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Environmental Impacts

Lesson 1.2
23 slides
Lighting Impacts
Electrical lighting has a large impact on our
It is one of the major energy uses of
buildings and exterior applications
Reducing lighting energy use has the
secondary effects of reducing air pollution,
global warming and water use from the
generation of electricity
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Energy Impacts
Buildings consume about 1/3 of national energy use
Electricity accounts for almost 80% of all building
energy consumption
Thus, lighting represents Industrial
about 23% of national
Street Lighting
energy consumption and Other
The pie chart shows Commercial Residential
how this energy use is 60% 20%

distributed among building types

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Impacts on Electricity Generation
The majority of lighting for non-residential buildings
occurs during peak demands on the utility grid
For every kilowatt of lighting saved during the
cooling season, another 10% to 20% in energy is
saved in reduced cooling needs.
If all workplaces in California could achieve optimum lighting
efficiency by 2010 (using just those technologies available in
1995), we could reduce our need for power by about 2,000
megawatts, or about four new huge power plants!
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Lighting Efficiency Technology Report, Vol II, page 49
Energy Use Patterns
The following slides look at lighting energy use
patterns for commercial buildings in general
The slides can help you understand where the
big savings can be, and how to go after
achieving significant savings
Individual buildings, of course, each have
unique operating characteristics, and must be
considered on a case by case basis

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California Commercial Lighting Energy Use
by Building Type
Medical/clinical Other Office and retail buildings
3% 7%
have the greatest share of
Grocery store
4% commercial building
Retail and
wholesale lighting energy use
6% and resale statewide (65% total)
General C&I Graph is for new buildings
Work 7% constructed since 1995: RLW
Analytics, Nonresidential New
C&I Storage Office Construction Baseline Study,
7% 26% July 1999
Advanced Lighting Guidelines 2001 * C&I = Commercial and
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Total lighting energy use is a function of four
basic factors:

The illumination levels in the building

The efficiency of the lighting system(s)
The hours of operation of the lighting system(s)
The size of the building

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Which building types use the most lighting energy?

This graph shows us that grocery and retail stores have the greatest lighting energy use intensity, or
kWh/SF, primarily from high illumination levels combined with long hours of operation

The average new building in CA uses 4.75 kWh/SF per year

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Advanced Lighting Guidelines 2001
Hours of Operation vary by Building Type:
Average FTE Lighting Hours By Building Type
Full Time
Average FTE Lighting Hours Per Week

140 Equivalent.
Data from Lighting
100 Technology Report,
Vol. 1, California
80 Energy
Commission, 1997







Small Office


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Lighting Energy Use by Building Type
This graph
shows that
lighting in Retail
consumes the
highest share of
electricity use,
compared to any
other building

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Advanced Lighting Guidelines 2001
In addition, lighting power reductions
usually save HVAC costs, too
A rule of thumb is 10-15% reduction in HVAC use with more
efficient lighting systems*
You can have lower demand charges because of smaller cooling loads
during peak periods
For new construction applications, you may also have significantly
smaller HVAC tonnage, reducing construction costs by tens of
thousands of dollars
Smaller building cooling loads due to more efficient lighting can
also help offset any loss of HVAC capacity due to a required CFC
*actual HVAC energy savings are, of course, highly dependent upon the local climate and the design
and operation of the given building
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Typical Real Costs for a Standard
Luminaire (i.e. a light fixture)

Luminaire: $ 95 = $45 to purchase, $50 to install and wire

Lamps: $12 every five years, including labor
Cleaning: $4 every two years
Electricity: $71.45 per year standard
but as little as $18.91 per year if efficient
Assumptions: standard luminaire uses four lamps with standard magnetic ballasts and operates 4500
hours per year. Efficient luminaire operates 2,500 hours per year and uses three T-8 lamps and
electronic ballast. Both provide about the same amount of light.
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The Energy Cost Equation
To successfully manage lighting, it is important to understand the
kilowatts = Power = (kW)
kilowatts x hours = Energy = (kWh)
Example: a 100 watt lamp draws 0.1 kW of power.

If operated for 10 hours,

it will consume 1.0 kWh of energy.
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How an Electric Bill is Determined
Utility companies have traditionally been required
by law to offer electric service at fixed rates
determined by the state.
For small buildings and residences, most electric
bills are charged a rate per kWh of
consumption only. In some cases the rate may vary
depending on total consumption or seasonal factors.
For example, 120 kWh @ $0.10/kWh = $12.00

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Larger commercial and industrial customers... a more complex bill based on energy use (kWh), demand charges (peak kW),
and other charges such as power factor penalty, fuel adjustment, and others.
In most cases there is a different rate for energy and demand during on-peak
periods, i.e. those times when the utility company has the highest demand for
its power, usually weekdays during business hours.
For example, a commercial bill might consist of:
On-peak demand 5.0 kW @ $10.00 $50.00
Max. demand 5.5 kW @ $3.00 $16.50
On-peak energy 1500 kWh @ $0.05 $75.00
Off-peak energy 1200 kWh @ $0.02 $24.00
Fuel adjustment 2700 kWh @ $0.001 $ 2.70
TOTAL BILL $168.20
Note that by dividing the total bill by the total kWh ($168.20/2700) you can determine the AVERAGE kWh
RATE, which can be useful in rough estimates of utility cost s and savings. In this case the average kWh
rate is $0.0623.
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Generally, maximum energy cost savings are
realized by reducing on-peak demand and
Since most buildings use lighting during the peak period,
lighting efficiency measures generally reduce demand charges.

Watts Demand

2 4 8 1 2 4 8 1 2

Time of Day
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Daily Lighting Load Shapes, two examples
The grocery operates from 7 AM to
11 PM. Its lights are fully on during Commercial Lighting Load Profiles (Peak Day)
that period, and partially on from 11
PM to 7 AM for maintenance and


The office building operates from 9 0




AM to 5 PM, with a slight dip in Hour of Day

lighting energy use during the lunch from Lighting Efficiency Technology Report,
Vol. 1, California Energy Commission, 1997
hour, and partial use during the
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Solar Energy Use
The cleanest and most efficient use of the suns energy is,
of course, daylighting.
no negative environmental
high potential in commercial
The graph to the left shows that for
skylights or toplighting, 62% of the
existing commercial building floor
area is directly under a roof.

Advanced Lighting Guidelines 2001

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Light Trespass and Pollution
Light Trespass is unwanted spill light
onto a neighbors property
Light Pollution is light
escaping to the sky,
reducing our view of the
Read the Advanced Lighting
Guidelines Section 3.2.4 for more
information on light trespass and
pollution Photos courtesy: International Dark Sky Association

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Resource Efficiency
Lighting systems have important disposal issues
All fluorescent lamps contain some mercury
Older, pre 1980s ballasts may contain PCBs

Look for products with reduced or no toxic content

Look for products with longer life, to delay disposal
Higher efficiency lighting systems (lumens per watt) are best
at reducing environmental impacts
read Advanced Lighting Guidelines Section 3.2.3
for more discussion of disposal issues
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In the Advanced Lighting Guidelines 2001
What is the load shape of lighting energy use for a
typical grocery store? University classroom?
See Figures 3-7 through 3-13
What are the air pollution impacts of lighting energy
use in different parts of the country?
See Table 3-2 Air Pollution Impacts of Lighting Energy Use,
by State

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In the Advanced Lighting Guidelines 2001
How will a change in lighting energy use effect the
heating and cooling loads of a building in Los
Table 3-1 Typical Lighting Impacts on HVAC Use by Climate

What are six important ways to reduce light pollution?

For more information on Light Pollution see section
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