Nouns- person, place, thing or idea

Basics: Common (not specific)- dog, cat, president, teacher Proper (specific)- Charlie, Milo, President Obama, Mrs. Anderson Singular (one)- cat, moose, child, mouse Plural (more than one)- cats, moose, children, mice Getting Fancy: Compound nouns (two nouns combined)- basketball, great-aunt, jellybean, high school Collective Nouns (a group= singular)- audience, crowd, family, everyone 

Possessives (Mine, Mine): show ownership Singular  without s: Sarah¶s, cat¶s, girl¶s  with s: Jesus¶, bass¶ Plural  without s: women¶s, mice¶s  with s: cats¶, girls¶

Pronounsa word used in place of a noun, don¶t repeat! 
 Example: John walked John¶s dog into John¶s backyard. With Pronouns: John walked his dog into his backyard. 

³antecedent´- word that the pronoun is replacing

1. Personal
‡ ‡ ‡ 1st person: I, me, we, us 2nd person: you 3rd person: he, him, she, her, it, they, them

2. Possessive- shows ownership (no apostrophe) 
Yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs, whose, mine, my, your, etc.

3. Reflexive- points back to a noun or pronoun 
-self, -selves  John bought himself an iPod.  They all enjoyed themselves at the party.

4. Intensive- adds emphasis! (Could be removed and still makes sense) 
   -self, -selves Herman himself ate the pie. I saw Tommie Frazier myself. I¶ll do it myself.

5. Demonstrative- used to demonstrate (pointing a finger) 
This, That, These, Those

6. Relative- begins a subordinate clause (fragment that attaches to a describing sentence) 
Only these 5: that, which, who, whom, whose

7. Interrogative- question (interrogate) 
These 5: what, which, who, whom, and whose

8. Indefinite: refer to something, but no specific antecedent (not defined) 
Each, one, someone, everyone, several, few, many, all, most, some, none, etc.

djectivesdescribe a noun or a pronoun (give it flavor) 

They answer these questions: 
What kind? How much? Which one? How many? red nose, gold ring more sugar, little effort second place, purple chair several kids, six children

5 Kinds of Adjectives
1. Common adjectives- describe nouns or pronouns - strong man, green plant, pretty child 2. Proper adjectives- formed from proper nouns (using a proper noun to describe something) - California vegetables, Florida oranges, Mexican food

3. Compound adjectives- made up of more than one word - far-off country, teenage person 4. Articles- a, an, the (the is definite- it refers to something specific, a/an are indefinite- they refer to general things) - the dog vs. a dog

5. Indefinite adjectives- don¶t specify the amount of something, they describe general quantities. (Check to see if there is a noun nearby). - all, either, another, few, any, many, both, more, each, most, several

Verbsname an action or describe a state of being 
Action Verbs: tell what the noun does 
transitive (needs a noun)- Susan dropped the ball. The boy dribbled it. 
Ask who? Or what? After verb, if answered then it¶s transitive 

Intransitive- Who called? I screamed. 

Linking Verbs: state of being (be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, stay) 
You smell good. I feel happy. She looks sad. 

Helping Verbs: 
³to be´ (do, has, shall, will, can, may)  You can borrow my jacket. 

to + verb to run, to walk, to like 

Verb Phrases: 
I will have to go. I do want a hot dog. 

Past Present Future I walked I ran I walk I run I will walk I will run I had I have I will have

Adverbsdescribe a verb, adjective, or other adverb 

They answer these questions: 
When? Where? How? To what extent? left yesterday, begin now fell below, move up happily sang, danced badly partly finished, eat completely

** most adverbs are formed by adding ±ly to an adjective

Some non-³ly´ adverbs
afterward even here low next rather still too already far how more now slow then when almost fast late near often so today where back hard long never quick soon tomorrow yesterday 

To describe a verb: Experiments using dynamite must be done carefully.  To describe an adjective: Charles had an unbelievably huge appetite.  To describe another adverb: They sang so clearly.

