Comp. Tutorial | Density | Natural Materials

Example # 01 A Proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil sample, and the following observations were made

:
Water content % 8 11.5 14.5 17.5 19.5 21.5 IMass of wet soil 1.70e 1.90 th e m 1.98 d 1.95 d w f th e vo l m o f 2.00 o l u se 1.92 u 9(kg)0 c . c ., a n d th e sp e ci c g ra vi 5 fi ty

as of

th e so i a s 2 . 6 5 , d ra w th e d ry lw d e n si ve rsu s m o i re co n te n t ty stu cu rve , ( i A l p l t th e 1 0 0 % a n d ) so o 8 0 % sa tu ra ti n l n e s, ( i ) Fi d th e o i i n m a xi u m d ry d e n si a n d th e m ty

S o l ti n : u o Ta b l i exte n d to co m p u te to  d e s ( dry density ) for each value of w , by using the relation.
ρ ρ = d 1+ w M  1  Mass of wet soil in kg × 1000  1  ρ = ×  =  d V 1+ w Volume of mold = 950 cc 1 + w M  1    gm / cc 0.95  1 + w 

81 1. A graph is then plotted between the values of column (1) and column (4).72 1.5 19. given by Eq.91 1. as % w M in kg Pd at 100% Pd at 80% saturation. A.215 (3) 1.77 1.5 (2) 0.70 1.145 0.03 1.84 1. w.115 0.79 1.19 2.66 1.68 1. as: Eq.66 (5) 2. so as to obtain the requisitefraction Mass of wet w as compaction curve.5 21.69 (6) 2. given by saturation.90 2.08 0.92 (4) 1.175 1. B.55 .75 1.c.5 17.79 1.98 1.092 1. as: g m / cc w from col.5 14.95 1.00 1. (2) gm/cc (1) 8 11.10 1.195 0.61 1.These experimental values of ρ d for each value of w are computed in column (4).

65 gm / cc 1 + 2.w 2.9 1.7 1.C = 14.w 2.8 1.M.5 20 22.4 5 7.6 1. line or Zero void line Pd (max)=1.2 = ρw Compaction curve 100% sat.56 × 1 gm / cc 1 + 2.5 15 80% Sat line Where Sr = 1 W at O.5 10 12.84 Dry density (Pd) in gm/cc G .5 1.5 Water content (w).65. % .Gγw γ = d G 1+ w Sr ρ = d = γ d ρw γw G G 1+ w Sr = 2.1 2.65.0' 1.3 2. ρw ρ= d 1 + wG 2.5% 17.

w.79 1. so as to obtain 100% saturation line.08 0.84 1. given by Eq.5 14.c.61 1. for the given values of w.68 1. A.95 1.115 0.145 0.81 1. as or Zero -Air Mass of wet w as fraction Void line.69 (6) gm/cc 2. given by Eq. ρ d values are computed by using the above equation.5 19. (2) (4) 1.75 1.092 1. a graph is then plotted between column (1) and column (5).00 1.66 1.72 1.92 .5 17. saturation.66 saturation.77 1.19 2.175 1.90 2.215 (3) 1.10 1.5 21.03 1.79 1.70 1. d at 100% d at 80% % w M in kg g m / cc w from col. as: (5) 2.91 1. as: B.55 (1) 8 11.Now.5 (2) 0.98 1.195 0.

so as to obtain 80% saturation line.65 × 1 gm / cm 2. Ans .2.31w 1+ w× 0. A graph is then plotted between values of column (1) and column (5).65 3 ρ = = gm / c d 2.65 1 + 3.84 gm/cc.80 3 Using the equation. various values of ρ d are worked out in column (06) of table above for different values of w. (iii) Maximum dry density form compaction curve = 1.

65 0.65 G .4% .864 0.5% Ans.84 gm/cc G w d 1+ w Sr 2.65 × 1 gm / cc 0.d = 1.38 = or = 1.M.M.C = 86.38 or Sr = = 0. O.44 Hence .65 2. the deg ree of saturation at O .M .84 gm / cc = or 1 + 0. and hence.84 Sr 0.5%.145. (iii) at O.This maximum dry density corresponds to w = 14.145 × 2.65 1+ Sr 1.ρ ρ = we have  .C w = 14. G = 2.44 − 1 = 0.C is 14.5% = 0.145 × 2.44 Sr 1.

14 1. the degree of saturation and the theoretical maximum dry density (G = 2.85 The volume of the mold used was 950 ml.Example # 02 The following results were obtained from a standard compaction test on a sample of soil.68 0.22 1.18 1.85 0.70).20 1. . Also calculate the void ratio. Water Content (%) 0.12 Mass of wet soil (kg) 1. Make necessary calculations and plot the compaction curve and obtain the maximum dry density and the optimum water content.87 0.87 0.16 1.91 0.

