based on the distance traveled inside the nasal cavity and
the place it landed on in the mucous lining.
Proprioreceptions
Vestibular sense
Known as the sense of balance

Kinesthesia
The sense of relating where body parts are with respect to each other
PERCEPTION
GESTALT GROUPING
FIGURE AND GROUND CONSTANCY
• Size constancy
• Shape constancy
• Texture constancy
• Color constancy
• Brightness constancy

MOVEMENT PERCEPTION
• Actual movement
• Relative movement
• Aparent movement
• Induced movement
• Autokinetic movement
Fechner’s and Steven’s Law
VISUAL DEPTH PERCEPTION
AUDITORY PERCEPTION
• Relative size
• direction cue
• Interposition
• Time difference
• Linear perspective
• Intensity difference
• Reduced clarity
• Shading
• Phase difference
• Textual gradient • Learned difference
• Movement gradient • Echo
Perception
The process by which the information acquired from the environment such as objects,
conditions, and relationships as a result of sensory stimulation, are given meaning and
interpretation.

PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION
A group of german psychologists called themselves as “GESTALIST” which comes from the german word
“gestalt”, meaning form or shape. They emphasized on the theory that “the whole is more than the sum
of it’s part”.
PRINCIPLES OF GROUPING

THE LAW OF PRAGNANZ
- Describes that the perception will tend to be organized in as simple way as possible
PRINCIPLES OF GROUPING
1. SIMILARITY- elements that look similar are perceived as part of the same form.
2. PROXIMITY- elements that are closest together are perceived as belonging together.
3. CONTINUITY- elements that produce few point of interruptions to smoothly curving lines
are grouped together.
4. CLOSURE- incomplete figure is perceived complete even without it’s missing part.
FIGURE AND GROUND ORGANIZATIONS
FIGURE- the object or part of visual field in perceptual organizations
GROUND- the rest of the visual field in perceptual organization.
DEPTH PERCEPTION

MONOCULAR CUES- require only the use of one eye. Also called PICTORIAL CUES.
BINOCULAR CUES- are cues that require the use of both eyes.
Perceptual constancies
Brightness constancy- the tendency to perceive objects as having the constant brightness
even when they are observed under varying levels of illumination
Shape constancy- we perceived things as the same in shape, despite the changes in position.
Size constancy- the size of an object remains relatively constant even when we view it in
different distances.
Location constancy- things are perceived the same regardless of their position or location
even when we move it.
SPECIAL TYPES OF PERCEPTION
EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION-consist of perception that does not involve the stimulation of
five senses.
TELEPHATY- thought transference from one person to another without the usual aid of the
senses
CLAIRVOYANCE- special ability to see events or object that are out of sight.
PRECOGNITION- the person’s ability to anticipate or foretell future events.
PSYCHKINESIS/ TELEKINESIS- this refers to the capacity of the individual to make objects
move by using thought process
END…….