Conjunctive adverbs: transition words, they link ideas
accordingly again for example furthermore however next finally then

Prepositionslink a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence 

usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. 

a noun/pronoun always follows a preposition  Prepositional phrase= begins with a preposition, ends with a noun/pronoun 
Noun/Pronoun called the ³object of the preposition´

Sentence with Preposition Structure:

(Art) The The A

Noun dog Charlie monster gorilla



(Article) the the the

(Adjective) busy


ran through ran around ate under climbed into

park. town. large, wooden table. tiny, brown car.

More examples: 
You are slower than a herd of turtles stampeding through peanut butter. (2)  If it wasn¶t for the last minute, nothing would get done. (1)  The bird was stuck on the wing of the plane. (2)  She walked in the door with a bag full of groceries for her kids. (4)  Last night, Carrie left with her briefcase on her way to the dinner date she had with some friends. (4)

Key Words:
Independent Clause: complete sentence (doesn¶t rely on anything for explanation)
³I went to the store.´

Dependent Clause: incomplete sentence/fragment (doesn¶t make sense alone)
³Out of the blue.´

Conjunctions- connect words or groups of words and show how they are related
1. Coordinating- link words/groups * ONLY: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so [FANBOYS] EX: Meddle not in the affairs of dragons, for thou art crunchy and taste good with ketchup. 2. Correlative- link similar words and groups in pairs * ONLY: both«and, either«or, neither«nor, not only«but also, whether«or EX: He lost both his socks and his shoes.

3. Subordinate- link a complete sentence (indep. clause) to a fragment (dep. clause) *after, although, as long as, because, even though, so, so that, whenever, until« EX: We won the game because of you.

Interjections- show strong emotion- set off with a comma or an exclamation mark 
Oh! You scared me! Wow! You look great! Holy cow, that¶s an old watch!

Sentence Structure
A sentence must have: 1. Subject- noun or pronoun 2. Predicate- verb or verb phrase 3. Complete thought
Subject You New York City The basketball player Predicate ran home. is called the big apple. made ten baskets.

Sentence Structure Key 

S= Complete Sentence s= Incomplete Sent./ Fragment

4 Types of Sentences:
1. Simple- one subject + one predicate (either could be compound) Ex: We eat food all day. Ex: David Letterman and Jay Leno host talk shows and have expensive cars.

S S. S.

2. Compound- 2 or more complete sentences combined using a coordinating conjunction or semicolon Ex: The rain was really heavy so I stayed home.

S;S. S [conj] S.

3. Complex- 1 complete sentence + 1 or more fragments using a subordinating conjunction
Ind. Conj. Dep. Ex: Parallel lines never meet until you bend one of them.

S;s. S [conj] s.

4. Compound-Complex- at least 2 complete sentences + 1 fragment Ind. Dep. Ex: I planned to drive to work, but I couldn¶t Ind. until the mechanic repaired my car.

S+S+s [conj. , ;]

Tough Grammar
Homonyms= words pronounced the same, but have a different meaning There/ Their/ They¶re There= place Ex: I¶m going there. Their= people Ex: I¶m going to their house. They¶re= they are Ex: They¶re going home.

Principal/ Principle Principal= person who runs a school
The Principal is on the loud speaker.

Principle= a belief or value
It¶s the principle of the issue that concerns me.

Two/ To/ Too Two= number (noun)
I have to take two dogs to the park, too.

To= infinitive verb/ preposition
I have (to take) two dogs to the park, too.

Too= also (put also in its place to decide)
I have to take two dogs to the park, too.

Other Tough Grammar to Use:
Are/Our Are= You are going. (verb) Our= It is our job. (Pronoun, people) Then/Than Then= time, sequence Then we¶ll leave. Than= comparison It¶s better than anything. Definitely vs. Defiantly Its vs. It¶s

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