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AMITY

UNIVERSITY

Ms. Taniya Tyagi Ms. Ulka Tewari


Mr. Abhijeet ASIBAS, Amity University, Noida
Ms. Shalu
Ms. Pooja
Mr. Bhaskar
Ms. Malvika
Mr. Anurag 1
Ms. Kanchan
Doyou feel uncomfortable when
someone stands too close to you?

Do
very bright colors in a room
make you feel distracted?

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The Answer to these
questions lies in the study of
Proxemics

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Table of Contents
What is Proxemics?
Core concepts and assumptions
Types of Proxemics-
1. Horizontal Distance
a) Intimate
b) Personal
c) Social
d) Public
2. Vertical Distance
Strengths of Proxemics
Weaknesses of Proxemics
Effective Use of Proxemics
Contribution to Communication
Practical usage
Proxemics in Culture
Conclusion

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Definition:-
-Edward Hall defines proxemics as the
interrelated observations and theories of mans
use of space as a specialized elaboration of
culture.
Details:-
Proxemics is the study of physical space in
interpersonal relations . The way people use
space tells you a lot about them.
Proxemics is made from Proximity which
means the Nearness.
The word was coined by Cultural
Anthropologist Edward Hall in 1960s.
Hall emphasized the impact of proxemic
behavior (use of space ) on interpersonal
communication.
He believed that the value in studying
proxemics comes from its applicability in 5
evaluating not only the way people interact
with each other in daily life, but further the
organization of space in houses, buildings etc.
CORE CONCEPTS AND ASSUMPTIONS

In his book, The Silent Language, Edward Hall


outlined the following ideas behind proxemic theory:
1. He talked about four types of distances people
keep.
2. The distances outlined are those deliberately
chosen by individuals. Forced closeness doesnt factor
in proxemics.
3. Proxemic behavior is learned mostly from observing
others rather than from explicit instruction, which is
why personal distance and physical contact varies by
culture.
4. The physical distance between communicators
indicates the type of relationship they have.
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Body angles, touch and eye contact further reveal the
familiarity between people.
Different zones of proxemics
(Interpersonal Distance)

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There are two types of distance which people
use to communicate on a face-to-face basis:

1). Horizontal Distance:-


Intimate distance (0-2 ft.)

Personal distance (2-4ft.)

Social distance (4-12 ft.)

Public distance (>12 ft.)

2). Vertical Distance

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A chart depicting Edward T. Hall's
interpersonal distances of man, 10
showing radius in feet .
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Various Horizontal
Distances
A). INTIMATE DISTANCE
This zone starts with personal touch and extends just to
18 inches.
This is used for very confidential communications.
People in intimate distance share a unique level of
comfort with one another.
Example: two people holding hands, or standing side-by-
side. Those who are not comfortable with someone who
approaches them in the intimate zone will experience a
great deal of social discomfort or awkwardness.

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B). PERSONAL DISTANCE
This zone stretches from 18 inches to 4 feet.
This is used for talking with family and close friends.
Although it gives a person a little more space than
intimate distance, it is still very close in proximity to
that of intimacy, and may involve touching.
Example: Your close friends, colleagues, peers etc.
It permits spontaneous and unprogrammed
communications.

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C). SOCIAL DISTANCE
Social events takes place in this radius of 4 feet to 12
feet.
This is used in business transactions, meeting new
people and interacting with groups of people.
In this layer, relationships are more official.
Generally, people within social distance do not engage in
physical contact with one another.
You should be smart enough to conduct it with less
emotion and more planning.
Example :Social distance may be used among students,
co-workers, or acquaintances.

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D).PUBLIC DISTANCE
This zone starts from 12 feet and may extend to 30
feet or to the range of eyesight and hearing.
Events that take place in this zone are formal.

The audience is free to do whatever it feels like.

Example : two men sit far apart on a park bench, in


order to preserve their public distance.

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2). VERTICAL DISTANCE
Vertical distance is often
understood to convey the degree
of dominance or sub-ordinance
in a relationship.
Looking up at or down on another
person can be taken literally in
many cases, with the higher
person asserting greater status.
Teachers, and especially those
who work with small children,
should realize that students will
interact more comfortably
with a teacher when they are in
same vertical plane.
Used in this way, an
understanding of vertical distance 16
can become a tool for improved
teacher-student communication.
ORGANIZATION OF SPACE IN TERRITORIES
While personal space describes the immediate space surrounding a
person, territory refers to the area which a person may "lay claim to"
and defend against others.

There are four forms of human territory in proxemic theory.


They are:

Public territory: a place where one may freely enter. This type of
territory is rarely in the constant control of just one person. However,
people might come to temporarily own areas of public territory.

Interactional territory: a place where people congregate informally

Home territory: a place where people continuously have control over


their individual territory

Body territory: the space immediately surrounding us


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STRENGTHS OF PROXEMICS
Understanding and utilizing proxemics allows for
greater control over socialization, such as formal
situations.
It can allow for greater workplace cooperation, or
comfort between those who are otherwise
unfamiliar.
Proxemics can be expanded further into the virtual
world, whereby persons may heighten their physical
and emotional ease with each other, and likewise
their communicability.

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WEAKNESSES OF PROXEMICS
The level of any persons spatial comfort is relative,
so somebody with similarity of proxemics, or greater
self confidence, may be inclined to distance
themselves based on either of these things.
Besides personal relative comfort, proxemics vary
widely by culture, so something one person find
stand-offish, the other person may find invasive,
and vice versa.

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EFFECTIVE USE OF
PROXEMICS
Move around the
classroom to increase
interaction with your
students.
Being closer to students
allows teachers to make
better eye contact and
increases the
opportunities for students
to speak.

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ASSESSING THE CONTRIBUTION OF
PROXEMICS TO COMMUNICATION

Proxemics is indispensible to the study of


communication, considering that it is one of its
building blocks, which also includes haptics,
kinesics, vocalics and chronemics.
Along with these concepts, proxemics directly
affects the comfort and ease of communicability.

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ASSESSING THE PRACTICAL USAGE OF
PROXEMICS
The practical usage of proxemics is noteworthy in several
respects:-
it allows for a greater understanding, and thereby, control
of human interaction.
it is especially important on the location/culture we find
ourselves in, since certain situations or people tend to be
more physically oriented while others maintain respectful
distances and/ or amounts of touching.

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CONCLUSION
Proxemics is one type of the non
verbal communication. So, every
moment we do, we always
communicate with non verbal
communication.
It is like the key or transportation
between one person to another
person in the non verbal
communication.

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