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You are on page 1of 44

A system is represented in SS by:

x Ax Bu

y Cx Du

Where x state vector

x derivative of the state vector w. r.t. time

y output vec tor

u input or control vector

A system matrix

B input matrix

C output matrix

D feedforwar d matrix

Chapter 5 State Space 2

Converting Transfer Function to

State Space (TF2SS)

Consider the differential equation:

dny d n 1 y dy

n

a n 1 n 1

... a1 ao y bou

dt dt (1) dt

variables

dy

x1 y x1

dt

dy d2y

x2 x 2 2

dt dt

DIFFERENTIATE

d2y d3y

x3 2 x3 3

dt dt

d n 1 y (2) dny (3)

xn n 1 x n n

dt dt

Chapter 5 State Space 3

TF2SS

Substituting (2) into (3)

x1 x2

x2 x3

xn 1 xn

(4)

xn ao x1 a1 x2 ... an 1 xn bou

x1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 x1 0

x 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 x2 0

2

x3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 x3 0

u

xn 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 xn 1 0

xn a0 a1 an 1 xn b0

TF2SS

Since the solution to the differential equation is y(t), or x1,

the output:

x1

x

2

x

y 1 0 0 0 3

xn 1

xn

TF2SS

Steps:

1. Convert to differential equation (Cross-

multiplying and inverse LT assuming zero IC)

2. Represent in state space in phase-variable-form

TF2SS

Example 1

Find the state-space representation in phase-variable form

for the TF below

24

R(s) s 3 9s 2 26s 24 C(s)

SOLUTION:

Step 1

Cross-multiplying: s 3

9s 2 26s 24 C (s) 24R(s)

Inverse LT assuming:

zero IC c 9c 26c 24c 24r (a)

Chapter 5 State Space 7

TF2SS

Example 1 (cont.)

Step 2

State variables: x1 c

x2 c (b)

x3 c

x1 x2

x2 x3 (c)

x3 24 x1 26 x2 9 x3 24r

TF2SS

Example 1 (cont.)

Since the output c=x1, y c x1 (d)

x1 0 1 0 x1 0

x 0 0 1 x 0 r

2 2

x3 24 26 9 x3 24

x1

y 1 0 0 x2

x3

Converting SS to TF (SS2TF)

State and Output equations: x Ax Bu

y Cx Du (5)

Taking LT with IC set to zero sX ( s ) AX ( s ) BU ( s )

(6)

Y ( s ) CX ( s ) DU ( s )

X ( s) ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) (7)

C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D U ( s) (8)

If U(s) and Y(s) are

Y ( s)

scalar quantities T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D (9)

U ( s)

Chapter 5 State Space 10

SS2TF

Example 2

Find the TF, T(s)=Y(s)/U(s), where U(s) is the input and

Y(s) is the output

0 1 0 10

x 0 0 1 x 0 u

1 2 3 0

y 1 0 0x

SS2TF

Example 2 (cont.)

SOLUTION:

- Determine (sI-A)-1:

s 0 0 0 1 0 s 1 0

( sI A) 0 s 0 0 0 1 0 s 1

0 0 s 1 2 3 1 2 s 3

s 2 3s 2 s3 1

1 s ( s 3) s

adj ( sI A) s (2s 1) s

2

1

( sI A)

det( sI A) s 3 3s 2 2s 1

SS2TF

Example 2 (cont.)

- Substituting all matrices into

Y ( s)

T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D

U ( s)

yields:

100( s 2 3s 2)

T (s) 3

s 3s 2 2s 1

Controllability

A test of the ability of the actuator

If an input to a system can be found that takes every state

variable from a desired initial state to a desired final state,

the system is said to be controllable; otherwise it is

uncontrollable

The controllability can be explored from the state equation

When the system matrix is diagonal, it is apparent whether

or not the system is controllable.

