2 views

Uploaded by Iqbal Hamami

travel time

- Science Ppt 2015
- Reflection and Refraction Lab Report 1
- Acoustic Waves
- Basic Seismology
- introduccion to seismology
- Wave
- Physics Optics
- Attenuation Zones of Periodic Pile Barriers and Its Application in Vibration Reduction for Plane Waves
- seismearth
- Waves in magnetoelastic materials
- Soil Dynamics and Non Linear Site Response
- Angle Probe
- GELOMBANG- smester genap
- sedi_ray.pdf
- park1999.pdf
- Optics by B.crowell - Whole Book
- The World Communicates Summary
- master ppt for light and waves
- Insights Equake Eng Graham
- Earthquakes

You are on page 1of 55

for a seismic wave to travel from source to receiver in a homogeneous

earth layer with velocity v is simply given by the formula

t=d/v

where d is the distance travelled in the layer.

Basic seismic interpretation methods assume that the earth is

composed of a series of uniform layers and attempt to compute the

thicknesses, velocities, and sometimes dips of each layer. We will

discuss specific techniques for computing layer thicknesses and

velocities in the reflection and refraction survey sections. However,

we will introduce the concept of travel time computations and how

they relate to geometry here, using the example of a two layered

earth.

Fundamentals of Seismic Waves

Fundamentals of Seismic

Waves

particle motion.

characterized by their particle motion.

Three different types of

seismic waves

Compressional (p) wave

Shear (s) wave

Surface (Love and Raleigh)

wave

as body waves) are of interest

in seismic refraction.

Compressional (p) Wave

Identical to sound wave particle

motion is parallel to propagation

direction.

Shear (s) Wave

Particle motion is perpendicular

to propagation direction.

Velocity of Seismic Waves

Depends on density and elastic moduli

4

K

3

Vp Vs

modulus, and = density.

Velocity of Seismic Waves

Bulk modulus = resistance to

compression = incompressibility

Shear modulus = resistance to

shear = rigidity

greater its p-wave velocity, e.g., sound

travels about four times faster in water

than in air. The more resistant a material

is to shear, the greater its shear wave

velocity.

Q. What is the rigidity of

water?

Q. What is the rigidity of

water?

strength is zero.

Q. How well does water carry

shear waves?

Q. How well does water

carry shear waves?

A. It doesnt.

Fluids do not carry shear waves. This

knowledge, combined with earthquake

observations, is what lead to the

discovery that the earths outer core is

a liquid rather than a solid shear

wave shadow.

p-wave velocity vs. s-wave

velocity

p-wave velocity must always be

greater than s-wave velocity.

Why?

4

K

3

Vp 2 K 4 Vp K 4

Vs 2

3 Vs 3

is always greater than Vs.

Velocity density paradox

tends to be directly proportional to

density. Yet density is in the

denominator. How is that possible?

Velocity density paradox

tends to be directly proportional to

density. Yet density is in the

denominator. How is that possible?

and at a faster rate.

Velocity density paradox

Note: Elastic moduli are

important parameters for

understanding rock

properties and how they

will behave under various

conditions. They help

engineers assess

suitability for founding

dams, bridges, and other

critical structures such as

hospitals and schools.

velocities can help

determine these

properties indirectly and

non-destructively.

Q. How do we use seismic

waves to understand the

subsurface?

Q. How do we use seismic

waves to understand the

subsurface?

behavior in layered media.

Q. What happens when a

seismic wave encounters a

velocity discontinuity?

Q. What happens when a

seismic wave encounters a

velocity discontinuity?

reflected, some is refracted.

Q. What happens when a

seismic wave encounters a

velocity discontinuity?

Consider a layer of thickness h and velocity v1 overlying a uniform

halfspace of velocity v2. A source is detonated at time t=0. We are

interested in the waves and arrival times of those waves at a receiver

which is located at a distance x from the source at position D in the

figure below. There are three principal waves that will travel through

the earth and arrive at position D. i) direct waves, ii) reflected waves,

and iii) critically refracted waves.

The travel time curves for these ray paths are shown below, where

the horizontal axis represents distance from the source along the flat

surface of the earth, xcrit is called the critical distance, and xcross the

crossover distance.

The critical distance is the closest surface point to the source at which

the refracted ray can be observed. The crossover distance is the

surface point at which the direct and refracted rays arrive at the same

time. At offsets from the source greater than the crossover distance

the refracted ray will be the first signal to arrive from the source.

Travel times of visible arrivals are related to the distance between source

and receiver (x), thickness of the layer (h) and the wave velocities in the

upper layer and basement (v1 and v2). Let us denote the arrival times at

point x for the direct, reflected and refracted waves as tdir, trefl trefr

respectively

Let us denote the arrival times at point x for the direct, reflected and

refracted waves as tdir, trefl trefr respectively. These times are given by the

following formulas

tdirtrefltrefr=xv1=x2+4h2v1=xv2+2hv22v21v1v2.tdir=xv

1trefl=x2+4h2v1trefr=xv2+2hv22v12v1v2.

Note that the formulas for the direct and refracted waves are linear in x but

that the reflected arrival time formula is not.

Before moving on, lets look at an example of how travel times show

up in the field. The horizontal axis of the following plot shows offset

from a seismic receiver. Each line plots the displacement vs time

curve of a geophone at a given offset. The plot clearly shows a set of

events moving linearly in time from one geophone to the next.

Five important concepts

Seismic Wavefront

Seismic Ray

Huygens Principle

Snells Law

Reciprocity

Q. What is a seismic

wavefront?

Q. What is a seismic

wavefront?

ripples on a pond, but in three

dimensions.

Q. What is a seismic

wavefront?

