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INTRODUCTION TO DRONE

MAPPING

SARRA L. MARAVILLA
GEP-BUSC President
Geodetic Engineers of the Philippines Inc.-Bicol University Student Chapter
Bicol University College of Engineering
15TH ISPRS STUDENT CONSORTIUM AND WORKING GROUP VI/5 SUMMER SCHOOL
Geoinformatics for Disaster Risk Reduction: Application of Drones
Institute of Surveying and Mapping, Diyatalawa, Sri Lanka
October 22-26, 2016
PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Definition:
Photogrammetry is the science of obtaining
reliable information about the properties of
surfaces and objects without physical
contact with the objects, and of measuring
and interpreting this information

The output of photogrammetry is typically a


map, drawing, measurement, or a 3D model of
some real-world object or scene.
4 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC GENERATIONS

Invention of PHOTOGRAPH

FIRST GENERATIONS

In 1855, Nadar(Gaspard Felix In 1903, Julius Neubranner,


In France M. Arthur Batut took an aerial
Tournachon) used a balloon at photography enthusiast, designed
photographs using a kite, over Labruguiere,
80-meters to obtain the first and patented a breast-mounted
France, in May 1888.
aerial photograph. aerial camera for carrier pigeons
4 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC GENERATIONS

Invention of AIRPLANE

ANALOG PHOTOGRAMMETRY

Analog instruments are based on the


concept of stereometric vision. 2
In 1909, the Wright brothers Captain Cesare Tardivo (1870 -1953) photos are relatively oriented
take the first photograph from is thought to be the first to use aerial (intersection of homologous bundle
a plane over Centocelli, Italy. photography from a plane for mapping rays) to produce a 3D model, where
purposes. details and contours are drawn.
4 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC GENERATIONS

Invention of COMPUTERS

ANALYTIC PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Hellmut Schmid, Duane Brown 1955-1960:
aero-atriangulation

Uki Helava 1976: analytic stereoplotter.


Analytical instruments (analytical plotters)
are based on the digitization of the
homologous coordinates on two photographs
identified by stereoscopic vision.
4 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC GENERATIONS

Invention of
COMPUTERS/ELECTRONICS
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

since ~2000:
completely digital
processing
since ~2005: digital
recording
Types of Photogrammetry
In Aerial Photogrammetry the camera is
mounted in an aircraft and is usually
pointed vertically towards the ground.

In Close-range Photogrammetry the


camera is close to the subject and is
typically hand-held or on a tripod (but
can be on a vehicle too). Usually this type
of photogrammetry is non-topographic
DRONE MAPPING
DRONE CAMERA ALGORITHM
Platform to carry Captures overlapping Computer Vision +
imaging sensor images while in motion Photogrammetry
through accurate flight Extracts geometry
path. through matches of
thousands of key-
points for generating
accurate maps and 3D
models.
DRONE MAPPING
DRONE CAMERA ALGORITHM
Platform to carry Captures overlapping Computer Vision +
imaging sensor images while in motion Photogrammetry
through accurate flight Extracts geometry
path. through matches of
thousands of key-
points for generating
accurate maps and 3D
models.
DRONES
Drone is a broad term used to describe any kind of
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As such, it can be used to
describe both UAVs that are remotely controlled and those
that are controlled by on board computers. These type of
aerial craft can look either a small airplane or like a
helicopter

senseFly eBee DJI Phantom 4 Pro


DRONES
Quadcopter is a more specific term used to refer to a
drone that is controlled by four rotors. The rotors on the
quadcopter each compose of a motor and a propeller.

DJI Phantom 3
Drones for Mapping
Drones - The Flying Robots
o New emerging technology complementary to traditional surveying
technologies and to traditional photogrammetry.
o Benefits
Ability to perform high accurate 3D maps!
Provide control over When, How and Where the images are collected!
Economic, Fast & Flexible
Operational in hazardous & hard-to-reach areas
Accessible & Easy to use
Inherently safe
o Proven to be successful in many mapping applications as environmental
surveying, forestry and agricultural mapping, archaeology and cultural
heritage mapping, disaster mapping and etc..
The Next Quantum Leap in Surveying Technology
Trimble UX5 (http://gsd.spc.int/)
Survey Grade Drones vs Consumer Grade Drones
Specifically Designed for Mapping Designed for Consumer Applications
- Photography, Hobby
Expensive Less expensive
Not much popular (yet) Very popular among the community
Need specific knowledge to operate Simple operation

Equipped with GNSS and IMU Equipped with GNSS and IMU
Able to perform high accurate 3D mapping Has great potential to use in mapping

Trimble UX5 senseFly eBee DJI Phantom 3 DJI Phantom 4 Parrot BeBop
IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)
a combination of accelerometers and
gyroscopes, sometimes also
magnetometers

To understand the role of IMU, we


sight its 2 basic components:
Gyroscopes
Accelerometers
IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)
GYRO STABILIZATION
Integrated gyroscopes can almost instantly detect changes in the
position of a drone and compensate for it in such a way that it basically
seems unaffected as it re-adjusts its position hundreds of time every
second or can hover calmly in place. Modern gyroscopes are
manufactured with components between 1 to 100 micrometers in size
and often include sensors for multiple axes in a single package.

ACCELEROMETER
The function of the 3D accelerometer is to measure the orientation of a
drone relative to earths surface. It works by sensing the acceleration of
gravity using the same technology that is also behind
gyroscopes, MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems).
DRONE MAPPING
DRONE CAMERA ALGORITHM
Platform to carry Captures overlapping Computer Vision +
imaging sensor images while in motion Photogrammetry
through accurate flight Extracts geometry
path. through matches of
thousands of key-
points for generating
accurate maps and 3D
models.
CAMERA
The most fundamental device in the
field of photogrammetry
What is a camera?
A lightproof chamber or box in which the image
of an exterior object is projected upon a
sensitized plate or film, through an opening
usually equipped with a lens or lenses, shutter,
and variable aperture. Manual of Photogrammetry
A camera is an optical instrument for recording
or capturing images, which may be stored
locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
Wiki
Consumer Cameras vs Aerial Mapping Cameras
CAMERA
Choice of camera is related to the scale of photography, type of
terrain, object of photography etc. For built up areas camera
with long focal length is preferable because there will be less
of dead ground covered by tall building. If it is a desert area, a
camera with short focal length.
The mean scale of photography depends on the focal length of
the camera and flying height as evident from the following
relationship.
Scale of photography = focal length of the camera / flying
altitude
OVERLAP
The amount by which one
photograph includes the area
covered by another photograph,
and is expressed as a percentage.
The photo survey is designed to
acquire 60% forward overlap
(between photos along the same
flight line) and 30% lateral
overlap (between photos on
adjacent flight lines).
DRONE MAPPING
DRONE CAMERA ALGORITHM
Platform to carry Captures overlapping Computer Vision +
imaging sensor images while in motion Photogrammetry
through accurate flight Extracts geometry
path. through matches of
thousands of key-
points for generating
accurate maps and 3D
models.
IMAGES
A digital image is a computer-compatible pictorial rendition
in which the image is divided into a fine grid of picture
elements, or pixels.
Associated with each pixel is a number known as Digital
Number (DN) an array of integers or Brightness Value (BV)
or degree of darkness
IMAGES
After taking images what?
The initial step after acquisition is aero triangulation (AT). It
is a method of orienting images to a proper geographic
locations.
THANK
YOU!