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History of Music

Baroque Period 1600-1750

Classical Period 1750-1810

Romantic Period 1810-1910

Modern Period 1900 onwards


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards

The story of music in the 20th century is largely one of


exploration and experiment, leading to a fascinating variety of
new trends, new technique and entirely new sounds. All of
which make this one of the most exciting periods in the history
of music
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards

Special Features

Composers broke with tradition and rules


Key, pitch center, and harmonic progression practices of
the past were mostly abandoned
Use of Vast range of musical styles
Impressionism, Nationalism, Atonal, Neoclassicism,
Serialism, Polytonality, Jazz Influence
Musical influences drawn from Asia and Africa
Folk music incorporated into personal styles
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Texture

Homophonic Style

Unusual playing techniques


Glissando, flutter tongue, col legno
Use of percussive sounds
Use the highest and lowest range of the
instruments
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Harmony
Use of extreme Dissonances (Unstable notes
combination other than primary chords)

A greater proportion of discords to


concords
Use of poly chords Two chords heard at
the same time

Quarter and quintal harmony


Clusters
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Melody

used new scales to create new sounds


Pentatonic scale: a five note scale , borrowed from
folks songs and Asian Music
Whole Tone Scale : All intervals between notes are
tones
Atonal System ( no specific key)
Eg; Schoenberg 12 tone series 12 chromatic notes

Use of Polytonality (two or more keys at once)
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Dynamic

Extremes of dynamics from p to f (ppp & fff)


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Rhythm
Use of syncopation. strong accent in a week
beat
Used to give power and excitement
Used shifting meters and irregular meters

Bartok: Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Keyboard Instrument

Used piano to get more percussive sound


than lyrical melodies
Used wrist, forearm, elbow than fingers
Used pedals to get special effects


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Orchestra
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Orchestra

Percussion instruments rose in importance


Added new instruments (Celestas, wood block and
xylophone)


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Genres
Impressionism
Nationalism
Atonal
Neoclassicism (BACK TO BACH)
Serialism
Polytonality
Jazz Influence
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Genres - Impressionism

A musical style came from the impressionist arts in 20th century


Focused on mood and atmosphere rather than strong emotion or
storyline
A musical style came from the impressionist arts in 20th century
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Genres - Impressionism

Sunrise by Claude Monet


Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

French Impressionist composer


Studied in Paris and Rome
Influenced by Russian and Asian music
Attempted to capture in music what
Impressionist painters did in visual art
Made use of pentatonic and whole-tone
scales
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

Piano Music Prelude to the


afternoon of Faune
Claire de lune
The childrens
corner suite
Reverie


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Genres - Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism (BACK TO BACH) Used musical forms and stylistic


features of earlier period
Organized them to 20th Century
harmonies and rhythms
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)

Russian composer
He first achieved international fame with Composing
music for Ballet
Influenced by Russian folklore and folk tunes
He adopted traditional musical styles in early
period
Made use of Irregular rhythmic structure
Tone colors were dry and clear with strong beats
Used rich harmonies with unusual rhythms
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)

Music composed Petrushka


for Ballet The fire bird
The rite of spring
History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Genres Jazz Music Developed in the United States
Began around 1900 in New Orleans
Early composers primarily were African-American
Main characteristics are Improvisation
use of Syncopated rhythm, Steady beat
Music were mainly written for dancing
Blend some elements of several cultures
Genres in Jazz Ragtime, Blues, Swing, Bebop
Main solo instruments were trumpet, trombone,
saxophone, clarinet, vibraphone, piano
Usually in theme and variations form
George Gershwin (1898-1937)

American composer
Began his carrier as a broadway theater
musician
Was influenced by French composers in
early twentieth century
Composed music in Jazz Style
George Gershwin (1898-1937)

Orchestral Rhapsody in blue


An American in Paris
Opera Porgy and Bess

Broadway Musical Lady, be good


Tip-toes
Tell me more
Oh, key
Funny face


History of Music
Modern Period 1900 onwards
Genres Jazz Music

Ragtime Entertainer, Maple leaf


was Scott Joplin (1868-1917)
- King of ragtime

Swing C jam blues


Duke Ellington (1935-1995)- Sophisticated lady
King of Jazz
Blues What a wonderful world
Bessie Smith ( 1894- 1937) Hotter than that

Louis Armstrong (1900-1971)