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Fabrication methods

Photolithography
Raja Sellappan

Nanofabrication techniques
1. Top-down technique: Bulk material is etched until the
desired shape is achieved (removal of substance).
Examples: Lithography (photon, electron, focused ion-
beam)
2. Bottom-up technique: Adding atom by atom or molecules to
form nanostructures (addition of substance).
Examples: Self-assembly techniques, sol-gel, etc.

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Top-down Fabrication methods • Ball milling • Micromachining Lithography Laser ablation LIGA .

html . Ref: http://www. Ball Milling  A process whereby powder particles are milled or grinded to a smaller (nano) particles when they are subjected to high energy collisions exerted by the balls in the rotating drum.com/nanomaterial-synthesis-ball- milling.understandingnano.

fracturing. prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions between the powder and the ball/drum of rotating parts. boundaries within the powder particles.org . • Repeated deformation can cause large reductions in • Speed or rotation grain size via the formation and organization of grain of drums. used. Ball Milling • Also called as Mechanical Attrition or mechanical alloying. 1: Wikipedia. • Cold Welding: A process where materials are Important joined/fused together without the use of heat or parameters making molten state of materials (but under high • Size and density of the balls being pressure). • Materials to be • The process is done in controllable environment to milled should be lighter than balls. and re-welding of powder Tungsten carbide (WC) or steel (Fe) particles in a high-energy ball mill’1. • Mechanical alloying: ‘A solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated cold Rotating drums welding.

’ . • Generally any form of mechanical deformation under shear conditions and high strain rates can lead to the formation of nanostructures. Ball Milling • ‘Different components can be mechanically alloyed together by cold welding to produce nanostructured alloys. Microstructures and phases produced in this way can often be thermodynamically metastable. since energy is being continuously pumped into crystalline structures to create lattice defects. • A nanometer dispersion of one phase in another can also be achieved.

Moore’s Law ‘The number of transistors incorporated in an integrated circuit will double approximately for every 2 years’ 50 years back 2013 Intel’s 4004 CPU (10 micorn or Intel’s Ivy Bridge CPU (22 nm) 10000 nm) Billions of tri-gate transistors 2300 transistors .

• Different physical and chemical processes are used to fabricate an Integrated Circuit (IC). . semiconductor doping (ion implantation) *Substrate: Base material on which image/pattern is formed. patterning. Graphia: Writing • Lithography: Writing on stones or printing an image. Lithography • Lithos: Stones. • IC manufacturing process: Film deposition. • Semiconductor lithography: Formation of creating 3-D images on the silicon substrate* using the patterns.

Photolithography [PL] : Ultra Violet[UV]. Electron beam or E-beam lithography [EBL] 3. Focused Ion beam [FIB] . X-ray) 2. Lithography Types of Lithography 1. Visible light.

• Photons used can be visible or UV light . or X-ray beam. • All part of photoresist is exposed simultaneously to light. • Photons are used to illuminate in parallel to the photoresist in order to make desired pattern on it. Photolithography • An optical process by which a light sensitive polymer called photoresist is exposed (through a photomask ) and developed to form a 3-D image on the surface of a substrate. .

xml .org/x32391. Photolithography General process http://spie.

etc. Substrate preparation: Aimed at improving adhesion of photoresists to the substrate. adhesion promoters. Prebaking: Spin-coating is subsequently followed by a soft-baking (low temperature) of the substrate on a hot-plate to remove solvents and improve adhesion properties. . 2. Spin coating results in a thin. dehydration baking. Photolithographic process 1. uniform coating of photoresist with specific or controllable thickness. Spin coating of a photoresist 1. Photoresist coating: Photoresist is spin coated on the substrate. Process includes substrate cleaning.

• Projection printing: Better method to expose a photoresist through a lens along with photomask. • Contact printing: Offers high resolution but damage of mask is high resulting in low yield. Photolithographic process Alignment and Exposure • A photomask (master pattern) is used to expose a photoresist. . Increases resolution and reduces the mask damage. • Proximity printing: The damage of mask is reduced but the resolution limit is low.

Photolithographic process Developer Positive resist Negative resist UV light Etch Etch Etch Etch mask Resist Resist Resist Silicon Silicon Silicon Resist Resist Silicon Silicon Positive resist: The resist that is exposed to light undergoes chemical reaction and can be dissolved or removed easily by a developer (solution). Negative resist: The resist that is exposed to light undergoes chemical reaction and can not be dissolved or removed by a developer. But the rest of the non-exposed resist can be removed easily by a developer. .

the photoresist undergoes chemical reaction (cross-linking or chain scission polymer) and thus altering the solubility or composition of the exposed resist. metal halide or oxide. Positive resist Negative resist • Upon illumination. . Photoresist • Photoresist is typically polymers.

Photolithographic process Development • Developer: Used to remove the exposed part of the resist (positive) or unexposed part of the resist (negative). the resist can be used as a template or as an etch mask for subsequent transfer of pattern to the substrate through etching or deposition. • After developing. .

• (iii) Doping: Ion implantation is used to dope the material. . • (i) Etching (Selective removal of materials): Either wet (Chemical solution) or dry (plasma) etch is used to transfer pattern to the substrate from the photomask. • (ii) Additive (Deposition) processes: Deposit a new layer on the open area where the resist is removed by a developer. Photolithographic process Pattern transfer • Pattern transfer is achieved in 3 different ways as follows.

e. i. *http://en. • Throughput: How one can produce patterns in a cost-effective time. how many wafers can be patterned in a given time in cost-effective manner. It is approximately half-of the wavelength of the light used.wikipedia. • Currently close to 50 nm size* can be fabricated with PL using extreme UV (EUV) light (193 nm and 248 nm) from excimer lasers but it is quite expensive. Photolithography Important parameters • Resolution: How small features you can make using PL. • Repeatability or registration: Defines how one can align the patterns repeatability on the previous produced patterns.org/wiki/Photolithography . Normal resolution is ~200 nm and above.

edu/engineering/ece/faculty/akhan/Course s/EE439-539-fall07/Lecture%208-Lithography-chapter5. PL Resolution http://www.pdf .southalabama.

pdf ./ 041205.ece. Slit Near-field (Fresnel diffraction) Far-field (Fraunhofer diffraction) Plane waves https://www..edu/news/seminars/lunch05/. they undergo both constructive and destructive interference resulting in bright and dark patterns. Diffraction • Diffraction is a phenomenon (exhibited by light as a wave) of bending of light waves when they encounter an obstacle or slit that is comparable to the size of the wavelength.cmu. • After the waves pass through the slit(s)..dssc.

ece./ 041205.. Near-field Diffraction (Fresnel Diffraction) Distance of mask from a photoresist https://www.cmu.dssc.pdf ..edu/news/seminars/lunch05/.

61l R= = nsinq NA n = refractive index l q = Angle of light collected cone Wmin = K NA l = wavelength of the illuminated light K = Constant NA=Numerical aperture = nsin q https://www.cmu..dssc. 041205.61l 0. Far-field diffraction (Fraunhofer diffraction) Resolution R: How small features you can make.pdf . 0.edu/news/seminars/lunch05/.ece.

edu/researchgroups/hackman/6152J/SP_2004/lectu .mit. Diffraction-limited photolithographic process http://www- mtl.