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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Strategic Planning for IT
 Building a comprehensive strategic IT or engineering plan
that aligns your organization’s efforts with the overall
corporate business strategies is essential to ensuring the
success of your department.

 You are inundated with requests for new work and status
reports. Your success depends on being able to efficiently
absorb these requests, evaluate their impact to existing
delivery schedules, alter your project teams and resource
plans, and effectively communicate too many different
stakeholders quickly.

Strategic Planning for IT
 CEO’s are looking to IT to deliver better
information for improved decision making,
to increase the speed of new product or
service development efforts, and to clearly
measure the impact or value IT has on
increasing revenues, increasing customer
satisfaction and lowering operating costs.

to enforce reporting standards ensuring risks and issues are quickly escalated and to communicate to various stakeholders’ pertinent information about their initiatives. . Strategic Planning for IT  Primavera enables an IT or engineering organization to manage the work request process efficiently. to evaluate different project portfolio scenarios for proper prioritization of efforts.

Primavera helps IT and engineering organizations:  Collect needed information from all work requestors by standardizing the information required and approval process to initiate a new request  Easily review side by side comparisons of different project portfolios based on key factors that you decide as well as budget and resource constraints . Strategic Planning for IT Specifically.

Each person is given a window into the information directly related to them With Primavera you can not only build an effective IT strategic plan – but deliver against as well. The CEO will have a clear view into the top priorities of IT and clearly understand their business value. Business unit leaders will have a unique view into all of the work they requested. enabling you to effectively manage global teams  Communicate through configurable dashboards the right information to the right people. Strategic Planning for IT  Standardize work delivery and reporting processes. seeing their status and any changes to plans in real time. .

High Tech industries and
Financial Services
 Prioritize and manage work effectively
 Improve visibility and forecasting
 Optimize the use of global resources
 Align IT efforts with the strategy
 Accelerate new product development

What is a Project?

A project consists of a series of tasks that have the
following characteristics:

 Specific start and end dates
 Well defined scope and objectives
 Have budget and schedule
 Generally unique and non-repetitive (particular mega projects)
 Consumes resources (e.g. money, materials, people,
equipment)

Generic Project Life Cycle

Termination

Execution

Design

Feasibility Project
Management

control and coordination of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting the client’s requirements and ensuring completion on time. Project Management Project Management is the overall planning. . within cost and to the required quality standards.

Project Management Time Project Management Cost Quality .

Five Phases of Project Management .

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The Challenge Satisfy Consultants Banking/ Others Financing Agents Project Government Contractors Manager Labor Material Contractors Producers Owners Everybody! .

Project Organizations Organizational structure Type of team formation Communication pattern Information exchange Dynamic Process .

Project Teams Conventional Setup Owner Field observations Architect/Engineer General Contractor Sub Sub Sub .

Management Principles Management includes: – Planning – Scheduling – Controlling .

Planning and Scheduling .

assigning realistic durations to each activity.  The objective of planning is to be able to complete the project effectively within a reasonable amount of time. Project Planning and Scheduling  Project planning is the process of identifying all the activities necessary to successfully complete the project. manpower. . materials and equipment. Thus a well-planned project would be completed without unusual delay and cost overrun.  Project scheduling is the process of determining the sequential order of the planned activities. using available resources including money. Thus planning is a prerequisite to scheduling. and determining the start and finish dates for each activity.

. and environmentally acceptable manner. Aim of Planning  Making sure all work required to complete the project gets done: – in the correct order – in the right place – at the right time – by the right people and equipment – to the right quality – in the most economical. safe.

Planning Questions  Who should plan? – EVERYONE  What should they plan? – Whatever work they are responsible for  When should they plan? – CONTINUOUSLY .

Who Can/Should Plan?  Client  Architect or Engineer  Contractor – Estimator – PM – Superintendent – Site Engineer – Foreman – Craftsman – Subcontractor .

Planning and Scheduling Objectives Objectives include: – The ability to create a simple bar chart and a simple CPM logic network – An understanding of how to use a CPM for determining project status and in identifying float – The ability to calculate resource needs .

Planning and Scheduling  The critical path method (CPM) is a planning and control technique that provides an accurate. timely. .  The logic diagram graphically portrays the relationships between project activities. and easily understood picture of the project.

It serves the manager by: – pointing out the things to be done – their sequence – how long each task should take – who is responsible for which tasks or actions . Planning  Planning creates an orderly sequence of events.

 Each activity is a discrete task . Activities  A common technique used to understand and organize complex undertakings is to divide the problem into smaller subparts.

Activities A time consuming. Install Decking Place Cap Place Stringers Construct Abutment Drive Piles . definable task.

Activities  Activities consume time  Activities usually consume physical resources  Activities have definable start and finish points  Activities are assignable  Activities are measurable .

Scheduling  Barcharts (Gantt Chart)  CPM – Critical Path Method .

Barchart (Gantt Chart) .

and understandable format  Normally the activities are listed in chronological order according to their start date . Bar Chart  The bar chart is widely used as a construction-scheduling tool because of its simplicity. ease of preparation.

