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Business Communication

Listening Skills

Cengage Learning Mallika Nawal
Topical Outline
Listening Types
Listening ROI
Listening Process
Listening Styles Profile
Buddhist Model of Listening
Barriers to Effective Listening
Effective Listening Techniques

Communication is a two-way process. Therefore,
listening is just as important (if not more) as speaking
Ralph G. Nichols book Are You Listening? (1957)
Nichols regarded as Father of Listening
Importance globally acknowledged and led to the
founding of International Listening Association (1979)
Purpose of ILA advance the practice, teaching, and
research of listening throughout the world
Listening is a Skill

Listening Types
Discriminative: learn to discern difference in sounds
Biased: you hear what you want to hear
Evaluative: listen and make judgments about message
Appreciative: listen to things one appreciates
Sympathetic: when we sincerely care about someone
Empathic: not only caring, but showing compassion
Therapeutic: take remedial actions to bring about
Relationship: to build rapport with the other person

Listening Types
False: pretending to listen but does not hear
anything that is being said
Initial: when we listen to the person in the beginning
but then stop midway
Selective: listen only to things that you want to hear
and block out what does not interest you
Partial: subtype of selective listening. The person
makes an effort to listen but gets distracted midway
Full: concentrate completely on what is being said
Deep: go beyond what is being said and fathom the
Listening ROI
To participate in conversation
To gain information
To get feedback
To create rapport and relationships
To learn
To make decision
To avoid embarrassment

Listening Process
Focusing on the message
Comprehending and interpreting
Analyzing and evaluating

Listening Styles Profile
Listening style is defined as an individuals
predominant and preferred approach to listening
Watson et al. (1995) identified 4 learning styles:
People oriented
Action oriented
Content oriented
Time oriented
Research shows people-centered listeners are less
apprehensive in groups, meetings, and interpersonal
situations than other types of listeners

Buddhist Model of Listening
Compares listeners to 4 different types of clay pots
1st pot holes at the bottom. Communicating to
such people is pointless
2nd pot cracks in it. Such people tend to forget
what was said to them
3rd pot completely full. Such people do not
listen to the other
4th pot empty and intact. Listen well and learn

Barriers to Effective Listening
5 types of listening barriers:
Physiological barriers physical ability to hear,
speed of thought, etc.
Environmental barriers physical distractions,
channel obstruction, and message overload
Attitudinal barriers preoccupied mind, ego,
attitude, prejudices, etc.
Sociocultural barriers language, accent, cultures
predisposition to time, etc.
Semantic barriers same word, different meaning

Effective Listening Techniques
Eliminate distractions
Focus on the speaker
Maintain an open mind
Look for nonverbal cues
Do not react to emotive words
Ask questions
Sit so you can see and hear
Avoid prejudices

Effective Listening Techniques
Visualize the message
Relate message to personal experience
Listen between the lines
Take notes
Provide nonverbal feedback