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Radiation Protection and CT Shielding

IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency
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Namibia Case

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Radiation Shielding Parameters
Remember we must shield
against three sources of radiation
In decreasing importance, these
are:
primary radiation (the X Ray
beam)
scattered radiation (from the
patient)
leakage radiation (from the X
Ray tube)

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Purpose of Shielding

To protect:
the X Ray department staff
the patients (when not being examined)
visitors and the public
persons working adjacent to or near the X Ray
facility

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Usual shielding assumptions

What are my dose limits? (target dose P)


What is my X-ray output? (workload W)
What are my distances to the areas to be
shielded? (distance d)
How busy are those areas? (occupancy T)
Use factor how often does my beam point
in that direction? not used for CT

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Basic shielding equation

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Shielding parameters

Workload calculated in terms of DLP or


CTDI for CT
They can be done using manufacturer
supplied isodose maps
Occupancy factors given in NCRP report

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Occupancy (NCRP 147)

Area Occupancy factor T


Administrative or clerical 1
offices; laboratories,
pharmacies and other work
areas fully occupied by an
individual; receptionist areas,
attended waiting rooms,
children indoor play areas,
adjacent X ray rooms, film
reading areas, nurse
stations, X ray control rooms
Room used for patient 1/2
examinations and treatments
Corridors, patients rooms,
employee lounges, staff rest 1/5
rooms

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Occupancy (NCRP 147)

Area Occupancy factor T


Corridor doors 1/8
Public toilets, unattended 1/20
vending areas, storage
rooms, outdoor areas with
seating, unattended waiting
rooms, patient holding areas
Outdoor areas with only
transient pedestrian or
vehicular traffic, unattended 1/40
parking lots, vehicular drop
off areas (unattended),
stairways, unattended
elevators

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Barrier thickness calculation

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Tube Leakage

All X Ray tubes have some radiation leakage -


there is only 2-3 mm lead in the housing
Leakage is limited in most countries to 1 mGy.hr-1
@ 1 meter, so this can be used as the actual
leakage value for shielding calculations
Leakage also depends on the maximum rated tube
current, which is about 3-5 mA @ 150 kVp for most
radiographic X Ray tubes

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Radiation Shielding Parameters

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Fortunately, in Namibia things are a
little more straightforward!!!
REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN OF A DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY FACILITY
specifies the MINIMUM requirement for room size, wall thickness and
construction materials, lead thickness

Room size
20 m2 for diagnostic radiography
30 m2 for fluoroscopy
35 m2 for CT
8 m2 for mammography

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Wall thickness

230 mm brick (2.3 g/cm3) or


2 mm lead sheet sandwiched between
partitioning alternatively
for CT rooms 2.5 mm lead sheet
sandwiched between partitioning

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Viewing windows

The lead glass window should be at least 35 cm x


70 cm to give full view of the installed x-ray unit.
A protective lead screen glass for the control
console inside the X-ray room should contain 0.5
2mm of lead (depending on its distance from the
patient, the main source of secondary radiation).
The lead glass and protective material (wall) must
overlap each other by at least 25mm

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Doors

Should be lined with at lead sheets of at


least 2mm.
CT room doors must be lined with 2.5mm
lead sheets

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Shielding - Verification I

Verification should be mandatory


Two choices - visual or measurement
Visual check must be performed before
shielding covered - the actual lead thickness
can be measured easily
Radiation measurement necessary for
window and door frames etc.

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Radiation Shielding - Summary
Must consider:
appropriate calculation points, covering all
critical locations
design parameters such as workload,
occupancy, use factor, leakage, target dose
(see later)
these must be either assumed or taken from
actual data
use a reasonable worst case more than typical
case, since undershielding is worse than
overshielding
Use the requirement for construction of
diagnostic facilities in Namibia
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QUESTIONS

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