The speed at which a wavefront

travels is the seismic velocity of

the material, and depends on the

materials elastic properties. In a

homogeneous medium, a

wavefront is spherical. Velocity

inhomogeneities have a distorting

effect.

Seismic wavefront

Q. What is a ray?

Q. What is a ray?

normal, a ray is an arrow drawn

perpendicular to the wavefront,

indicating the direction of travel at

that point on the wavefront. There

are an infinite number of rays on a

wavefront.

Ray

Huygens' Principle

Every point on a wavefront can be

thought of as a new point source for

waves generated in the direction the

wave is traveling.

Q. What causes

refraction?

Q. What causes

refraction?

A. Different portions of the

wavefront reach the velocity

boundary earlier than other

portions, speeding up or

slowing down on contact,

causing distortion of the

wavefront.

Understanding and

Quantifying How Waves

Refract is Essential

Snells Law

sin i V 1

(1)

sin r V 2

Snells Law

If V2>V1, then as i increases, r

increases faster

Snells Law

r approaches 90o as i increases

Snells Law

Critical Refraction

refraction r = 90o

sin ic V 1

sin 90 V 2

V1

sin ic (2)

V2

V1

ic sin 1 (3)

V2

Snells Law

Critical Refraction

refraction r = 90o

Snells Law

Critical Refraction

refraction r = 90o

Snells Law

Critical Refraction

critically-refracted, first-arrival

energy only. The rest of the

waveform is ignored.

Principal of

Reciprocity

The travel-time of seismic energy between

two points is independent of the direction

traveled, i.e., interchanging the source and

the geophone will not affect the seismic

travel-time between the two.

overview

Refracted ray in a two layer earth

Two Horizontal Layers Over a Halfspace

Reflected rays - single layer

Travel Time Curves for Multiple Layers

- Science Ppt 2015Uploaded bynurzarithazirah
- Reflection and Refraction Lab Report 1Uploaded byJana Magno
- Acoustic WavesUploaded byjoeregue
- Basic SeismologyUploaded byBryan
- introduccion to seismologyUploaded byLuis Alberto
- WaveUploaded byJoseph Angeles Reyes
- Physics OpticsUploaded byGayathri Niki
- Attenuation Zones of Periodic Pile Barriers and Its Application in Vibration Reduction for Plane WavesUploaded byEdson Jansen Miranda
- seismearthUploaded bybigboybigfather
- Waves in magnetoelastic materialsUploaded bypsaxena
- Soil Dynamics and Non Linear Site ResponseUploaded bySantosh Yadav
- Angle ProbeUploaded byJeevanandam Shanmugasundaram
- GELOMBANG- smester genapUploaded byDhany Rizky
- sedi_ray.pdfUploaded byAdexa Putra
- park1999.pdfUploaded byCristhian Alhuay Leon
- Optics by B.crowell - Whole BookUploaded bymayurfpatel920
- The World Communicates SummaryUploaded byYusuf El-Ghoul
- master ppt for light and wavesUploaded byapi-312162583
- Insights Equake Eng GrahamUploaded byDoby Kamburova
- EarthquakesUploaded bySathya Rau
- Refraction of Light.docxUploaded by2015LilianaLuna
- InternalUploaded byBiswarup Dutta
- Course Outline Heat, Waves & Sound LabUploaded byphoool
- Vibration EngUploaded byHessel Juliust Wongkaren
- 8.2objUploaded byZooy2012
- ResidentialUploaded byrunkir
- SpaghettiCracking.pdfUploaded byBhargav
- tesUploaded byAdal Ganis
- 280170Uploaded byCarl Alfons
- 6-Chapter7Uploaded byjrobert123321

- The Effect of Information and Communication Technology in Urban Tourism DevelopmentUploaded byTI Journals Publishing
- Affect- And Cognition-based Trust as FoundationsUploaded byBonni Pom-Pom Head
- Dynamic Understanding MathematicsUploaded byIsrael Monroy Muñoz
- taelar sandovalUploaded byapi-280012813
- Sub Exam Info GuideUploaded byJames Richardson
- How to Use Short Stories to Teach English in a HumanizingUploaded bywaqarali78692
- Disability Prevalence and KAP Study.pdfUploaded byArif Shahriar
- Situational Analysis.docUploaded byElise Richards
- Egr7020 - Assignment 3 - Hcd-AcdUploaded byDiegoMorenoFerguson
- jurnal triad of concern 2.pdfUploaded byKharina Areeisty
- theoretical frameworks summaryUploaded byapi-321977644
- Schedule for WebsiteUploaded byAhmed Ra'ef
- resume and references emily olivia haywardUploaded byapi-349400116
- Why Do Youth Join Gangs?Uploaded byAlexandra Keresztes
- Embodied CopingUploaded byjpaez04
- Ashlock Error PatternsUploaded byyusdi afandi
- Pdp GuideUploaded byedrialde
- Non IBR Boiler manufacturerUploaded byutechprojects
- Andhra University SDE Acadmy CalUploaded bymubinakhan_sen
- PLG 501Uploaded byEdward Zoom
- The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Mediterranean ReligionsUploaded byAlbadocar
- Piazz d'Italia.pptxUploaded byYeshu Rao
- HXS5ReadmeHTRI guideHTRI guideUploaded byaditya panchal
- Antenna for All Application by John D. Kraus, 3rd Edt SolutionUploaded byOmar Muñoz
- CBW PlatformUploaded byStuartClark
- Using IHS With Lotus INotes V1.0Uploaded byGusff
- American Board of Medical SpecialtiesUploaded byThe Healthy Arizonan
- 07_chapter 2.pdfUploaded byAshok Kumar
- [Homoeopathic Online Education, David Little] Frederick Hahnemann's Life and WorksUploaded byAntony Rozario
- Principles of Instruction RosenshineUploaded byWendell Thomas