Example: a 0 0 1

1

x 0 a2 0 x 1u

0 0 a3 1

Chapter 5 State Space 14

Controllability

a1 0 0 1 a4 0 0 0

x 0 a2 0 x 1u (i) x 0 a5 0 x 1u (iii)

0 0 a3 1 0 0 a6 1

or or

x1 a1 x1 u x1 a4 x1

(ii) x2 a5 x2 u (iv)

x2 a 2 x2 u

x3 a3 x3 u x3 a6 x3 u

Since each equation (ii) is From (iii) and (iv) we see that

independent and decoupled state variable x1 is not

from the rest, the control u controlled by the control u.

affects each of the state Thus uncontrollable

variables. This is

controllability

Chapter 5 State Space 15

Controllability

The Controllability Matrix

To determine controllability or to design state

feedback, a matrix can be derived that must have a

particular property if all state variables are to be

controlled by the plant input, u.

An n-th order plant whose state equation is x Ax Bu

is controllable if the matrix

CM = [B AB A2B An-1B]

is of rank n. CM is the controllability matrix

Controllability

Example 3

Given: 1 1 0 0

x Ax Bu 0 1 0 x 1u

0 0 2 1

Controllability

Example 3 (cont)

SOLUTION:

At first, it would appear that the system is uncontrollable because of the

zero in the B matrix. This configuration leads to uncontrollability

only if the poles are real and distinct. In this case, there are

multiple poles at -1

- The controllability matrix, CM:

0 1 2

CM B AB

A2 B 1 1 1

1 2 4

Controllability

Example 3 (cont)

0 1 2

CM B AB

A2 B 1 1 1

1 2 4

- The rank of CM equals the number of linearly independent rows or

columns

- The rank can be found by finding the highest-order square submatrix

that is nonsingular

- |CM|=-10 thus the 3x3 matrix is nonsingular, with rank of CM=3

- Conclusion: The system is controllable since the rank of CM equals the

system order. Thus, the poles of the system can be placed using state-

variable feedback design

Observability

A test of the ability of the sensor

If the initial-state vector , x(t0), can be found fron

u(t) and y(t) measured over a finite interval of

time from t0, the system is said to be observable;

otherwise it is unobservable

Observability is the ability to deduce the state

variables from a knowledge of the input, u(t), and

the output, y(t)

Observability

The Observability Matrix

System represented in other that diagonalized form cannot be reliably

evaluated for observability by inspection

A matrix can be derived that must have a particular property if all state

variables are to be observed at the output

An n-th order plant whose state and output equations are:

x Ax Bu

y Cx

is observable if the matrix C

CA

OM

n 1

CA

is of rank n, where OM is the observability matrix

Observability

Example 4

Given: 0 1 0

x Ax Bu x u

5 21 / 4 1

y Cx 5 4x

Determine if the system is observable

Observability

Example 4 (Cont.)

SOLUTION:

- The observability matrix, OM for the system:

C 5 4

OM

CA 20 16

- |OM|=0, thus the observability matrix does not have full

rank, and the system is not observable

- Inspecting the output, we might consider this system as

observable since all states feed the output. Observability by

inspection is valid only for a diagonalized representation of a

system with distinct eigenvalues

Chapter 5 State Space 23

Tutorial

Question 1

Investigate the controllability and observability of

(i)

(ii)

(iii) Y ( s) ( s 2)

G( s)

U ( s) ( s 3)( s 4)

(iv) Obtain the TF given

0 1 0 0

x 0 0 1 x 0 r

3 2 5 10

y 1 0 0x

Chapter 5 State Space 24

TF2SS (Polynomial in numerator)

Find the state-space representation of the transfer

function:

R(s) s 2 7s 2 C(s)

s 3 9s 2 26s 24

s 2 7s 2

s 3 9s 2 26s 24

TF2SS (Polynomial in numerator)

Step 2: Find the state equations for block containing denominator

x1 0 1 0 x1 0

x 0 0 1 x 0 r

2 2

x3 24 26 9 x3 1

Step 3: Introduce the effect of the block with numerator, where b2=1,

b1=7, b0=2

C ( s ) (b2 s 2 b1s b0 ) X 1 ( s) ( s 2 7 s 2) X 1 ( s)

Taking inverse LT with I.C zero

c x1 7 x1 2x1

But x1 x1

x1 x2

x1 x3

Chapter 5 State Space 26

TF2SS (Polynomial in numerator)

Thus,

y c(t ) b2 x3 b1 x2 b0 x1 x3 7 x2 2 x1

output equation

x1 x1

y b0 b1 b2 x2 2 7 1 x2

x3 x3

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 5

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 5 (cont.)

