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Authors:
Prof. Keegan, Prof. Malcolm

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½ Marketing planning
½ Tactical and Strategic Marketing Plans
½ Marketing planning process
½ Marketing audits
½ Corporate Planning
½ Assumptions
½ Marketing Objectives
½ Marketing Strategy
½ Marketing Program
½ Mission statements
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½ An outline of a design to accomplish a


specific objective:
ƛ To create value for customers at a profit,
or in the new concept of marketing,
ƛ To create a mutually beneficial
relationship
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Mefinition:
½ The application of marketing resources
to achieve marketing objectives.
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ë. Performing a situation analysis
2. Formulating basic assumptions
3. Setting objectives for what is being
sold and to whom
4. Meciding how the objectives are to
be achieved
5. Scheduling and costing out the
actions necessary for implementation
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½ Management provides little guidance as to
how the process should be managed.
ƛ To Compromise between what is desirable and
what is practicable
½ Management must be customized to their
particular organization
ƛ Size
ƛ Complexity
ƛ Character and diversity of company operations
 
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½ me need marketing planning when


hostiles increased and environment is
complex.
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½ me should manage:

Return on
Revenue Profit
investment

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Cost

 
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ë. To help identify sources of competitive advantage
2. To force an organized approach
3. To develop specificity
4. To ensure consistent relationships
5. To inform everyone in the organization about
priorities
6. To obtain resources needed to implement plans
7. To engage organizational support at all levels,
form the bottom to the top of the organization
8. To set objectives and strategies
9. To gain commitment towards goals

  
ë. Stepping back form 9. Mifferentiation
the day to day ë . Insight
2. Ideas and thought ëë. Vision
3. Activity/Action ë2. Mefines the business
4. Setting Objectives we are in
and goals ë3. Mefines the business
5. Important decisions we are becoming
and choices ë4. Value
6. Significant ë5. Tradeoffs
commitment of ë6. Objectives and goals
resources
7. Not easily reversible ë7. Strategy Vs. Tactics
8. Involves
choice/tradeoffs
 

Mefinition:
½ A clear and simple summary of

ƛ Key market trends,


ƛ Key target segments,
ƛ The value required by each segment,
ƛ How the company intends to create value,
ƛ mith a clear prioritization of marketing
objectives and strategies, together with
financial consequences.
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Most Managers
prefer to sell the
products they find
easiest to sell to
customers who offer
the least line of
resistance.
 

Strategy describes:
½ The direction a business will pursue and
guides the allocation of resources and effort
½ The business we are in and becoming.

And provides:
½ The logic that integrates the Perspectives of
functional departments and operating units
and points them all in the same direction.
  

½ The strategy statement for a business unit


is composed of the following three
elements:
ë. A business definition that specifies the
area in which the business will compete.
2. A strategic thrust that describes where
competitive advantage is to be gained.
3. Supportive functional strategies.
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Mefinition:
½ It is a statement of how a brand or
product line will achieve its objectives
½ It Provides decisions and direction
regarding variables such as:
ƛ Segmentation of the market,
ƛ Identification of the target market,
ƛ Positioning,
ƛ Marketing Mix elements and
expenditures.
 

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ë. Mevelop the strategic marketing plan.
ƥ Scanning the external environment
ƥ Identifying early on the effect this may
have on the company
2. A strategic plan should cover a three-
three-
year period.
ƥ  write the one-
one-year plan first and
extrapolate from it.
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A strategic marketing plan should contain the
following:
ë. Executive summary
2. Mission Statement
3. Financial Summary of revenue, expenses and
earnings
4. Marketing audit
5. SmOT analysis
6. Assumption of key determinants
7. Overall marketing objectives and strategies
8. Expected results
9. Alternatives (contingency plan)
ë . Budget
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½ Melegation
ƛ mhen companies delegate marketing
planning to planner, the plan invariably
fails, because planning for line
management cannot be delegated to a
third party.
½ Commitment
ƛ mithout it, those charged with
introducing the planning found that there
was great resistance to planning on the
part of local managers.
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·Marketing audit is a comprehensive,


systematic, independent, and periodic
examination of a companyÎ
companyÎs or
business unitÎ
unitÎs marketing
environment, objectives, strategies, and
activities with a view to determining
problem areas and opportunities and
recommending a plan of action to
improve the companyÎ
companyÎs marketing
performance
performance Philip Kotler
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[oal:
To see how well the firm is applying the
marketing concepts
ë. Examine external and internal
information and procedures
2. Identify problems in the environment
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Need for an audit does not manifest


itself until things start to go wrong for
a company in the form:
½ Meclining sales
½ Falling margins
½ Lost market share
½ Underutilized production capacity
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½ External Audit
-By independent experts
-Starts with an examination of information
on the general economy and then moves on
to the outlook for the health and growth of
the markets served by the company.
½ Internal Audit
-By members of the marketing organization
-To assess the resources of the organization
as they relate to the environment and the
resources of Competitors
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½ At least once a year


