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- Basic geodesy

- Map projection

- Reference systems

Mapping involves:

- Determining the geographic locations of features on the earth

- Transforming these locations into positions on a flat map

through use of a map projection

- Graphically symbolizing these features.

coordinates called:

- latitude

- longitude

Therefore, to establish a system of geographic coordinates for

the earth, we 1st must know its shape and size.

To give a valuable result for spatial analysis or cartographic

compilation and produce trusted maps.

Earth is viewed as being an

evenly round ball. This is

called a Sphere.

the Earth, calculations are

made from the centre of the

Earth to the surface of the

Earth.

from the centre of the Earth to

the Equator and the North

Pole (indicated by a and b)

are the same value.

a=b

However, the Earth is not evenly Semi minor axis

round - it is in fact wider around

the Equator than it is between

the North and South Poles.

Spheroid)

is greater than the length of b

which closely approximates the

shape of the geoid either on a

local or global scale and which

has specific mathematical

expression.

Semi major axis

Why we choose ellipsoid?

Geometrical surface - closest to the

shape of the earth

Easier to do calculation

Imaginary surface

Reference surface (datum)

Defined as the surface of the

earth's gravity field, which is

approximately the same as

mean sea level (MSL).

It is perpendicular to the

direction of gravity pull.

not uniform at all points, and

the direction of gravity

changes, the shape of the

geoid is irregular.

Three approximations to the earths true shape

were use in different ways by cartographers:

Reference surface for small-scale

SPHERE maps of countries, continents, and

larger areas

maps Ellipsoid ties in well with

modern data collection methods for

ELLIPSOID

large scale mapping such in GPS ; it

compute latitude , longitude and

elevation using the WGS 84 ellipsoid.

Reference surface for ground

surveyed horizontal and vertical

positions elevations are determined

GEOID

relative to the MSL geoid.

A datum is a mathematical model of the earth, which serves

as the reference for calculating the geographic coordinates

of a location.

A datum is built on top of the selected ellipsoid

Can incorporate local variations in elevation

With the ellipsoid, the rotation of the ellipse creates a totally

smooth surface across the world (Its actually doesn't reflect reality

very well), a local datum can incorporate local variations in

elevation.

Internationally, WGS 84 is used as a standard for calculations

of position, distances , etc.

Malaysia use local datum:

-Kertau for Peninsular Malaysia

-Timbalai for East Malaysia.

Method for describing

the position of a

geographic location on

the Earth's surface using

spherical measures of

latitude and longitude.

(in degrees) from the

center of the Earth to a

point on the Earth's

surface.

Measured from the north

south angular distance

from the equator in

degree, minute and

second.

latitude while north pole as

+90 and the south pole as -

90.

planes of a certain latitude

and the globe are called

as parallels.

Measured from the east

west angular distance from

the prime meridian in

degree, minute and second.

defined as 0 longitude and

increase up to +180 on the

East and 180 on theWest.

Pole to the South Pole are

called Meridians.

Transformation process where mathematical

formula are used to transform spherical

geographical coordinates to the two

dimensions of a plane.

ellipsoid of earth to the 2D plane on a map.

distortion where it affects shapes, distances

and directions.

To bring 3D of

earth surface

3D

Into 2D plane on

a map

Why we need map projection?

and print in books

on a computer screen

curved surface

atlas especially in cartography.

This describes the way an imaginary piece

of paper (which will become the map) is laid on

the Earth to obtain the latitude and

longitude for the map.

touches the Earth there is no distortion on

the map. As you move away from there

however, distortions increase with distance.

Three projections are used when deals

with mapping process :

1. Conical

2. Cylindrical

3. Azimuthal

plane touches the ellipsoid is called the

point or line of tangency where no

distortion is found at this point or line.

1. Conical projection

Have a single line of no distortion

In the normal aspect, meridians are straight lines and parallels

are concentric circular arcs.

Distortion is increased when its move away from these lines.

Shapes are shown correctly, but size is distorted

2. Cylindrical projection

Have a single line of no distortion

In the normal aspect, this line touches upon the equator and

both parallels and meridians are straight lines perpendicular to

each other.

