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Graphical User Interface

 The user interface is the part of the operating system that
allows you to communicate with it so you can load
programs, access files, and accomplish other tasks.
 GUI
the part of the operating system that the user interacts
with that uses icons and mouse to issue commands and
make selections.
uses icons, bars, buttons, boxes, and other images.
GUIs rely on pointing devices like the electronic mouse
or trackball to make selections that help you get things
done.

Word Processing Softwares

 Software for word processing has transformed the process
of writing.

 computerized the creation, editing, revision, and printing of
documents (such as letters, memos, and reports) by
electronically processing your text data (words, phrases,
sentences, and paragraphs).

 These packages can also convert all documents to HTML
format for publication as web pages on corporate intranets
or the World Wide Web.

Electronic Spreadsheets
 Used for analysis, planning, and modeling.

 help in developing an electronic spreadsheet, which is a
worksheet of rows and columns which can be stored on
your PC, a network server, or converted to HTML format
and stored as a web page or web sheet on the World Wide
Web.

 performs necessary calculations based on the relationships
(formulas) you define .

 a decision support tool to help you answer what-if
questions you may have

Database Management
An important system software package that controls the
development, use, and maintenance of the databases of
computer-using organizations. A DBMS program helps
organizations use their integrated collections of data
records and files known as databases.

Database management packages such as Microsoft
Access, Lotus Approach, or Corel Paradox allow you to set
up and manage databases on your PC, network server, or
the World Wide Web.

It allows different user application programs to easily
access the same database.

Database Management

and video clips. and important trends in the data. pie charts and many other types of graphics. animation.  proved to be much more effective than tabular presentations of numeric data for reporting and communicating. Presentation Graphics and Multimedia  Presentation graphics packages help you convert numeric data into graphics displays such as line charts.  multiple-color and multiplemedia displays also can more easily emphasize key points. strategic differences.  Most of the top packages also help you prepare multimedia presentations of graphics. . bar graphs. including publishing to the “WWWeb”. photos.

Hardware .

telecommunications. Hardware  Hardware – physical aspects of computers. monitor  Software -a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices Example: Microsoft Excel . and other information technology devices Example: Keyboard.

Hardware Figure 6-1 .

based on the software instructions  Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) .performs all arithmetic operations (for example.interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do. Control unit 2. addition. and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers) . Arithmetic/logic unit  Control unit . Central processing unit  It is the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together.  A CPU contains two primary parts: 1.

for booting up the computer. There are two. .  RAM – primary memory  Random Access Memory .  ROM  Read Only Memory – preprogrammed. Storage Devices  Primary storage temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing.will be erased when power is turned off.

Storage Devices  Secondary storage devices store data and programs when they are not being used in processing.read-only memory)  CD-R (compact disc-recordable)  CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)  DVD-ROM  DVD-R  DVD-RW or DVD+RW  Flash memory device  Memory card .  Examples include:  High-capacity floppy disk  Hard disk  CD-ROM (compact disc .

convert data and instructions into electronic form for input into the computer.  Examples include:  Keyboard  Microphone  Mouse  Pointing stick  Touch pad  Touch screen  Bar code reader  Scanner  Audio Input . such as a keyboard or mouse. Input devices  Input devices.

. such as printers and video display terminals. convert electronic data produced by the computer system and display them in a form that people can understand.  Buses are circuitry paths for transmitting data and signals among the parts of the computer system. Other Components  Output devices.  Communications devices provide connections between the computer and communications networks.

Project Management Information Systems .

 In this era of dynamically changing world.  Success of a project in today’s world is heavily dependent on timely and dependable flow of effective information. up-do-date and timely information. building codes and standards to project and site-specific current and historic data/information about techniques. cost and schedule. construction projects are increasingly more complex. and time frames available for decision-making are shrinking. Introduction  Construction is an information intensive business. . ranging from legal requirements. reliable. which depends on accurate.

Introduction  The task of managing a vast amount of diverse information in an effective and efficient manner is a critical factor in order to improve profitability or to ensure success of most construction organizations  Information systems provide the mechanism through which information flows to different departments within/outside an organization. the availability of the desired information at its required level of detail is necessary.  To facilitate proper and optimal decision making. .  The flow of this information further facilitates the interactiveness of all the managers in providing them with a better understanding of what is happening in the project and thereby allowing them a certain degree of control and proactiveness when making decisions.

Introduction The Information System Data $ Cost Schedule Performance Information Plan vs. Accurate & Structured The Control System Information Management Decisions Organization. Policy and Procedures . Actual Timely.

