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ANTI-BIOTIC

There are the broad spectrum antibiotics which fights a large


number of bacteria's and there are the narrow spectrum
antibiotics which only fight few bacteria's
Classes of ANTI-BIOTICS

BASE ON THERE USES TYPES OF ANTI-BIOTICS


Antimetabolites. Bacteriostatic
Protein synthesis inhibitors. bacteriocidal
DNA gyrase inhibitors.
(E.T.C)
BACTERIOSTATIC
ANTI-BIOTICS
They are the type of
antibiotics that only helps
the white blood cells to fight
against the harmful bacteria
but they are so lazy that they
dont kill the bacteria
themselves, they just
weaken it and they are the
most common type of
antibiotics like the protein
synthesis inhibitor.
BACTERIOCIDAL ANTI-BIOTICS

They are the type of antibiotics that


completely take over the job of the immune
system in fighting the harmful bacterial by
completely fighting it over and they are no
there to assist the immune system as they
are just there to tell the immune system that
they are more powerful and are better than
the immune system when it comes to
fighting bacteria. A very common example
is penicillin, it destroys the cell wall of the
bacteria.
COMMON ANTI-BIOTICS AND THE WAY THEY WORK ABOUT.

Antimetabolites These type of antibiotic target the metabolic pathways


(Sulphonamides which causes death as it blocks the production of the
) bacteria nucleic acid.
DNA gyrase Its a type of antibiotics that stops the bacterial DNA
inhibitors(quinol coiling up so it no longer fits within the cytoplasm of
one) the bacteria.

Protein synthesis Its a type of antibiotics that interrupt the transcription


inhibitors( and translation so no protein is formed.
tetracyclines)

Penicillin These type of antibiotic are the ones that weakens the
cell walls of the bacteria which means that the content
of the bacteria would split out as the walls wont be
able to keep it.
Effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs
1.CONCENTRATION OF DRUG IN AREA OF BODY
2.PH
3.SUSCEPTIBILTY OF PATHOGEN TO PARTICULAR ANTIBIOTIC
4.HOW EASILY DRUG CAN REACH TISSUE AND HOW QUICKLY IT IS
EXCRETED
An antiobiotic works only if
Microbe has a binding site for the drug
A biochemical pathway or metabolic process in microbe with which antibiotic
can interfere

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance


Bacteria becomes resistant by mutation , mutation results in one of the following
new biochemical pathway
makes cell wall impermeable to antibiotic
( e.g ancomycin)
Gets rid of cell wall ( e.g mycoplasma)

Acquires a antibiotic destroying gene ( e.g penicillin , ampicillin)

creating efflux pumps


Hospital acquired infections
Superbugs are found mostly at hospitals and care homes , where patients are ill
or have had surgery and there is a lot of antibiotic use
codes of practice have been developed in order to control infection and
prevent it
MRSA
(methicillin resistant staphylococcus
aureus)

Staphylococcus aureus is on human skin and nasal passage and causes no


problem
If it goes into the body it causes infections resulting in boiling and abcesses
Excessive treatment using methicillin gave rise to mrsa
Mrsa produces methillinase , destroying antibiotic
Now mrsa infections are treated using high doses of sparingly used antibiotics
C.difficile

C.Difficile means clostridium difficile.


It a type of anaerobic bacteria a
obligated anaerobic bacteria that
lives in human gut and also
compete with the guts normal flora.
This bacterium is a very dangerous
one and can be spread easily just
by touching and also can survive a
long and dry condition YUCK!!!!!!!
The end fellas
Dont ask me any question cause the thing
goes..