½ Using:
ƛ Normal information,
ƛ Control Procedures,
ƛ Marketing Research
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½ Company Executives and Managers


ƛ Few Consultants have the in- in-depth
knowledge of market, customers,
company culture, and the industry that
company line managers have.
½ External Consultants
ƛ Every company is at risk of becoming
blinded to reality by the influence of
company culture
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½ Non Mirect Control
These usually take the form of what can be
described as:
ƛ Environment,
ƛ Market,
ƛ Competitive variables
½ Company has Control
ƛ Operational variables
  

ë. Identification, measurement,
collection, and analysis of all facts
and opinions that affect a companyÎ
companyÎs
problem
2. The application of judgment to
uncertain areas that remain after the
initial analysis
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½ Marketing environment audit
½ Marketing strategy audit
½ Marketing organization audit
½ Marketing system audit
½ Marketing productivity audit
½ Marketing function audit
½ Marketing excellence review
½ Ethical and social responsibility review
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Targeted ½Marketing ½Marketing ½Marketing Issue:
[rowth in ½Mistribution ½Mistribution ½Mistribution ½corporate
Sales and ½Manufacturi ½Manufacturi ½Manufacturi objectives
earnings ng ng ng and
½Financial ½Financial ½Financial
strategies
½Marketing
½Personnel ½Personnel ½Personnel ·
½

 
 

ë. The desire level of profitability
2. Business boundaries
ƥ mhat Kinds of products will be sold to what kinds
of market (Marketing)
ƥ mhat Kinds of facilities will be developed
(Production and distribution)
ƥ The size and character of the labor force
(Personnel)
ƥ Funding (Finance)
ƥ Technology to be developed (Research and
development)
3. Other corporate objectives
ƥ Social Responsibility and corporate
ƥ Stock
Stock--market
ƥ Employer image
 
½ This is one of the most critical
steps in the preparation of a
marketing plan because it is the
easiest step to do carelessly.
½ They should be:
ƛ Key,
ƛ Critical
ƛ and few in Number
ƛ Consistent with relevant known
facts
ƛ mith defensible assumptions
 


½ Industrial overcapacity will increase from


ë 5 percent to ëë5 percent as new plants
come into operation.
½ Price competition will force price levels
down by ë percent across the board.
½ A new product that competes with ours will
be introduced by our major competitor
before the end of the second quarter.
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To determine:
½ mhere the company is now,
½ mhere it wants to go,
½ How to get there

Includes:
½ Advertising Plan
½ Sales Promotion Plan
½ Pricing Plan
½ Mistribution Plan
½ Product Plan
½ Target Market Plan
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½ To justify all marketing expenditures


from a zero base each year against
the task that you wish to accomplish.
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½ It is one of the most difficult aspects of
marketing planning to master, largely
because it is philosophical and qualitative
in nature.
½ Key points:
ë. Role or Contribution
½ Profit
½ Service
½ Opportunity seeker
2. Business definition
3. Core Competencies
4. Company/Mivision Positioning
5. Indications for the future
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½ Motherhood
It found in annual reports designed to
·stroke
stroke shareholders/Non Practical Use
½ The Real Thing
Meaningful Statement/impact on the
behavior of the executives at all levels.
½ Purpose Statement
Lower--Level mission statement/Appropriate
Lower
on the strategic business unit, departmental
or product group level of the organization.
 
 
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SIN[APORE AIRLINES is engaged in


air transportation and related
businesses. It operates world-
world-wide as
the flag carrier of the Republic of
Singapore, aiming to provide services
of the highest quality at reasonable
prices for customers and a profit for
the company
 
 
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MARRIOTTÎS Mission Statement:


MARRIOTTÎ
me are committed to being the best
lodging and food service company in
the world, by treating employees in
ways that create extraordinary
customer service and shareholder
value
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½ There is no secret magic or a formula.


½ It is more of an age-
age-old adage that
harder they work, the luckier they get.
½ It is not necessary to be a mighty
corporation to do all this and a
company of any size should be able to
do so and succeed.
A [oal is a dream
with a deadline