Hofstede’s Dimensions For India

An Insight to India‟s culture BY


Introduction to Dimensions  Hofstede‟s Dimensions for India  Comparison with World Average  Conclusion  References

It is impossible not to be astonished by India. Nowhere on Earth does humanity present itself in such a dizzying, creative burst of cultures and religions, races and tongues.  Perhaps the only thing more difficult than to be indifferent to India would be to describe or understand Indian CULTURE completely.

Here is what some literates have to say…

"India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most astrictive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only!" --Mark Twain

“I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my

windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all the lands to be blown about my house as Freely as possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any.” (Mahatma Gandhi)

Hofstede’s Dimensions

 

In the 1970s Hofstede developed four dimensions of culture based on an extensive survey conducted among IBM managers in over 50 countries for work values. Hofstede‟s Dimensions try to explain the national culture from five different angles. In International Business it is imperative to study nation‟s culture while doing business with them. Hofstede‟s dimensions give us the „edge of understanding‟ for different cultures across the world.

Dimensions of culture
Power Distance


Uncertainty Avoidance

Masculinity / Femininity Long-term/ Short-term Orientation



Degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships. High index means individual rights are dominant.

India – 48 World Average – 43 India is a collectivist culture and working in groups is valued. Collective interest is more important than individual interest.

Low score refers to collectivist culture.

Interdependence and concerns for others.  Family value & life is foremost important.

Power Distance Index

Power Distance Index

Power Distance Index refers to how the power is distributed among the members of society. Based on the notion that “all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others.” This dimension explains if power distribution is vertical or not.

  

India – 77 World average – 56.5 India‟s scores very high on this Index, which shows that power is distributed more unequally in India. High level of inequality of power and wealth within the society.

Harmony of society is based on giving value to order of social status.

Power Distance Index
20 most riches people of World are in INDIA

Power Distance and Individualism-Collectivism
0 Small Power Distance 1 Collectivist

Large Power Distance Collectivist

Example Countries:
1. Costa Rica 2. Korea and Mexico 3.

Individualism Index


4 5 6


4. Israel and Ireland
5. Australia and U.S.A. 6. France and Italy 110

Small Power Distance 112 Individualist 10

Large Power Distance Individualist

Power Distance Index



Differences between gender roles are highlighted by this dimension. Higher the value, greater the gap between values of men and women. Nation‟s culture is masculine if it is more assertive and feminine if it is more caring.

  

India – 56 World Average – 50 Gender inequality is more profound in India.

Wide gap between position of men and women.
Male tend to dominate society and power structure.


Uncertainty Avoidance Index

Level of acceptance of uncertainty and ambiguity within a society.

India – 40 World Average – 61 Due to fatalist orientation Indians are able to bear uncertainty.

High index refer to low tolerance towards risk and uncertainty.

More open to unstructured ideas and situations.

Long Term Orientation

Long Term Orientation

Society‟s time horizon is gauged by this index. Also known as Confucian Dynamism. Low score means short term orientation highlighted by

  

India – 61 World Average – 45 Higher score refers to more persistent culture and thrifty. More future planning is involved.

Respect or tradition Personal steadiness and stability.

Hofstede’s Dimensions
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 India World Average


PDI 77 56.5

IDV 48 43

MAS 56 50

UAI 40 61

LTO 61 45

Hofstede Dimension was given for India but they are different for each region as India is a multicultural nation.  Hofstede Dimension was given 20 years before but does they really hold true today.

Does Hofstede’s D hold true today???
It was done 20 years back…  Now the emerging trend ………………….

    

Capitalism at the Bottom of the Pyramid We are definitely climbing up the individualism ladder. Feminization of India. From IAS to MBA…. “I want to retire at 40!”


Clearly Cultural. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 11, 2010, from Clearly Cultural: http://www.clearlycultural.com/geert-hofstede-culturaldimensions/ Cultural Dimensions. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 11, 2010, from Kwintessential: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/dimensions.html

Hofstede, G. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 11, 2010, from Geert Hofstede: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_india.shtml
India. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 11, 2010, from Cyborlink: http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm Jones, M. L. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 11, 2010, from University of Wollongong: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1389&context=c ommpapers

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