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U.S.

History
Tuesday, November 28th
Warm Up
Team Challenge
Today in History
1520 - Magellan reaches the Pacific Ocean after
rounding the southern tip of South America.
1582 - William Shakespeare marries Anne
Hathaway
The War of 1812
In 1808, Jefferson refused to run for a third
presidential term.
His Secretary of State, James Madison, was
nominated for the Republican party.
At only 54, Madison is our shortest president.
He was a bachelor until he got married at 43-
years old to Dolley Todd, who was introduced
to him by Aaron Burr.
The War of 1812
In 1803, Britain and France, under Napoleon,
went to war again.
Britains Navy was too strong for France to
attack them at sea.
Frances army was too strong for Britain to
attack them on land.
The War of 1812
Each side tried to starve out the other by
destroying their trade, which caught the United
States in the middle.
Both sides seized American ships suspected of
going towards enemy ports.
The British would impress suspected deserters,
and oftentimes Americans, into the British
Navy.
The War of 1812
Chesapeake Affair Americans were outraged
and Jefferson instated the Embargo Act, which
banned all American trade with Europe.
Jefferson wanted to avoid war and hoped it
would help France and Britain lift their
restrictions on American trade.
However, it backfired and the Americans
suffered more than the British or French.
The War of 1812
Non-Intercourse Act Congress replace the
ineffective Embargo Act with restored
European trade, except with Britain or France.
The hope was that one of the countries would
resume trade in exchange for lifting
restrictions.
This also failed.
The War of 1812
Macons Bill Number Two In 1810, America
restored all trade.
It offered to resume trade with whichever side
lifted their trade restrictions first and to refuse
trade with the other side.
Napoleon accepted first. Trade resumed with
France and trade with Britain was banned.
The War of 1812
Macons Bill Number Two Napoleon
continued to interfere with American shipping,
but Britain saw this as American joining the
war with France.
The War of 1812
War Hawks In the congressional elections of
1812, several pro-war, Southern representatives
were elected to the House.
Henry Clay Kentucky
John C. Calhoun South Carolina
The men pushed for war with Britain, claiming
threats to American trade and Indian armament
by the British.
Expansionist - they wanted to seize Canada.
The War of 1812
Declaration, Division and Disarray
June 1, 1812 Madison sent a message to
Congress with 5 reasons to declare war on
Britain:
1. impressment of American sailors
2. violations of Americas territorial waters
3. plundering of American goods
4. refusal to revoke trade restrictions
5. incitement of Indians to violence
The War of 1812
Declaration, Division and Disarray
Federalists, New Englanders and Easterners
opposed the war.
They depended on the sea for their livelihoods.
Republicans, Southerners and Westerners
supported the war.
Built a majority in both houses and managed to
declare war
The War of 1812
Declaration, Division and Disarray
Britain had actually lifted their trade
restrictions only a few days before they declared
war, but slow communications meant that the
U.S. didnt know.
The war didnt have much support or financial
backing.
The army only had 7,000 men.
The War of 1812
Declaration, Division and Disarray
The only advantage America had in the
beginning was Britains ongoing war with
Napoleonic France.
Activity
9.4