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 5 (cont)

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 5 (cont)

Noting that

1 (t ) (t ) e At

2et e 2t et e 2t

1 (t ) e At t 2t

2e 2e 2t

e 2e

t

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 6

Obtain the response of the following system:

x1 0 1 x1 0

x 2 3 x 1u

2 2

at t=0, or u(t)=1(t)

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 6 (cont)

SOLUTION:

0 1 0

- For this system A ; B

2 3 1

x(t ) e At x(0) A1 (e At I ) Bu

Chapter 5 State Space 35

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Example 6 (cont)

- Thus,

2e (t ) e 2(t )

t

e (t ) e 2(t ) 0

x(t ) e x(0)

At

( t ) 2 ( t )

1d

0 2e 2e 2(t ) e ( t )

2e 1

OR

e t e 2t x1 (0) e t e 2t

1 1

x1 (t ) 2e t e 2t

x (t ) 2t 2 2

2 2e 2e

t

e 2e x2 (0) e t e 2t

2t

t

- If the initial state is zero, or x(0)=0, then x(t) can be simplified to

x1 (t ) e t e 2t

1 1

x (t ) 2 2

2 e t e 2t

Chapter 5 State Space 36

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Problem 1:

Obtain the response y(t) of the following system:

x1 1 0.5 x1 0.5 x1 (0) 0

x 1 u ,

2 0 x2 0 x2 (0) 0

x1

y 1 0

x2

u(t) = 1(t)

Chapter 5 State Space 37

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Problem 1 (SOLUTION)

- For this system 1 0.5 0.5

A

0 0

; B

1

- The state transition matrix:

(t ) e At L1[( sI A) 1 ]

1

1 s 1 0.5 1 s 0.5

( sI A)

1 s s 2 s 0.5 1 s 1

s 0.5 0.5 0.5

( s 0.5) 2 0.52 ( s 0.5) 2 0.52

1 s 0. 5 0. 5

( s 0.5) 0.5

2 2

( s 0.5) 0.5

2 2

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Problem 1 (SOLUTION-cont)

- Therefore, (t ) e At L1[( sI A) 1 ]

( s 0.5) 0.5

2 2

( s 0.5) 0.5

2 2

L1[( sI A) 1 ] L1

1 s 0 .5 0.5

( s 0.5) 0.5

2 2

( s 0.5) 0.5

2 2

0.5t 0.5t

2 e sin 0.5 t e (cos 0 .5 t sin 0.5t )

Solving The Time-Invariant State

Equation

Problem 1 (SOLUTION-cont)

- Therefore,

e 0.5t sin 0.5t

x(t ) 0.5t

e (cos 0.5t sin 0.5t ) 1

x1

y(t ) 1 0 x1 e 0.5t sin 0.5t

x2

Steady-State Error Final Value

Theorem

A closed-loop system is represented in state space as:

x Ax Br (10)

y Cx

But Y ( s ) R ( s )T ( s ) where T(s) is the closed-loop TF. Substituting

into (11) yield E ( s) R( s)[1 T ( s)]

Since Y ( s)

T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D

U ( s)

we obtain

E ( s) R( s)[1 C (sI A) 1 B]

lim sE (s) lim sR(s)[1 C(sI A)1 B] (12)

s 0 s 0

Steady-State Error Final Value

Theorem

Example 5

Given:

5 1 0 0

A 0 2 1; B 0; C 1 1 0

20 10 1 1

ramp input.

Steady-State Error Final Value

Theorem

Example 5 (cont)

SOLUTION:

- Substituting A, B and C into (12), we obtain:

s4

e() lim sR ( s)1 3

s 0

s 6 s 2

13 s 20

s 3 6s 2 12s 16

lim sR ( s) 3

s 0

s 6 s 2

13 s 20

- For a unit step input, R(s)=1/s, e()=4/5

- For a unit ramp input, R(s)=1/s2, e()=

- The system behaves like Type 0 system

Chapter 5 State Space 44

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