© All Rights Reserved

5 views

© All Rights Reserved

- my resume
- Edsa Paladin
- [R L Sullivan] Power System Planning
- 01338472
- Genetic Algorithm Based Transmission Expansion Planning System
- pv555
- Paper - Calculating Power System Stability Margin Based on PMU Measurement.pdf
- State Estimation of Power System Containing FACTS Controller and PMU
- Cse291 Power Sys
- Load Flow Analysis With UPFC Under Unsymmetrical Fault Condition
- 86215-166332-2-PB
- Newton Rapshon Paper
- Generator Operation Mode
- 01266587
- Project Doc
- Paper 1
- PSTI_EMS
- Voltage and Power Losses Control Using Distributed Generation and Computational Intelligence
- singh1997.pdf
- Flowsheet.pdf

You are on page 1of 33

Lecture 15: Power Flow

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

overbye@illinois.edu

Announcements

HW 6 is 6.9, 6.18, 6.34, 6.38, 6.48, 6.53; this one must

be turned in on Oct 20 (hence there will be no quiz that

day); (there is no HW due on Oct 12 and no quiz)

1

Voltage Regulation Example: 37 Buses

A

SLA C K3 4 5

MVA

A

MVA

2 1 9 MW

1 .0 2 pu RA Y 3 4 5

5 2 M var

System Losses: 11.51 MW A A A

sla ck

1 .0 2 pu SLA C K1 3 8

T IM 3 4 5

MVA MVA MVA

1 .0 1 pu RA Y 1 3 8

A

A

MVA

A

1 .0 3 pu

T IM 1 3 8

MVA

MVA

1 .0 0 pu 3 3 MW A

1 .0 3 pu

1 3 M var

1 5 .9 M var 1 8 MW

A MVA

A

1 .0 2 pu RA Y 6 9

MVA

MVA 5 M var 3 7 MW

A

1 7 MW A

1 .0 2 pu T IM 6 9 P A I6 9 1 3 M var

1 .0 1 pu MVA 3 M var MVA

A

2 3 MW 1 .0 1 pu GRO SS6 9 A

A

7 M var

MVA

MVA

FERNA 6 9

MVA A

1 .0 1 pu WO LEN6 9

2 1 MW

M O RO 1 3 8

A

MVA

MVA

H ISKY 6 9 7 M var

A

A

4 .8 M var

1 2 MW MVA

A MVA

5 M var 2 0 MW 1 .0 0 pu MVA

8 M var A

1 .0 0 pu BO B1 3 8

P ET E6 9 A

MVA DEM A R6 9

1 .0 0 pu A A

MVA

H A NNA H 6 9 5 8 MW

MVA MVA

5 1 MW 4 0 M var

4 5 MW

1 5 M var A

1 .0 2 pu BO B6 9

1 2 M var

2 9 .0 M var

UIUC 6 9 0 .9 9 pu

MVA

1 4 .3 M var

1 .0 0 pu 1 5 7 MW 5 6 MW

1 2 .8 M var A

4 5 M var

A

MVA 1 3 M var LY NN1 3 8

A

0 MW

MVA

0 M var

A

A

MVA A

MVA

MVA 5 8 MW A

1 4 MW

0 .9 9 7 pu BLT 1 3 8 MVA

3 6 M var MVA 1 .0 0 pu 4 M var

0 .9 9 pu A M A NDA 6 9 A

A

A

3 3 MW SH IM KO 6 9 1 .0 2 pu

H O M ER6 9

MVA

MVA A

MVA

1 0 M var 0.0 Mvar 1 .0 1 pu

BLT 6 9

7 .4 M var

MVA

A 1 .0 1 pu

1 5 MW

3 M var

A

MVA

H A LE6 9

MVA

A 9 2 MW 1.010 pu 1 5 MW

5 M var

1 .0 0 pu 1 0 M var

MVA

A

A

A

3 6 MW A

1 .0 1 pu

6 0 MW MVA 1 0 M var 7 .2 M var MVA

MVA

A

A

MVA

1 2 M var

1 .0 0 pu 1 .0 0 pu P A T T EN6 9 MVA

2 0 .8 M var A

MVA

4 5 MW 1 4 MW RO GER6 9

MVA

1 .0 0 pu WEBER6 9 0 M var

LA UF6 9 2 M var

1 .0 2 pu

2 3 MW

2 2 MW 0 MW

A A

6 M var 1 4 MW A

2 0 MW 1 5 M var 0 M var

MVA MVA 3 M var MVA

9 M var