Bar Chart - Disadvantages  It does not clearly show the detailed sequence of the activities  Itdoes not show which activities are critical to the successful. timely completion of the project .

scheduling. & control the project  The CPM is a tool that assists the planning. Critical Path Method  The logic diagram graphically portrays the relationships between project activities  With this information. it is easier to plan. & controlling of the project. schedule. .

Tools for Planning and Scheduling Network Diagrams – CPM and PERT-III  Basic inputs  Basic outputs .Activity duration – Early finish time .Activity – Early start time .Activity – Late start time interrelationships – Late finish time – Criticality – Total Float – Free Float – Project duration – Critical path .

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Critical Path Method Before the diagram can be developed. the project must first be constructed mentally to determine activity relationships .

Critical Path Method For each activity ask: – Can this activity start at the beginning of the project? (Start activities) – Which activities must be finished before this one begins? (Precedence) .

Critical Path Method For each activity ask: – Which activities may either start or finish at the same time this one does? (Concurrence) – Which activities cannot begin until this one is finished? (Succession) .

Critical Path Method  Thetwo basic logic symbols on the precedence diagram are the node and the precedence arrow .

Critical Path Method .

Schedule Calculations  Sequential Logic – Activity 20 cannot start until activity 10 is completed .

Schedule Calculations  Concurrent Logic – Activities 5 and 10 can proceed concurrently .

Schedule Calculations  Multiple Predecessor Logic – Activity 20 cannot start until both activities 5 and 10 are completed .

Schedule Calculations  Multiple Predecessor Logic – Activity 30 & 40 cannot start until both activities 10 & 20 are completed .

Schedule Calculations Multiple Successor Logic – Activity 20 must be complete before either 30 or 40 can start. 30 can start only after 10 and 20 are completed 40 can start immediately after 20 is completed .

Forward Pass  The earliest time each activity in the network can start and finish  Theminimum overall duration of the project .

Forward Pass  Early Finishn = Early Startn + Durationn .

Early start/early finish  Early start time (ES) of an activity is the earliest point in time. taking into account the network logic. that an activity may start  Early finish time (EF) is the earliest time the activity may finish .

ACTIVITY ON THE NODE TIME ANALYSIS Early Start Early Finish START 0 10 FINISH 13 30 15 45 9 .

Early start .

and still maintain the minimum overall project duration . Backward Pass  A backward pass through the logic network will produce the latest point in time that each network activity can start and finish.

Late finish/late start  Latefinish time (LF) is the latest time that an activity may finish without delaying the entire project .

Late finish/late start .

Critical Path and Critical Activities  A critical activity can be determined from the logic network by applying either of the following rules: – The early start and late start times for a particular activity are the same – The early finish and late finish time for a particular activity are the same .

EF .LS = Duration . ES = LS 4 11 7 2. EF = LF 4 11 The duration must be equal to the difference between the ES and the EF or the difference between the LS and the LF.ES = Duration or LF . CRITICAL PATH 1.

Critical Path and Critical Activities  Criticalactivities are linked together forming a path from the start activity to the finish activity called a critical path. .

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Total Float Total float (TF) is the amount of time that an activity may be delayed without delaying the project's estimated completion time Total float assumes that all preceding activities are finished as early as possible and all succeeding activities are started as late as possible .

and still not delay the project . Total Float  Total Float = Late Start – Early Start  Total Float = Late Finish – Early Finish Both equations will yield the same answer An activity can take place at any time within the interval defined by its early start and late finish dates.

7 20 or 22 . TIME ANALYSIS 20 7 17 15 10 22 12 22 example: 17 TF = 12 .EARLY START(ES) or LATE FINISH(LF) .EARLY FINISH(EF) .17 = 5 48 TOTAL FLOAT (TF) = LATE START(LS) .

D)  Forward Pass calculations give ES & EF  Backward Pass calculations give LS & LF . Tools for Planning and Scheduling Network Diagrams – Basic Definitions-I  Early Start (ES) – The earliest time an activity can be started  Early Finish (EF) – The earliest time an activity can be finished (EF = ES + D)  Late Finish (LF) – The latest time an activity can be finished  Late Start (LS) – The latest time an activity can be started without delaying the completion date of the project (LS = LF .

Tools for Planning and Scheduling Network Diagrams – Basic Definitions-II  Total Float (TF) – The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the completion date of the project (TF = LF .EF(a)) where activity “a” is followed by activity “b” .EF)  Free Float (FF) – The time an activity may be delayed without delaying the early start time of the immediately following activity (FF(a) = ES(b) .

Total and Free Floats. Tools for Planning and Scheduling Network Diagrams – Basic Definitions-III  Critical Activity – An activity which if delayed will delay the completion date of the project. with each activity having zero. – A critical activity has zero Total and Free Floats – A critical activity lies on the critical path  Critical Path – A series of interconnected activities through the network diagram. – The critical path determines the minimum project completion time .

Tools for Planning and Scheduling Network Diagrams – Basic Calculations .

Project Control Process Step 1: Define the parameters to be controlled Step 2: Establish base lines for measuring performance Step 3: Account performance by: • measuring performance • recording performance • reporting performance deviations Step 4:Monitor performance by: • consolidating reported performance data • analyzing performance variations • forecasting performance trends .

Project Control Process Step 5: Communicate information • feedback • management report • record keeping .