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Source : Introduction to Statistical Quality Control (6th Edition) by Douglas C. Montgomery

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Histogram or stem-and-leaf plot 2. Cause-and-effect diagram 5. Its seven major tools are : 1.Introduction Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a powerful collection of problem-solving tools useful in achieving process stability and improving capability through the reduction of variability. Scatter diagram 7. The concept was evolved by Walter A. State at Page 180 . Check sheet 3. Defect concentration diagram 6. Pareto chart 4. in 1920. Shewhart of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. often called the magnificent seven. Control chart These tools.

the Shewhart control chart is probably the most technically sophisticated. but its use in modern-day business and industry is of tremendous value. State at Page 180-181 . The control chart is an on-line process-monitoring technique widely used for this purpose. Certainly is not new. It may not be possible to completely eliminate variability. but the control chart is an effective tool in reducing variability as much as possible.Definition of Control Chart Of the seven tools.

Analyze. Control charts are among the most important management control tools. they are as important as cost controls and material controls. Measure. State at Page 15. Techniques such as control charts can be used to monitor the process output and detect when changes in the inputs are required to bring the process back to an in control state. as data collection and analysis can be performed on a microcomputer or a local area network terminal in real-time. Modern computer technology has made it easy to implement control charts in any type of process. 54 . Improve. on-line at the work center. many process control plans involve control charts on critical process metrics. Control charts also used in the control step of DMAIC (Define. and Control). 29.

Statistical Basis of The Control Chart Figure 5. .2 a typical control chart The control chart is a graphical display of a quality characteristic that has been measured or computed from a sample versus the sample number or time.

State at Page 182 . only chance causes are present). called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). Two other horizontal lines. are also shown on the chart. The chart contains a center line that represents the average value of the quality characteristic corresponding to the in-control state (that is.

5 Reasons of Control Chart Popularity .

3. If you reduce scrap and rework. .1. which is consistent with the “do it right the first time” philosophy. the control chart is consistent with the “if it isn’t broken. no other device including a human operator is as effective in making this distinction. then productivity increases. 2. A successful control chart program will reduce scrap and rework. Control charts are a proven technique for improving productivity. The control chart helps keep the process in control. cost decreases. In other words. A control chart can distinguish between background noise and abnormal variation. and production capacity (measured in the number of good parts per hour) increases. which are the primary productivity killers in any operation. It is never cheaper to sort out “good” units from “bad” units later on than it is to build it right initially. Control charts are effective in defect prevention. Control charts prevent unnecessary process adjustment. don’t fix it” philosophy.

This information is of tremendous use to product and process designers. Frequently. The control chart provides information about the value of important process parameters and their stability over time. This information allows the implementation of a change in the process that improves its performance. Control charts provide diagnostic information. State at Page 189 . This allows an estimate of process capability to be made.4. the pattern of points on the control chart will contain information of diagnostic value to an experienced operator or engineer. Control charts provide information about process capability. 5.

Conclusion Control Chart : 1. Trends and out-of-control conditions are immediately detected State at Page 738 . Monitors performance over time 3. Helps reduce variability 2. Allows process corrections to prevent rejections 4.