1 .0 2 pu JO 1 3 8 JO 3 4 5

LA UF1 3 8 1 .0 2 pu SA V O Y 6 9 3 8 MW

1 .0 0 pu

3 M var

1 .0 1 pu BUC KY 1 3 8 A

A MVA A

1 5 0 MW

MVA 1 .0 1 pu SA V O Y 1 3 8 MVA

A A

0 M var

MVA MVA

1 5 0 MW

A

0 M var

MVA

1 .0 3 pu

1 .0 2 pu A

MVA

will show the impact of generator voltage set point,

reactive power limits, and switched capacitors 2

Solving Large Power Systems

the Jacobian matrix

inverting a full matrix is an order n3 operation, meaning

the amount of computation increases with the cube of the

size size

this amount of computation can be decreased substantially

by recognizing that since the Ybus is a sparse matrix, the

Jacobian is also a sparse matrix

using sparse matrix methods results in a computational

order of about n1.5.

this is a substantial savings when solving systems with

tens of thousands of buses

3

Newton-Raphson Power Flow

Advantages

fast convergence as long as initial guess is close to

solution

large region of convergence

Disadvantages

each iteration takes much longer than a Gauss-Seidel

iteration

more complicated to code, particularly when

implementing sparse matrix algorithms

Newton-Raphson algorithm is very common in

power flow analysis

4

Modeling Voltage Dependent Load

the bus voltage (i.e., constant power). However, the

power flow can be easily extended to include voltage

depedence with both the real and reactive load. This

is done by making PDi and Q Di a function of Vi :

n

Vi Vk (Gik cos ik Bik sin ik ) PGi PDi ( Vi ) 0

k 1

n

Vi Vk (Gik sin ik Bik cos ik ) QGi QDi ( Vi ) 0

k 1

5

Voltage Dependent Load Example

constant impedance, so

P2 (x) V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0 V2

2

0

Q2 (x) V2 (10 cos 2 ) V2 (10) 1.0 V2 0

2 2

10 V2 cos 2 10sin 2 4.0 V2

J ( x)

10 V2 sin 2 10 cos 2 20 V2 2.0 V2

6

Voltage Dependent Load, cont'd

0

Again set v 0, guess x (0)

1

Calculate

V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0 V2

2 2.0

f(x )

(0)

V2 (10 cos 2 ) V2 (10) 1.0 V2

2 2

1.0

10 4

J (x )

(0)

0 12

1

0 10 4 2.0 0.1667

Solve x (1)

1.0

1 0 12 0.9167

7

Voltage Dependent Load, cont'd

bus 2 varies with the square of the bus 2 voltage

magnitude. This if the voltage level is less than 1.0,

the load is lower than 200/100 MW/Mvar

160.0 MW -160.0 MW

120.0 MVR Line Z = 0.1j -80.0 MVR

0.894 pu

One 1.000 pu Two -10.304 Deg

160.0 MW 160 MW

120.0 MVR 80 MVR

8

Dishonest Newton-Raphson

iteration is spend calculating the inverse of the

Jacobian, one way to speed up the iterations is to

only calculate/inverse the Jacobian occasionally

known as the Dishonest Newton-Raphson

an extreme example is to only calculate the Jacobian for

the first iteration

( v 1)

