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McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

The Normal Curve

Section 6.1

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objectives

1. Use a probability density curve to describe a population

2. Use a normal curve to describe a normal population

3. Convert values from a normal distribution to -scores

4. Find areas under a normal curve

5. Find the value from a normal distribution corresponding to a

given proportion

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 1

Use a probability density curve to describe a

population

McGraw-Hill Education.

Probability Density Curves

The following figure presents a relative

frequency histogram for the particulate

emissions of a sample of 65 vehicles.

containing millions of vehicles, we could make

the rectangles extremely narrow.

could be approximated by a curve. The curve

used to describe the distribution of this

variable is called the probability density curve

of the random variable. The probability density

curve tells what proportion of the population

falls within a given interval.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Area and Probability Density Curves

The area under a probability density curve between any two values

and has two interpretations:

between and .

It represents the probability that a randomly selected value from

the population will be between and .

McGraw-Hill Education.

Properties of Probability Density Curves

The region above a single point has

no width, thus no area. Therefore, if

is a continuous random variable,

( = ) = 0 for any number . This

means that ( < < ) =

( ) for any numbers

and .

area under the entire curve is 1,

because this area represents the

entire population.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 2

Use a normal curve to describe a normal

population

McGraw-Hill Education.

Normal Curves

Probability density curves comes in many varieties, depending on the

characteristics of the populations they represent. Many important

statistical procedures can be carried out using only one type of

probability density curve, called a normal curve.

normally distributed, or to have a normal distribution.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Properties of Normal Curves

The population mean determines the location of the peak. The

population standard deviation measures the spread of the

population. Therefore, the normal curve is wide and flat when the

population standard deviation is large, and tall and narrow when the

population standard deviation is small. The mean and median of a

normal distribution are both equal to the mode.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Empirical Rule

The normal distribution follows the Empirical Rule.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 3

Convert values from a normal distribution to

-scores

McGraw-Hill Education.

Standardization

Recall that the -score of a data value

represents the number of standard

deviations that data value is above or

below the mean.

If is a value from a normal distribution

with mean and standard deviation ,

we can convert to a -score by using a

method known as standardization. The

-score of is = .

For example, consider a woman whose

height is = 67 inches from a normal

population with mean = 64 inches and

= 3 inches. The -score is:

67 64

= = =1

3

McGraw-Hill Education.

Standard Normal Curve

A normal distribution can have any mean and any positive standard

deviation. However, the normal distribution with a mean of 0 and

standard deviation of 1 is known as the standard normal

distribution. -scores that have been converted from a normal

distribution follow a standard normal distribution.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 4*

Find areas under a normal curve

*(Tables)

McGraw-Hill Education.

Using Table A.2 to Find Areas

Table A.2 may be used to find the area to the left of a given -score.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 1: Area Under a Normal Curve (Tables)

Find the area to the left of = 1.26.

= 1.26, and shade in the area to the

left of it.

Step 2: Consult Table A.2. To look up = 1.26, find the row containing 1.2

and the column containing 0.06. The value in the intersection of the

row and column is 0.8962. This is the area to the left of = 1.26.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 2: Area Under a Normal Curve (Tables)

For a general normal curve, we first standardize to -scores.

Example:

A study reported that the length of pregnancy from conception to birth is

approximately normally distributed with mean = 272 days and standard

deviation = 9 days. What proportion of pregnancies last less than 259 days?

Solution:

259272

The -score for 259 is = = = 1.44. Using Table A.2, we find

9

the area to the left of = 1.44 to be 0.0749.

of pregnancies that last less than

259 days is 0.0749.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 3: Area Under a Normal Curve (Tables)

A study reported that the length of pregnancy from conception to birth is

approximately normally distributed with mean = 272 days and standard

deviation = 9 days. What proportion of pregnancies last longer than 280

days?

Solution:

280272

The -score for 280 is = = = 0.89. Using Table A.2, we find

9

the area to the left of = 0.89 to be 0.8133. The area to the right is

therefore 1 0.8133 = 0.1867. We conclude that the proportion of

pregnancies that last longer than 280 days is 0.1867.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 4: Area Under a Normal Curve (Tables)

The length of a pregnancy from conception to birth is approximately normally

distributed with mean = 272 days and standard deviation = 9 days. A

pregnancy is considered full-term if it lasts between 252 days and 298 days.

What proportion of pregnancies are full-term?

Solution:

252272

The -score for 252 is = = = 2.22.

9

298272

The -score for 298 is = = = 2.89.

9

Using Table A.2, we find that the area to the left of = 2.89 is 0.9981 and

the area to the left of = 2.22 is 0.0132. The area between = 2.22 and

= 2.89 is therefore 0.9981 0.0132 = 0.9849.

The proportion of pregnancies that are full-term, between 252 days and

298 days, is 0.9849.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 4**

Find areas under a normal curve

**(TI-84 PLUS)

McGraw-Hill Education.

Finding Areas with the TI-84 PLUS

In the TI-84 PLUS calculator, the normalcdf command is used to find

areas under a normal curve. Four numbers must be used as the

input. The first entry is the lower bound of the area. The second

entry is the upper bound of the area. The last two entries are the

mean and standard deviation. This command is accessed by pressing

2nd, Vars.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 1: Area Under a Normal Curve (TI-84)

Find the area to the left of = 1.26.

