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There are three methods of manufacturing pulp:

Mechanical Pulp (yield 90%): It uses mechanical abrasion to

separate cellulose fibers which are held together by a
material called lignin.
In the process called ͞Groundwood͟ wet wood is ground by
large stones and in Thermo Mechanical Pulping (TMP),
metallic plates rub steam heated chips at high speeds,
separating fibers.

Chemical Pulping (yield 50%): It uses chemicals to dissolve

lignin. Kraft pulp is most common pulp.

Semichemical Pulp: Uses chemicals to soften lignin, and

mechanical abrasion in refiners ʹ Chemi Thermo Mechanical

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Many papers require a "coating" to be
complete. The coating process may be
connected to the paper machine where the
machine is dedicated to making only one kind
of paper, or may be a complete separate
process in a totally different location.
Common coatings improve whiteness of paper
and release for things like labels.
Tissue Machines are very similar to paper
machines in over-all process, but they are
much smaller in size and have a different kind
of dryer section. Tissue is what is used to
make toilet paper, paper towels, napkins, etc.
Like paper, tissue is made from a pulp
material, but is more often recycled and much
lower quality materials. It is made in large rolls
and later in a separate process "converted" to
its final product.

Paper recycling is the process of
manufacturing old paper products and turning
them into new, reusable paper products.

Recycling old paper products uses 60% less

energy than manufacturing it from new




There are seven steps of recycling the paper:

After paper for recycling is collected and brought to

a recycling facility, it is sorted by type.

The different types of paper products to be recycled

are moved by conveyor belt to a vat that contains water
and chemicals as well as blades that chop the paper
down into small pieces.

The pulp is pushed through a series of screens that

strain away bits of other matter such as glue or bits of
The pulp is then cleaned by feeding it into a cone-
shaped cylinder that spins the pulp around at high

De-inking removes the ink residue from the paper

products, and is done by a process called "flotation͟.

The pulp is then beaten to make the paper fibers swell

and turn any bundles of fibers into individual fibers.

The pulp is now ready to be recycled and remade into

new paper products, and is either blended with pulp or
used alone to create recycled paper.







There are 10 steps including in the handmade paper making process:
2" |1 )The process began by reducing cotton waste to pulp. the pulp is
diluted with water and put into a masonry. The lifting mould is then dipped into
the trough, shaken evenly and lifted out with the pulp on it.
9" | )Roses are selected and plucked, ulower petals are added to the
pulp which is then transferred to large tanks and submerged and then taking
pulp from the tank, and emptied it into the tray.
5" |)After inverting the tray and the muslin, the sheet of pulp now on top is
added to a pile. The pile is then pressed to drive out most of the water. Pressing
reduces the bulkiness of the paper i.e. the sheets become more compact.
3" Small dirt particles are removed manually with a sharp instrument.
The cleaned sheets are given a coating with starch to improve the physical
properties of the paper and prevent feathering. This is called sizing and can be
done manually with a brush.
h" !)After Separation the sheets are dried by hanging
them in open areas of sunlight to remove the rest of the
:";)Then Dried Paper is passed through a series of metal
rolls at the end of a paper machine which increases its
smoothness and glossy surface.
Calendared paper is hand- sorted, edges trimmed
with the help of a hand- /power-operated cut- ting machine.
7")At this point the sheets are sort and cut to whatever sizes
the customer desires and then packed for shipment.
<"%1 )Sheets are cut to appropriate sizes according
to size of envelope being made and folded with a glue stick, to
seal the three sides.
2="|)Screen printing uses silk or other fabric
stretched tightly over a frame. Images are created by blocking
parts of the screen with stencils created by hand-drawn or
photographic techniques.

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