Distortion increases dramatically toward both poles, represented

by lines.

Show shapes correctly, but size is distorted

3. Azimuthal projection

Have a single point of zero distortion

Meridian appear as straight lines, and parallels are

concentric circles centering on the pole.

The transformation from the curved

reference surface of the earth to the flat

plane of the map is never completely

successful.

from the central point of the projection

increases.

intersects the reference surface will

reduce and mean out the scale errors.

All projections result in some distortion of the

relationships between features on the sphere when

they are projected onto a flat surface. These

distortions include:

surrounding feature

- The distance between a feature and

surrounding features

- The shape of any feature

- The size of any feature

Projection plane tangent to reference surface

A sample of distortions

Depending on their intended use, projections are chosen to

preserve a particular relationship or characteristic :

a) Equal-Area

Correctly shows the size of a feature

b) Conformal

Correctly shows the shape of features (A map cannot

be both equal-area or conformal it can only be one; or

the other)

c) Equidistant

Correctly shows the distance between two features

d) True Direction

Correctly shows the direction between two features

Example of conical projection:

Conic Projection.

Today it has become a standard projection for

mapping large areas (small scale) in the mid-latitudes

such as USA, Europe and Australia.

It has also become particularly popular with

aeronautical charts such as the 1:100 000 scale World

Aeronautical Charts map series.

This projection commonly used two Standard

Parallel.

preserved for a considerable extent near to the

Standard Parallels.

For world maps the shapes are extremely distorted

away from Standard Parallels. - This is why it is very

popular for regional maps in mid-latitude areas

(approximately 20 to 60 North and South).

Across the whole map directions are generally true.

Example of cylindrical projection:

Universal Transverse Mercator

Universal

Transverse

Mercator (1569) Transverse

Mercator (1772)

Mercator (1947)

highly successful Mercator Projection.

highly accurate near the Equator . The main problem

with the projection is that distortions increase away from

the Equator.

places which have north-south orientation near to the

equator but not suitable for mapping North-South

orientation South America or Chile

Instead of using Equator as touching point, Tranverse

Mercator touch any line of longitude and called the

Central Meridian of a map. Now, it can be used North-

South orientation.

developed the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate

system (generally simply called UTM).

projection was highly accurate along its Standard

Parallel/Central Meridian. Indeed as far as 5 away from

the Standard Parallel/Central Meridian there was minimal

distortion.

able to build on the achievements of the International

Map of The World.

Using this NATO designed a similar regular system for

the Earth whereby it was divided into a series of 6

of longitudinal wide zones. There are a total of 60

longitudinal zones and these are numbered 1 to 60

east from longitude 180 .

Malaysia :

- Peninsular Malaysia Zone 47 & 48

- East Malaysia Zone 49 & 50

Example of azimuthal projection:

Stereographic

This projection is from Ptolemy

It is most commonly used over Polar areas, but

can be used for small scale maps of

continents such as Australia. The great

attraction of the projection is that the Earth

appears as if viewed form space or a globe.

This is a conformal projection in that shapes

are well preserved over the map, although

extreme distortions do occur towards the

edge of the map.

Example of countries : Canberra, the Capital

City of Australia

Comparison of projections:

PROJECTION TYPE PRESERVED COMMENTS

CHARACTERISTICS

the Poles / small

continent mapping

Lambert Conformal Conical Conformal Best used in mid

Conic latitudes e.g. USA,

Europe & Australia

Mercator Cylindrical Conformal & true Best used in the areas

direction around the Equator &

for marine navigation

Robinson Pseudo cylindrical All attributes are Best used in areas

distorted to create around the Equator

more pleasant

appearance

Transverse Mercator Cylindrical Conformal Best used for areas

with north south

orientation

How to choose map projections?

What to compare ? Areas, distances or directions ?

E.g. : Flow patterns of oceans requires a conformal projection

while presenting size of countries requires an equal

area projection.

geographical area to be mapped.

Distortion pattern of the chosen projection should

match the shape of an area as closely as possible.

E.g. : Transverse Mercator suitable for Chile, South

America since it has large N-S extension.

in which the map extent fills the screen or paper.

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