Honest: x x (v) ( v ) -1

- J (x ) f (x )(v)

Both require f (x(v ) ) for a solution

9

Dishonest Newton-Raphson Example

f ( x) x 2 - 2 0

1

df ( x )

(0)

x (v )

f ( x (v)

)

dx

x ( v ) 1 (v) 2

(0) (( x ) - 2)

2x

(v) 1

x ( v 1) x (0) (( x ( v ) )2 - 2)

2x

10

Dishonest N-R Example, contd

x ( v 1)

x (v) 1 (v) 2

(0) (( x ) - 2)

2x

We pay a price

Guess x 1. Iteratively solving we get in increased

(0)

0 1 1 with decreased

computation

1 1.5 1.5 per iteration

2 1.41667 1.375

3 1.41422 1.429

4 1.41422 1.408

11

Two Bus Dishonest ROC

guesses for the 2 bus case using the Dishonest N-R

Red region

converges

to the high

voltage

solution,

while the

yellow region

converges

to the low

voltage

solution

12

Honest N-R Region of Convergence

Maximum

of 15

iterations

13

Decoupled Power Flow

used for power flow analysis. However several

approximations of the Jacobian matrix are used.

One common method is the decoupled power flow.

In this approach approximations are used to

decouple the real and reactive power equations.

14

Decoupled Power Flow Formulation

P ( v ) P ( v )

(v)

V P (x( v ) )

f ( x (v)

)

Q ( v ) Q ( v ) V Q(x( v ) )

(v )

V

where

P2 (x( v ) ) PD 2 PG 2

P (x )

(v )

P (x(v ) ) P P

n Dn Gn

15

Decoupling Approximation

P ( v ) Q ( v )

Usually the off-diagonal matrices, and

V

are small. Therefore we approximate them as zero:

P ( v )

0

(v )

(v )

P ( x )

f ( x (v)

)

Q V

( v ) ( v )

Q ( x (v)

)

0

V

Then the problem can be decoupled

P ( v ) 1 Q ( v ) 1

(v)

(v)

P(x

(v)

) V Q ( x (v)

)

V 16

Off-diagonal Jacobian Terms

1. Usually r x, therefore Gij Bij

2. Usually ij is small so sin ij 0

Therefore

Pi

Vi Gij cos ij Bij sin ij 0

Vj

Qi

Vi V j Gij cos ij Bij sin ij 0

j

17

Decoupled N-R Region of Convergence

18

Fast Decoupled Power Flow

can actually obtain a reasonable approximation that is

independent of the voltage magnitudes/angles.

This means the Jacobian need only be built/inverted

once.

This approach is known as the fast decoupled power

flow (FDPF)

FDPF uses the same mismatch equations as standard

power flow so it should have same solution

The FDPF is widely used, particularly when we only

need an approximate solution

19

FDPF Approximations

The FDPF makes the following approximations:

1. G ij 0

2. Vi 1

3. sin ij 0 cos ij 1

Then

1 P ( x (v)

) (v) 1 Q ( x (v)

)

B

(v )

(v )

V B

V V (v )

Where B is just the imaginary part of the Ybus G jB,

except the slack bus row/column are omitted

20

FDPF Three Bus Example

Line Z = j0.07

One Two

200 MW

100 MVR

Line Z = j0.05 Line Z = j0.1

Ybus j 14.3 24.3 10

200 MW

100 MVR

20 10 30

21

FDPF Three Bus Example, contd

34.3 14.3 20

24.3 10

Ybus j 14.3 24.3 10 B

10 30

20 10 30

0.0477 0.0159

B 1

0.0159 0.0389

Iteratively solve, starting with an initial voltage guess

(0)

2

(0)

0 V 2 1

V 1

3 0 3

2

(1)

0 0.0477 0.0159 2 0.1272

3

0 0.0159 0.0389

2 0.1091

22

FDPF Three Bus Example, contd

(1)