 It should also provide an easy-to-follow system to allow for a hierarchical tracking of project progress. . accurate. and timely information in order to assist in making quality decisions. Project Management Information System (PMIS)  The Project Management Information System (PMIS) is intended to serve as a mechanism to provide all levels of management with meaningful.

Project Management Information System (PMIS)  Provide an organized and efficient means of planning. . collecting.  Provide an organized and accurate means of converting data from operations into meaningful management information. storing and organizing data reflecting project status.  Provide a mechanism to update and communicate information.  Select and isolate most important and critical information for a given situation.  Generate report by analyzing and consolidating information at a level of detail most appropriate for the individual managers.

Calculations M M Eng. & Field Audits Vendors Information II Labor Control Electrical Master Equipment Control Mechanical Master Material Control SS An outline of an effective integrated PMIS .Project Management Information System (PMIS) Project Drawings PP Estimating Specifications Procurement Eng.

The type of work performed during each stage is much different from one another. conceptual design. generated and considered during the course of each stage. . and construction. Flow of Information  There are several identifiable stages within this process. detail design/ engineering.  This is also true about the information that needs to be acquired. namely preliminary design.

Flow of Information Cost Engineers Field Engineers Consultant/ Quantity/Cost Contractors Earn Quantity/Cost Daily Estimate Quantity/Cost Photo Reports Field Data Records Field Project Management Management  Daily Reports  Change Order  Photo Records  Daily Reports  Safety Notice  Cost Record & Progress  Cost Record & Report for Executive Progress Report for Management Level Project Management Level information Executive Management feedback Major Decisions .

Flow of Information High Field Information Middle Explosion Management Involvement Executive Information Quantity Low Conceptual Detail design Construction stage & engineering .

 Likewise. . although major and critical decisions are made during this stage. not much information is available. decisions are made on the basis of limited information. information during the conceptual design is also extremely critical for the success of the project since this information is used to formulate the project basis. At this stage. too. the system should provide information related to the cost and schedule impact of different design alternatives so that realistic budgets and schedules can be developed based on detailed drawings and specifications.  During detail design and engineering. Flow of Information  It is important to recognize that during preliminary design.

 Management must also monitor any deviations from the original plan and take necessary corrective actions if and when necessary based on the available information.  The information system should enable the project management team to keep track of all resources (labor. Flow of Information  As soon as construction starts. materials and equipment) as they are procured and consumed. . the amount of available information increases exponentially since resources have been mobilized. One of the major functions of management is to make sure that the resources are available as and when needed.

Therefore. . and interdependency among these units. Relationship between Organizational Hierarchy and Information System  The need for information processing depends on the amount of information generated. and where the interactions between these units are. where a large number of inter. complex. more often than not. processed and exchanged.and intra-organizational units are involved.  Construction is a process where a vast amount of information is generated. construction organizations and their hierarchy should be structured in such a way as to satisfy this need. number of organizational units involved.

depending on its level is responsible for making both long-term and short-term decisions all aimed at assuring that the goals and objectives of the project under consideration are met. and field or functional management makes operational or functional decisions.  Executive and middle management usually makes strategic and tactical decisions. Relationship between Organizational Hierarchy and Information System  Each level of management.  Management. needs appropriate information in a suitable format. within the organizational hierarchy. .

Flow of information in a construction organization Project objectives feedback Executive Strategies & plans Management for objective achievement/ Middle Implementation feedback Management Strategy/Plan Functional/Field implementation Management Data Processing Information Flow/Transfer .

Information transgression between different management levels Knowledge Executive Management Information Information Interpretation Project/Middle Management Data Processing Field/Functional Management Data .

Executive Management Information Needs  The prime decision making focus of executive management is directed mainly towards strategic decision-making such as. . § Government regulations § Market regulations § Historical performance data § Future prospects § Financial status/standing of the company § Budget and schedule at summary level  Executive management also needs informational feedback on current and forecasted problem areas and recommended procedures for controlling/solving them.

Project/Middle Management Information Needs  The prime decision making focus of project/middle management is directed mainly towards tactical decision- making. cost and resource details . Some of the main informational needs of project/middle management for their effective decision- making are listed below: § Historical performance details (experiential data) § Resource procurement regulations/conditions § Resource availability and price trends § Construction techniques/methodology § Project participant interaction/inter-relationship § Operationary conditions § Brief schedule.

