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Principles of Cartography

GEO362
LECTURE 1 :

INTRODUCTION TO
CARTOGRAPHY
CONTENTS:
- Nature of Cartography
- short history of Cartography
DEFINITION:
What is Cartography?
Cartography
- can be defined as an Art, science and technology of
making maps together with their study as scientific
documents and works of art. (International Cartographic Association,1973).

Cartography is
- the part of conveying of geospatial information by
means of maps.

Cartography is
- the making and study of maps in all their aspects.
Who is Cartographer?

Person who making maps and applying cartographic


principles in their artwork.

- responsible for map designing and


produce map for map users.

- must have a strong cartographic skills,


adequate data, sufficient instruments
and suitable map selection.
History of Carthography
Cartography dates back thousands of years to a time before paper, but the main
visual display principles were developed during the paper era
Historically, the origins of many national mapping can be traced to the need
for mapping for geographical campaigns of infantry warfare, for colonial
administration and for defense
Until 18th century, most maps are general maps and charts
From late 17th century, thematic maps began to appear
The growth of modern cartography since19th century related with the
inventions of photography and computers
Although the military remains a heavy user of mapping, such territorial
changes reflects more interplay of economics, political and historical
considerations.
The time frame over which events took place is also much more rapid more
maps produced as mapping technology expands.
The earliest extant world map is a An map made in Ancient Egypt with
Babylonian clay tablet from the sixth an estimated date to 3200 B.C.
century B.C., on which Earth is shown showing the trace of gold workings in
as a flat circular disc surrounded by Egypt. The map, now in Turin, depicts
ocean and several mythical islands. gold workings around the time of King
Seti I (1350-1205 B.C.).
The earliest printed map made in the
Map of Hecataeus (about 500 B.C.) of
South Song Dynasty showing east part ancient Greece by an empirical
of China in the modern history. approach, relying on exploration and
travel instead of pure geometry alone
Ancient Chinese topographical map The earliest paper map made in the
(200B.C.) A silk map in the ancient West Han Dynasty, almost at the same
tombs. time when the paper itself was
invented by Chinese.
The world-view of the Roman Empire The map constructed in the 15 century
(400A.D.) A circular earth disc, set in from Ptolemy's written directions,
a surrounding ocean, became the descriptions, and reflects geographical
dominant interpretation of the Middle knowledge of the known world in the
Ages cartographer. 2nd century A.D.
The perceived shape of France before
and after the 1693 survey by Picard
and La Hire
Current map applications
Scope of Cartography

Data

Map
User Scope Map

Map
Maker
Data Map
Usually collected by 3rd parties: - Map is a representation or
geodesist abstraction of geographic
photogrammetrists, reality.
Geographers
statisticians.
- Map can be said to show 3
Collection of data varies on its dimensions (3D) of the
purposes: phenomena represented which
surveying, are nature or the value of the
data input from enquiry / objects and their true location.
statistics,
photo interpretation
(photogrammetry)
satellite images
digitized maps/census data.
Map
Map User/Reader
Maker/Cartographer
- Person who will derive certain
have to study this information
information from map,
before be able to represent the
however those information
information correctly in map
will never overlap/coincide
format.
with the original information.

- If the cartographers interpret


the original information
incorrectly, then map reader
may read out the data in the
wrong way which resulting
wrong conclusions about
phenomenon.
MAP
DEFINITION
What is Map?
defined as a;
- representation,
- usually on a flat surface,
- of a whole part of an area.

describe digital or analog (whether in softcopy or hardcopy form) to


shows geographic information using well-established
cartographic conventions.

Both paper and digital maps have important role in


- economics,
- environmental
- social activities.
2 types of Map :

1. Reference maps 2. Thematic maps

Eg : Topographic Depict specific


maps geographic themes
(produced from national mapping (ex: population census statistics, soil
agencies) types and climate zones)
Why we need maps? Basic purposes of maps?
i. To reduce the spatial characteristics of a
To communicate information through
large area and putting it in map form
spatial ways
to make it observable.
To store geographical information.
ii. Carefully designed instrument for
To serve mobility and navigation
- recording,
needs.
- calculating,
For analytical purposes, e.g.
- displaying,
Measuring and computing.
- analysing
To summarize statistical data to assist
- understanding the interrelation of
things. forecasting and spotting trends.
iii. To communicate spatial information To visualize invisible.
(more efficient than linear communication) To stimulate spatial thinking.
iv. Most fundamental function is to bring
the things into view
Limitations of Maps.
can leads to miscommunications accidentally or on
purpose. (Ex: incorrect use of symbols can convey the wrong
message to users)

are often created using complex rules, symbology, and


conventions. (it is difficult to understand and interpret by the
untrained viewer )
Basic Elements of Maps :

Legend Scale

Direction
Title /
Indicator

Map Inset /
Map
Overview
body Elements map
Map Body Title

- The principal focus of the map used to inform the reader about it
contents
- Some map consists of comparative
map, hence it needs 2 or more
bodies.

- should filled with symbology


appropriate to its purposes.
Legend Scale

item represented on the map and - provides an indications of the size


how they are symbolized. of objects and distances between
them

- Scale is a ratio of one unit on the


map; represents some multiple
value in the ground

- Types of scale :
1. Numerically,
2. graphically
3. text.
Direction / Indicator Inset/overview of map

- can be displayed either - May be used to identify


in: the map and to inform
- Grids (Network or parallel and the reader about its
perpendicular lines on a map.) content.
- Graticules (Network of
longitude and latitude lines on a
map to their true location on the
earth)
- Directional symbols ( north
arrow ).
Map metadata

- Contain many other types of


information includes:

- map projections,
- date of creation,
- data sources
- authorship.