V 2 1 0.0477 0.0159 1 0.9364

V 1 0.0159 0.0389 1 0.9455

3

Pi (x ) n PDi PGi

Vk (Gik cos ik Bik sin ik )

Vi k 1 Vi

2

(2)

0.1272 0.0477 0.0159 0.151 0.1361

3 0.1091 0.0159 0.0389 0.107 0.1156

(2)

V 2 0.924

V

3 0.936

0.1384 0.9224

Actual solution: V

0.1171 0.9338

23

FDPF Region of Convergence

24

DC Power Flow

approximations:

completely ignore reactive power, assume all the voltages

are always 1.0 per unit, ignore line conductance

This makes the power flow a linear set of

equations, which can be solved directly

B 1 P

25

DC Power Flow Example

26

DC Power Flow 5 Bus Example

A A

360 MW 520 MW

MVA MVA

A

0 Mvar 0 Mvar

MVA

slack

1.000 pu 1.000 pu A A

1.000 pu 80 MW

0.000 Deg -4.125 Deg MVA MVA

-1.997 Deg 0 Mvar

1.000 pu

0.524 Deg

1.000 pu Two

-18.695 Deg

800 MW

0 Mvar

the voltage magnitudes are 1 per unit.

27

Power System Control

the limited capacity of the transmission system

lines/transformers have limits (usually thermal)

no direct way of controlling flow down a transmission

line (e.g., there are no valves to close to limit flow)

open transmission system access associated with industry

restructuring is stressing the system in new ways

We need to indirectly control transmission line

flow by changing the generator outputs

Similar control issues with voltage

28

Extreme Control Example: 42 Bus

Tornado Scenario

Indirect Transmission Line Control

generation at bus k affects the power flow on a line

from bus i to bus j.

The assumption is

that the change

in generation is

absorbed by the

slack bus

30

Power Flow Simulation - Before

is to compare a before/after power flow.

For example below is a three bus case with an overload

131.9 MW

124%

One Two

200.0 MW 200 MW

68.1 MW 68.1 MW

71.0 MVR 100 MVR

Three 1.000 pu

0 MW

64 MVR

31

Power Flow Simulation - After

decreasing it at bus 1 by a corresponding amount), results

in a 31.3 drop in the MW flow on the line from bus 1 to 2.

101.6 MW

100%

One Two

105.0 MW 200 MW

3.4 MW 98.4 MW

64.3 MVR 100 MVR

92%

Z for all lines = j0.1

Limit for all lines = 150 MVA

1.000 pu

Three

95 MW

64 MVR

32

- my resumeUploaded byjawad6949
- Edsa PaladinUploaded byIulian Pârjoleanu
- [R L Sullivan] Power System PlanningUploaded byGilberto Mejía
- 01338472Uploaded byapi-3697505
- Genetic Algorithm Based Transmission Expansion Planning SystemUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- pv555Uploaded bymakroum
- Paper - Calculating Power System Stability Margin Based on PMU Measurement.pdfUploaded byAhmed Seddik
- State Estimation of Power System Containing FACTS Controller and PMUUploaded byVikas Goyal
- Cse291 Power SysUploaded byRajesh Prasad
- Load Flow Analysis With UPFC Under Unsymmetrical Fault ConditionUploaded byAlexander Decker
- 86215-166332-2-PBUploaded byYogendra Reddy
- Newton Rapshon PaperUploaded byDiego Rojas
- Generator Operation ModeUploaded byArdhan Boyzz
- 01266587Uploaded byapi-3697505
- Project DocUploaded byraghava_eee212
- Paper 1Uploaded byMiguel Acb
- PSTI_EMSUploaded byParichay Gupto
- Voltage and Power Losses Control Using Distributed Generation and Computational IntelligenceUploaded byernesto
- singh1997.pdfUploaded byVitthal Patnecha
- Flowsheet.pdfUploaded byYurika Liza
- ijsrp-p2458.pdfUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Articulo TDLA 2018 Corregido.pdfUploaded byLaura Monica Escobar Vargas
- DEC 2014Uploaded byAbhishek Chandel
- Steady State Network Equivalents for Large Electrical Power SystemsUploaded byramzus81
- PowerWorld_test1_1sprng1718Uploaded bySoumyabrata Barik
- Power Control EDUploaded byMahesh Thilakasiri
- optimal powerUploaded byJenny Wicaksana
- QB APS IIUploaded byJay Thakar
- TCSC_190417Uploaded byChetan Kotwal
- proton_200_220_webUploaded byLUIS CORDOVA ZANCHES

