GROUP MEMBERS:1. 2. 3. 4.


Topics of Presentation
Intro Launching


How it works

Frequency Bands

Basics :. The two stations can use a satellite as a relay station for their communication.    . One Earth Station sends a transmission to the satellite.How do Satellites Work  Two Stations on Earth want to communicate through radio broadcast but are too far away to use conventional means. This is called a Downlink. The satellite Transponder converts the signal and sends it down to the second earth station. This is called a Uplink.

Satellite Transmission Uplink Downlink Earth station .

It was launched on oct-4-1957. The first man made satellite was named SPUTNIK. It weighed 83 kgs and worked for 92 days.   .


Launching Satellites • How does a satellite stay in it’s orbit? .

Types of Satellites  Satellite Orbits      GEO LEO MEO Molniya Orbit HAPs .

Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)  These satellites are in orbit 35. Objects in Geostationary orbit revolve around the earth at the same speed as the earth rotates. This means GEO satellites remain in the same position relative to the surface of earth.863 km above the earth’s surface along the equator.  .

and are only visible for 15 to 20 minutes each pass.500 km above the surface.Low Earth Orbit (LEO)  LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO satellites. A network of LEO satellites is necessary for LEO satellites to be useful   . ranging from 500 to 1. LEO satellites don’t stay in fixed position relative to the surface.

000 km above the earth’s surface.000 km and 18. MEO satellites have a larger coverage area than LEO satellites.    . MEO satellites are similar to LEO satellites in functionality.Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)  A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8. usually between 2 to 8 hours. MEO satellites are visible for much longer periods of time than LEO satellites.

Other Orbits  Molniya Orbit Satellites  Used by Russia for decades.  A series of three Molniya satellites can act like a GEO satellite.  Molniya Orbit is an elliptical orbit. .  Useful in near polar regions. The satellite remains in a nearly fixed position relative to earth for eight hours.

Other Orbits (cont. A blimp or plane around 20 km above the earth’s surface is used as a satellite.)  High Altitude Platform (HAP)     One of the newest ideas in satellite communication. HAPs would have very small coverage area. . but would have a comparatively strong signal. Cheaper to put in position. but would require a lot of them in a network.

satellites have a 24 hour view of a particular area.Advantages of GEO satellite A GEO satellite’s distance from earth gives it a large coverage area. almost a fourth of the earth’s surface. factors make it ideal for satellite broadcast and other multipoint applications.  GEO  These .

have difficulty broadcasting signals to near polar regions  GEO . satellites. centered above the equator.Disadvantages of GEO satellite A GEO satellite’s distance also cause it to have both a comparatively weak signal and a time delay in the signal. which is bad for point to point communication.

A . LEO satellite’s smaller area of coverage is less of a waste of bandwidth.Advantages of LEO satellite A LEO satellite’s proximity to earth compared to a GEO satellite gives it a better signal strength and less of a time delay. which makes it better for point to point communication.

satellites have to compensate for Doppler shifts cause by their relative movement. causing gradual orbital deterioration. which can be costly. drag effects LEO satellites.  LEO  Atmospheric .Disadvantages of LEO satellites A network of LEO satellites is needed.

Advantage-disadvantage MEO satellite  Advantage  A MEO satellite’s longer duration of visibility and wider footprint means fewer satellites are needed in a MEO network than a LEO network. though not as bad as a GEO satellite. .  Disadvantage  A MEO satellite’s distance gives it a longer time delay and weaker signal than a LEO satellite.

2. . 4.Satellite Transmission Frequency bands  Frequency band C-band X-band Ku-band Ka-band Up Link 6 GHz 8 GHz 14 GHz 30 GHz Down Link 4 GHz 7GHz 11 GHz 20 GHz 1. 3.

C-Band occupy 4 to 8 GHz frequency: Low frequency band.Thus it’s coverage is limited due to narrow bandwidth. Rain attenuation is LOW.Large frequency band.Rain attenuation is HIGH. . So larger size antenna is needed.  KU-Band occupy 11 to 17 GHz: . .High frequency & hence narrow beamwidth. .  Most common are C-Band & KU-Band. Low frequency & hence Beamwidth is WIDE. So smaller size dish(60cm to 90cm) can be used. Large antenna (2-3 meters).Small antenna (18-inches!). . .

Why uplink frequency is always higher than downlink frequency ?  To avoid Interference between Uplink and Downlink.   . Because the Satellite has Limited RF Power Output . Transmission loss diminishes as Frequency Decreases.

   .Advantages of satellite communication  Point to Multi-point communication. During critical condition earth stations can be removed and relocated easily and timely so that communication can be established. Satellite Costs are independent of distances. Quality of signal is independent of distances where as it not in the case of optic fibre cables.

   .75000 kms.Disadvantages of satellite communication  Communication path between transmitter and Receiver is app. The delay reduces efficiency of satellite in data transmission during long file transfer. High atmospheric losses above 30 GHz limit carrier frequencies. The delay 240 ms makes one feel annoying.

 Television & Radio  e. No matter where or how this antenna is mounted on.g. .  Mobile satellite technology   Special antenna called mobile satellite antenna. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) & Fixed service satellite (FFS).Application  Telephony  Fixed points  earth station  Satellite  earth station  fixed points.

 Useful for far away places. Internet  High Speed. Military  Uses geostationary satellites.  Example: The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS).  .


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