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Human aspects of project

management
A good human relations system is must for successful completion of
a project.
For successful human relations in the project setting the project
manager must successfully handle the problems relating to:

Authority
Orientation
Motivation
Group Functioning
Authority
Except the divisional organization, the project manager , whose
activities cut across the functional lines of command , lack the desired
formal authority.

The project manager has to coordinate the efforts of various functional


groups and outside agencies

In his own organization he has to manage with split authority and dual
subordination

Since project manager works with the professionals ,in order to exercise
leadership and influence over people he has to explain the logic and
rationale and be receptive to the suggestions by others

His effective authority will come from his ability to develop rapport with
the project professionals , skill in resolving conflicts, his reputation and
stature, communication and persuasive skills and ability to integrate
people.
Orientation
Most project managers are engineers or technologists
Typically such person does the following:
Works with physical laws, with mathematical precision
Adopts a structural or mechanical approach to the problem
Seeks to endure solution to the problem
Attaches high value in perfection

As a manager he needs to
Perform the managerial tasks of planning organizing
directing and controlling of the resources of the firm
Adopt a more creative approach to problem solving
Attach greater importance to the efficient utilization of the
resources
Motivation
Human beings are motivated by variety of need like Maslow s hierarchy
of needs

Traditional approach to motivation assumes that human beings are work


shirkers so pressure has to be applied

Behavioral approaches suggest that excess pressure is undesirable

Motivation becomes strong when goal is challenging

Expectation of reward has greater bearing on individual behavior

Environment where hygiene factor like pay , good work environment


and physical working conditions are taken care of , motivation factor
would be sense of accomplishment and growth

Whereas the jobs in the established organizations are dull and routine in
projects there is more stimulations and satisfaction in nature of project
work
Group Functioning
Group Functioning: According to Renesis Likert Organizations are to be
considered as a systems of interlocking groups
The groups in the project management may be of 3 types:
Vertical groups
Horizontal group
Mixed group

Vertical group consists of people from different levels in same


department , or function or company

Horizontal group consists of people from different functions


,dept and companies but at same position

Mixed group consist of people from different levels from various


functions, dept and companies
Group Functioning
Building effective groups; groups should follow the principle of espirit
de corps

An effective group must:

Develop mutual trust

Diminution of defensive behavior

Open communication

Cooperation and supportive behavior

Resolution of difference by mutual negotiation


THE HUMAN SIDE OF PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
Factors affect the success of a project:
The Right People
The Right Type of Management

One of the key ingredients is having the right people


on the job and managing them appropriately.

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The Project Management System
In order to manage projects
successfully, it is necessary to have a
system. A full project management
system consists of seven components.
If any one of the seven components is
not in place or does not function
satisfactorily, then you will have some
difficulty managing projects.

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The seven components are
Human Factors
Method
Culture
Organization
Planning
Information
Control

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Human Factors
A project manager must be able to deal
effectively with all of the parts of this
subsystem in order to be successful.
Leadership
Negotiation
Team building
Motivation
Communication
Decision making
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Methods refer to the tools of your trade.

The culture of an organization affects


everything you do.

Organization: Every organization must deal with


the assignment and definition of each persons
authority and responsibility.

Planning: Every organization needs a good


methodology for planning projects if it is to be
successful.

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Information & Control
Good historical data are needed for
planning projects.
The control subsystem is supported by
the planning and information
subsystems.

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