- Environmental StudiesUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- ACDCNOCONTROLADOSUploaded byKaren Alejandra
- Cpri Research ProgramUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- Electrical and Electronics EnggUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- SRF JRF AdvertisementUploaded byBharath KamalaMohan
- Comp NameUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- PowerFlow.pptxUploaded byPadmo Padmundono
- 105511_2013_regulationUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- shcil_sot_141117_221117_4-05 PM.txtUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- r13_EEE JNTUUploaded byRAMARAO
- KotaUploaded byPradeep Mainrai
- Electrc Fld in Circlr Loop n Disk1Uploaded byDeasy Irawati
- DC Machines Lab ManualsUploaded byHazoorAhmad
- Ssr Uploaded LinkUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- Electromagnetic FieldsUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- Electrical Machines iUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- PinStGdsUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- Telerik.ReptelerikortViewerUploaded byKrishna Reddy Svvs
- c ProgrammingUploaded byAnjalee Prabha

- Controlled Cooling in Hybrid Electric VehiclesUploaded bySalva Cascales
- Delta DPR-1200B-48 Functional Description ManualUploaded bySiul Itnas
- MIP2E4DUploaded bydragon-red0816
- Maintenance of Transformer-ksk math.pptUploaded bybijoy
- 3- Components of Hydraulic Action and Control 1.pdfUploaded bySaid Touhami
- seminar eeeUploaded byRamkumar Nandan
- Chapter 11 Solution MazurUploaded byKate Klopfenstein
- Environmental Science Chapter 1 Test Study Guide.docxUploaded byAlvin U. Dumduma
- WFI0004 Low Nox ConversionUploaded byAlexis Cordova
- Wartsila OemUploaded byAbid Lakhani
- Protection RelayUploaded byWardencasianAlanis
- 49-cracking-paraffinic-naphtha.pdfUploaded byNguyễn Tiến Dũng
- MLAHostelNagppurUploaded byAshish Kohale
- Version PDF 1Uploaded byKarim Malek
- How Nuclear Bombs WorkUploaded byShraddha Mahale
- Turbina Capstone 2Uploaded byMiguelDelBarrioIglesisas
- PG&E - Service to Cellular on Transmission TowerUploaded byadd8742
- 06 thermochemistry with answers reviewUploaded byapi-336799605
- Adsorption Refrigeration System New SlideUploaded bySoujanya Puhan
- Catalog of Dc Appliances and Power Systems Lbnl-5364eUploaded byAbid Hussain
- 04544743.pdfUploaded byEnzo Karol Velásquez
- Mind Map for Science Year 5Uploaded byEda Mahfudz
- G3520 Data Sheet (Low Energy Gas Continuous)Uploaded byVictor Cipriani
- Understanding Operation of Shunt Capacitors and Oltc for TransmissionUploaded byIAEME Publication
- ORAP Data Entry PresentationUploaded bycastilv
- Final ProjectUploaded bygogol1990
- Visual Inspection of the Transformer _ CsanyiGroupUploaded byAdebayo O. Johnson
- GREDESUploaded byMarković Alexandar
- Divine Earth Energy.pdfUploaded byraulaguirre666
- project HarvishSonar.pdfUploaded byUmang Patel