Project/Middle Management Information Needs  Project/middle management also needs informational feedback on estimated versus actual project control parameters (schedule. cost and resource in particular) for them to identify and forecast problems and to recommend counter measures and solution to those problems. .  The main focus of project/middle management will be targeted at system control and updating.

storage and control § Inspection of schedule. Field/Functional Management Information Needs  The prime decision making focus of field/functional management is directed mainly towards operational/functional decision-making such as. cost and resource  Field/functional management needs information to capture detailed work progress data. cost and resource status results § Detailed schedule. § Project plans § Project execution methodology § Construction techniques and methodology § Resource procurement. . to identify problematic project area and to recommend solution to these problems.

. § Forecasts the future trends and provides enough information for decision-making. Reporting System  The reporting system is very important for project monitoring and control. which may make cost and schedule deviated from the planned. § Should be very brief and requires less than 10 minutes of reading time.  A good progress report should have the following characteristics: § Should be in a standard format and allow readers to quickly grasp the “project’s pulse”. § Identify issues and proposes an action plan. § Indicates current project cost. Not only the executive management but also all project participants need to perceive current project status to catch any errors. schedule and any variances.

A common problem with these reports is the availability of either “too-little” or “too-much” information. which are prepared and distributed to all the project participants. it is difficult to update them on a very frequent basis.  Also.  Moreover. . Reporting System  The existing reporting system is in the form of “hard copy” reports. With the advancement of information technology. it is now possible to produce “electronic reports” which could be available to all users any time anywhere. such reports can filter data according to the person’s needs and can be updated round the clock.

a modern construction reporting system Updating data Information database • Consultation Estimated • Corrective action Estimated Baseline quantities • Improvement cost planned of all works schedule in project Summit progress report Actual Actual Actual cost duration work done Cost Schedule report report Cost Schedule Percent Monitoring variance variance completion Physical progress Suggest- report ions Variance analysis Causation Control Progress Reports .

. § Activity status reports with early and scheduled starting and completion dates. Reporting System Time Control Reports § Actual versus planned bar chart schedules and time analyzed network reports. for current and balance activities and floats.

resources and departments. Reporting System Resources Control Reports § Actual versus planned resources report. work packages. actual and balanced work. . § Optimum schedules of resources by varying resource availability patterns. § Resource productivity analysis report for activities. § Histograms of resources and forecasts for planned.

Reporting System Cost Control Reports § Actual and budgeted cost variance with respect to activity. work package.r. work item. § Monthly progress payment invoices. § Planned versus actual costs and sales forecasts and future trends.t activities. work packages. resources and departments. resources and departments. . § Cost performance analysis w.

Data Collection  The data collection is a very crucial element of an effective project management information system. § Technical data: Contracts and specifications. Contractors and consultant’s information etc. § Field data: Project status report. . weekly or monthly time sheets. Time management report (number of hours spent on a particular activity). Vendors and suppliers information. Project drawings. § Financial data: Purchase records. daily. Project resources (materials. Payment records. Payroll sheets. Bank statements etc. § Administrative data: Employees records. equipment and labor) report. Not only the decision making but also the successful completion of a project within estimated time and cost depends on the reliability of data collected on-site and off-site.

the important thing is that the information should be complete. questionnaires. Data Collection  The most troublesome and most important is the field data on which all estimation. reliable and meaningful. . work and activity sampling.  Whatever the method is used. video clips etc.  There are various ways to collect field data like time and task sheets. forecasting and decision-making depends.

. § Record everything which can effect project cost and schedule like change orders. labor strike and so on. equipment) utilization. delayed delivery of material or equipment. material. § Keep daily track of resources (labor. bad weather. Data Collection GUIDELINES § Keep daily record of all the activities performed at the site and the distribution of manpower for these activities. § Record any technical or non-technical problems which can affect project performance and report to the main office. § Always keep backup of important data particularly if the data recording system is computerized.

Communications can be: § Written formal § Written informal § Oral formal § Oral informal . Communication  Proper communications are vital to the success of the project. Communication is the process by which information is exchanged.

Communication must convey both information and motivation.e. § Establishing multiple communication channels. The communication process is more than simply conveying a message. . § Using a simple language. it is also a source for control. Communication  The process selected will obviously depend on with whom communication is made. sending the same information in different ways.  Some techniques to improve the communication process: § Obtaining feedback. Proper communication let the employees in on the act because employees need to know and understand. i. § Avoiding redundancy. possibly in more than one form.

