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Parts of the body

these are shown in brackets below. . • Doctors normally use the English names. even when talking to each other. • There are a few exceptions where doctors use the anatomical name.Parts of the body • Most external parts of the body have ordinary English names as well as anatomical names.

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neck 3. back 8. jaw (mandible) 2. shoulder 4. buttock 9. wrist 10. armpit (axilla) 5. elbow 7.1.thigh . upper arm 6.

tummy (abdomen) • navel (umbilicus) • hip • groin (inguinal region) • knee (patella = kneecap) • shin .• Calf • Leg • chest (thorax) • breast • stomach.

The trunk is the body excluding the head and limbs.• Limb means arm (upper limb) or leg (lower limb). .

Referring to parts of the body • When patients speak about their problem they often refer to a part of the body: I’m having trouble Hip with my Shoulder knee .

• The doctor often needs to ask about a part of the body: Do you get any pain in the chest? your Stomach? Back? .

. It starts in the back.Describing radiation of pain • A patient is telling the doctor about his back pain and the parts of the body it radiates to. Then it seems to go into the right buttock and down the back of the right thigh to the knee.

the action in the when clause happens first. • The simple past forms of be are was and were. • Most simple past verbs are formed by adding –ed to a verb.Grammar Simple Past • The simple past is used to talk about activities or situation that began and ended in the past. . • Some verbs have irregular past forms. • If the sentence contains when and has the simple past in both clauses.

• They were at home last night. the coffee spilled on my lap. • I was busy yesterday. • I ate breakfast this morning. • Bob stayed home two days ago. • I slept for eight hours last night. .Example: • Mary walked downtown yesterday. • When I dropped my cup.

Formulas Statement • S + V2 + adverb of time • S + was/were + adverb of time Negative • S + did + not + V1 + adverb of time • S + was/were + not + adverb Question • Did / Was / Were + S + V1 / adverb + ? Answer • Yes + S + did/was/were • No + S + didn’t / wasn’t / weren’t .

just are frequently used with the present perfect. .Simple Present Perfect • The present perfect expresses the idea that something happened (or never happened) before now. The exact time it happened is not important. at an unspecified time in the past. yet. ever. when used with for and since. The exact time of each repetition is not important. • The present perfect also expresses the repetition of an activity before now. Adverb never. • The present perfect. also expresses a situation that begin in the past and continues to the present. still. already.

• She has written her husband a letter every other day for the last two weeks.Example: • They have moved into a new apartment. • I have flown on an airplane many times. NOTE • Since + a particular time • For + a duration of time . • I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child • I have known them for many years. • Jack hasn’t seen it yet.

THE DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN PAST TENSE AND PRESENT PERFECT • The simple past expresses an activity that occured at specific time (or times) in the past. it expresses an activity that begun and ended in the past. “for” is used in a time expression. • The present perfect expresses an activity that occured at an unspecified time (or times) in the past. “for” or “since” expresses an activity that began in the past and continuouse to the present .

• Bobby was in Miami for two weeks. • I have been in Europe many times.Example • I finished my work two hours ago. • Bobby has been in Miami for two weeks/since April first. . • I have already finished my work. • I was in Europe last year.