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# Rigid & Flexible Foundations

Rigid Foundations
o Assumed to settle uniformly under concentrated load
o The ground pressure from below (the soil) is assumed to be
uniform

Flexible Foundations
o Base pressure cannot be assumed to be uniform
o Base pressure will be varying along its length, depending
on the settlement along its length

## The ground pressure under flexible structure

on elastic foundation cannot be
determined by empirical method.
The reaction pressure sustained by the soil
sample under a rigid plate of standard
diameter per unit settlement measured at a
specified pressure or settlement.
The value of k is effected by various parameters,
namely:
o Size of footing
o Shape of footing
o Depth of foundation below Ground Level

Effect of Size
2
( +30)
o =
( +30)

Effect of Shape
1+0.5/
o =
1.5

Effect of depth
2
o =1+

## Approximate estimation of the value of modulus of

Net ultimate bearing capacity of a footing occurs
at a settlement of 25mm.

= . + 1 . . + 0.52

= = 40 /2
0.025
As per IS:2950, part I, values of Ks obtained from
plate load test conducted on 300mm x 300mm
plate.
Beam on Elastic Foundation
along the length of the member.
The reaction force offered by continuous support is
a function of displacement of the member.
Examples: rail tracks, foundation resting on soil, etc.

=
Beam on Elastic Foundation
The basic differential equation for and ordinary
beam is:
4
4
+ = 0

Beam on Elastic Foundation

= + () + + ()

## On solving the equation, a variable is introduced:

1/4

=
4
A, B, C, D are constants of integration, determined
by boundary conditions.
Beam on Elastic Foundation

Final solution:
= + ()
Boundary Condition:

= 0 = 0

This implies: C = D

## On solving the equation we get,

= + ()
2

= .
2
Beam on Elastic Foundation

Similarly,
2
= .

= .
4

= .
2
Where,
= + ()
= . sin()
= ()
= . cos()
Beam on Elastic Foundation

## For convenience, values of Aax , Bax , Cax , Dax for

different values of ax are given in Table below:
Classification of Beams
Case I:

If , The beam acts as a rigid beam
4
Case II:
3
If < < , The beam is a flexible beam of
4 2
finite length
Case III:
3
If > , The beam is a flexible beam of infinite
2
length
References
Varghese P.C., Design of Reinforced Concrete
Foundation, Third Print, January 2010.
Saran Dr. Swami, Analysis and Design of
Substructures Limit State Design, Second Revised
Edition.
IS: 9214-1979, Method of determination of modulus
of subgrade reaction (k-value) of soils in field.
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