= 1.26, and shade in the area to the left

of it.

therefore we use -1E99 which represents

negative 1 followed by 99 zeroes. We

select the normalcdf command and enter

-1E99 as the lower endpoint, 1.26 as the

upper endpoint, 0 as the mean and 1 as

the standard deviation.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 2: Area Under a Normal Curve (TI-84)

A study reported that the length of pregnancy from conception to birth

is approximately normally distributed with mean = 272 days and

standard deviation = 9 days. What proportion of pregnancies last less

than 259 days?

Solution:

We select the normalcdf command and enter

-1E99 as the lower endpoint, 259 as the upper

endpoint, 272 as the mean and 9 as the

standard deviation.

that last less than 259 days is 0.0743.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 3: Area Under a Normal Curve (TI-84)

A study reported that the length of pregnancy from conception to birth

is approximately normally distributed with mean = 272 days and

standard deviation = 9 days. What proportion of pregnancies last

longer than 280 days?

Solution:

We use the normalcdf command with 280

as the lower endpoint, 1E99 as the upper

endpoint, 272 as the mean, and 9 as the

standard deviation. We conclude that the

proportion of pregnancies that last longer

than 280 days is 0.1870.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example 4: Area Under a Normal Curve (TI-84)

The length of a pregnancy from conception to birth is approximately

normally distributed with mean = 272 days and standard deviation

= 9 days. A pregnancy is considered full-term if it lasts between 252

days and 298 days. What proportion of pregnancies are full-term?

Solution:

We use the normalcdf command with 252

as the lower endpoint, 298 as the upper

endpoint, 272 as the mean, and 9 as the

standard deviation. The proportion of

pregnancies that are full-term, between

252 days and 298 days, is 0.9849.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 5*

Find the value from a normal distribution

corresponding to a given proportion

*(Tables)

McGraw-Hill Education.

-scores From Areas

We have been finding areas under the normal curve from given

-scores.

we are given an area, we need to find the -score that corresponds

to that area under the standard normal curve.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Finding Normal Values from a Given -score

Suppose we want to find the value from a normal distribution that has a

given -score. To do this, we solve the standardization formula =

for .

The value of that corresponds to a given -score is = +

Example:

Heights in a group of men are normally distributed with mean = 69

inches and standard deviation = 3 inches. Find the height whose

-score is 0.6. Interpret the result.

Solution:

We want the height with a -score of 0.6. Therefore,

= + = 69 + (0.6)(3) = 70.8

We interpret this by saying that a man 70.8 inches tall has a height 0.6

standard deviation above the mean.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Steps for Finding Normal Values

The following procedure can be use to find the value from a normal

distribution that has a given proportion above or below it using Table

A.2.

Step 1: Sketch a normal curve, label the mean, label the value to

be found, and shade in and label the given area.

Step 2: If the given area is on the right, subtract it from 1 to get the

area on the left.

Step 3: Look in the body of Table A.2 to find the area closest to the

given area. Find the -score corresponding to that area.

= + .

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example: Finding Normal Values (Tables)

Mensa is an organization whose membership is limited to people whose IQ

is in the top 2% of the population. Assume that scores on an IQ test are

normally distributed with mean = 100 and standard deviation = 15.

What is the minimum score needed to qualify for membership in Mensa?

upper 2% from the lower 98%.

Step 2: The area 0.02 is on the right, so we subtract

from 1 and work with the area 0.98 on the left.

Step 3: The area closest to 0.98 in Table A.2 is 0.9798, which corresponds

to a -score of 2.05.

Step 4: The IQ score that separates the upper 2% from the lower 98% is

= + = 100 + (2.05)(15) = 130.75

Since IQ scores are generally whole numbers, we will round this to = 131.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Objective 5**

Find the value from a normal distribution

corresponding to a given proportion

**(TI-84 PLUS)

McGraw-Hill Education.

Normal Values From Areas

We have been finding areas under the normal curve.

we are given an area, we need to find the value from the population

that corresponds to that area under the normal curve.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Normal Values From Areas on the TI-84 PLUS

The invNorm command in the TI-84 PLUS calculator returns the

value from the normal population with a given area to its left. This

command takes three values as its input. The first value is the area

to the left, the second and third values are the mean and standard

deviation, respectively. This command is accessed by pressing

2nd, Vars.

McGraw-Hill Education.

Example: Finding Normal Values (TI-84)

Mensa is an organization whose membership is limited to people whose IQ

is in the top 2% of the population. Assume that scores on an IQ test are

normally distributed with mean = 100 and standard deviation = 15.

What is the minimum score needed to qualify for membership in Mensa?

Solution:

The figure shows the value separating the upper

2% from the lower 98%. The area 0.02 is on the

right, so we subtract from 1 and work with the

area 0.98 on the left.

on the left, 100 as the mean, and 15 as the

standard deviation, we find the minimum score to

be 130.81. Since IQ scores are generally whole

numbers, we round this to = 131.

McGraw-Hill Education.

You Should Know . . .

How to use a probability density curve to describe a

population

How the shape of a normal curve is affected by the mean

and standard deviation

How to find areas under a normal curve

How to find values from a population corresponding to

areas under a normal curve

McGraw-Hill Education.

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