04 0.95 1.87 1.91 2.62 0.64 0.71 0.14 1.56 0.95 1.97 1.77 1.83 1.68 1.77 1.87 1.20 0.89 0.01 1.78 1.60 0.950  d =ratio + w)  /(1 Void Degree of saturation Theoretical maximum dry G ρw density e= −1 0.65 1.67 0.73 0.86 1.97 1.69 ρ d wG Sr = e ( ρ ) theo max = d G ρw 1 + Gw .Solution Calculations are: Water content (w) Mass of wet soil (m) (kg) Bulk density  = M/V Dry density = M 0.96 0.46 2.65 0.58 0.69 0.58 0.16 1.82 1.75 1.85 1.85 1.22 1.71 0.18 0.12 1.

2.40' 1.80' 1.20' 1. O. 74 gm / ml.W.50' 1.90' 1.00' 1.C.20' 0. 2 % Water content . (Pd) max = 1 .30' From the Plot.60' 1.30' 1.10' 0.70' 1. = 15 .10' The compaction curve 0 0.

9 18.5 16.80 (kN/m3) 17.45 18.59 kg ØMass of jar + cone sand (after use) = 4.Example # 03 Laboratory compaction Following are the result of a test results for a field unitsilt are given clayey weight determination Moisture Content 6 (%) 8 9 11 12 14 Dry unit weight 14.545 kg ØMass of jar + cone sand (before use) = 7.52 18.007 kg .78 kg ØMass of moist soil from hole = 3.9 test performed on the same soil by means of the sand-cone method: ØCalibrated dry density of Ottawa sand = 1570 kg/m3 ØCalibrated mass of Ottawa sand to fill the cone = 0.

81 kg fill the hole 0.265 kg Continu e .78 kg =2.545 kg = 2.81 kg – fill the hole and cone 4.Determine a. Relative compaction in the field Solution a. In the field. Dry unit weight of compaction in the field b. Mass of sand used to = 7.59 kg – Mass of sand used to = 2.

= 20.45 3 γ = = = 18.2 1+ 100 100 .45 kN/m3 γwet 20.56 kN / m d 1 + w( % ) 10.

56 R= d = × 100 = 97. test γ ( field ) 18.7% γ ( max ) 19. we see the d(max) = 19 kN/m3.0 d . From the plot.20 d (kN/m3) 18 19kN / m 3 16 14 0 4 8 12 16 20 Plot of laboratory compaction test result the laboratory compaction The results of W (%) are plotted.

 Tutorial # 01 .

Plot the line of optimums. b)Establish the maximum dry density and optimum water content for each test.Problem # 01 For the data given below (Gs 2. 80.64 Mg/m3 a)Plot the compaction curves. c)Compute the degree of saturation at the optimum point for data in column A d)Plot the 100% saturation (zero air voids) curve. 90% saturation curves. Also plot the 70. .

910 1.747 17.803 1.1 B (standard) W% d (Mg/m3) 9.699 1.1 22.627 1.715 11.3 12.A (modified)) W%  (Mg/m3 d 1.707 1.8 C (low energy)  W% (Mg/m3) 1.3 20.691 1.671 9.7 21.755 14.740 1.3 16.6 1.5 18.9 12.4 .3 1.685 20.647 d 10.3 1.639 1.8 1.873 1.8 15.

Problem # 02 The results of standard proctor test are given in the table.C.81 1. Also determine the moisture content required to achieve 95% of  d(max) Volume of proctor mold (cm3) 943.3 = = = = = Weight of wet soil in the mold (kg) 1.83 1.70 Moisture content (%) 10 12 14 16 18 20 . Determine the  d(max) and O.75 1.65 1.76 1.M.

52 18.Problem # 03 Laboratory compaction test results on a clayey silt are listed in the table.45 18.9 . W% 6 8 9 11 12 14 Dry unit weight (kN/m3) 14.9 18.80 17.5 16.

b.Relative compaction in the field.2% Determine: a.007 kg ØMoisture content of moist soil = 10.59 kg ØMass of Jar+Cone+Sand(after use) = 4. .Dry unit weight of compaction in the field.545 kg ØMass of Jar+Cone+Sand(before use) = 7.78 kg ØMass of moist soil from hole = 3.weight determination test on the same soil with the sand cone method: ØDry density of Ottawa sand = 1570 kg/m3 ØMass of Ottawa sand to fill the cone = 0.

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