 Communication in construction covers both within and outside organization. One of the major problems is the lack of efficiently and timely communication between functional segments of the firm and various parties which give rise to many disputes. However. effectiveness and timing of communication and exchange of those information and data between the project team. The successful completion of the project depends on the accuracy. Communication  Construction is a multi-organizations process with heavy dependent on exchange of large complex data and information. . the availability of modern communication tools provides the opportunity to different parties to work closely on project and to improve working environment.

Communication Traditional and Modern Communications Process Traditional Modern .

Communication Modern Communications Tools World wide web Electronic mails Electronic data Facsimile Communication exchange Internet Satellite conferencing communication .

Use of IT Tools in Construction Comparison of Traditional and IT Supported Technologies .

Use of IT Tools in Construction Latest IT Tools  Internet  E-mail  Local Area Network (LAN)  Intranet and Extranet  Database Management System  Softwares .

. They can even view live happenings at the site location without physically being at the site.  Now managers can access specific project information in desired formats in an accurate. or even country. any type of information and data can be searched across the globe using World Wide Web (WWW). timely and pertinent form from anywhere across the globe and this too practically at any time. Use of IT Tools in Construction INTERNET:  The use of the Internet for information access and financial management purposes independent of time and locational constraints is fast becoming a medium for distance communications and furthermore decision making. Furthermore. in its city.

schedules and other such data can be transferred. drawing files. suppliers and manufacturers.  Without numerous time-consuming. images.  Apart from text. contractors. Use of IT Tools in Construction Electronic Mail (E-mail):  E-mail provides a medium to transfer and receive information virtually anywhere in the world. it makes direct communication possible between owners. .

same organization. The other computers on the LANs can electronically access both programs and data stored on the server. there is at least one computer delegated as the server. The LAN usually links within the same department. Use of IT Tools in Construction Local Area Network (LAN)  A local area network (LAN) is a system interconnecting computers in the fairly close area.000 feet. most of LANs use cable.  For the connectivity. but in some positions use wireless as the communication line. with in 2.  In LAN. This allows effective data flows and data sharing. . or the same building.

the Intranet applies the WWW model within the boundaries of an organization. Therefore. suppliers. Use of IT Tools in Construction INTRANET AND EXTRANET  The Intranet is the private web-based network within a corporation. and customers. the Extranet technology is developed to fulfill the Intranet function. However. It connects employees and business partners to company information. . Extranets bring competitive advantages by allowing companies to extend internal systems to external business partners.  An Extranet is a network application that lets companies use the Internet for secure business relationships with partners.

In the areas of construction document management. retrieving.  It is simply a computerized record keeping system. the ability to retrieve and query stored data provides information for claims management.  In estimating. . and maintain the data stored in a database. and sorting of data. implement. for example. Use of IT Tools in Construction Database Management System  Database management system (DBMS) is a set of software used to develop. they provide convenient and systematic access to input the historical data such as unit prices and productivity rate. DBMSes furnish the means for storing. management.

§ Flexibility: the feasibility of the system to accept changes and be adapted to multiple user demand and use. several key factors must be considered from both business and technical points of view such as: § Cost: Initial investment versus the savings in terms of reduced man-hours. § Importance: the level of dependence of the project on the IT system § Content: the accuracy of the data in the system . § Quality: the degree to which the IT system aids the manager in doing his/her work effectively. and before it can be incorporated into any organization. § Scalability: system adaptability to future trends and use. Use of IT Tools in Construction KEY FACTORS  Information technology is expensive.

. which have accumulated over the years.  However. now the volume of digital data is growing and so are the opportunities to reuse old solutions and data in the new problems. re-use of such information has not been taking place very often due to its bulky volume and difficulty in searching. present a valuable resource of knowledge and experience. however.  In construction. Storing Information for Future Use  Company records.

The disadvantage is the information is not readily available and needs human search efforts.  Most people now prefer CD Rom due to its large storage capacity (650 MB as compared to 1.  This system is good and cost-effective for small-to-medium scale companies.  These devices also serve as a tool to transfer data from different site-offices to main office.44MB in floppy disk). . Storing Information for Future Use Floppy Disk and CD Rom  most traditional way of storing digital data. reliability and durability. or outside/within an organization when the different offices are not interconnected through some network.

. however the disadvantage is that the information is not available on-line. Storing Information for Future Use Data ZIP Drive  The data ZIP drive works in the same way as Floppy disk or CD Rom however it can store more information due to its large capacity.7GB or more. which is usually 1.  Through ZIP drive. it is possible to store all information of a project in a single drive.