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CHAPTER 5

State Space Representation

A system is represented in SS by:
x Ax Bu
y Cx Du
Where x state vector
x derivative of the state vector w. r.t. time
y output vec tor
u input or control vector
A system matrix
B input matrix
C output matrix
D feedforwar d matrix
Chapter 5 State Space 2
Converting Transfer Function to
State Space (TF2SS)
Consider the differential equation:
dny d n 1 y dy
n
a n 1 n 1
... a1 ao y bou
dt dt (1) dt

Choosing output as y(t), and (n-1) derivatives as state

variables
dy
x1 y x1
dt
dy d2y
x2 x 2 2
dt dt
DIFFERENTIATE
d2y d3y
x3 2 x3 3
dt dt

d n 1 y (2) dny (3)
xn n 1 x n n
dt dt
Chapter 5 State Space 3
TF2SS
Substituting (2) into (3)
x1 x2
x2 x3

xn 1 xn
(4)
xn ao x1 a1 x2 ... an 1 xn bou

(4) in matrix form:

x1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 x1 0
x 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 x2 0
2
x3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 x3 0
u

xn 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 xn 1 0

xn a0 a1 an 1 xn b0

Chapter 5 State Space 4

TF2SS
Since the solution to the differential equation is y(t), or x1,
the output:
x1
x
2
x
y 1 0 0 0 3

xn 1

xn

Chapter 5 State Space 5

TF2SS
Steps:
1. Convert to differential equation (Cross-
multiplying and inverse LT assuming zero IC)
2. Represent in state space in phase-variable-form

Chapter 5 State Space 6

TF2SS
Example 1
Find the state-space representation in phase-variable form
for the TF below

24
R(s) s 3 9s 2 26s 24 C(s)
SOLUTION:
Step 1
Cross-multiplying: s 3

9s 2 26s 24 C (s) 24R(s)
Inverse LT assuming:
zero IC c 9c 26c 24c 24r (a)
Chapter 5 State Space 7
TF2SS
Example 1 (cont.)
Step 2
State variables: x1 c
x2 c (b)
x3 c

Differentiating both sides, and substituting (b) yields

x1 x2
x2 x3 (c)
x3 24 x1 26 x2 9 x3 24r

Chapter 5 State Space 8

TF2SS
Example 1 (cont.)
Since the output c=x1, y c x1 (d)

x1 0 1 0 x1 0
x 0 0 1 x 0 r
2 2
x3 24 26 9 x3 24
x1
y 1 0 0 x2
x3

Chapter 5 State Space 9

Converting SS to TF (SS2TF)
State and Output equations: x Ax Bu
y Cx Du (5)
Taking LT with IC set to zero sX ( s ) AX ( s ) BU ( s )
(6)
Y ( s ) CX ( s ) DU ( s )

Solving for X(s) ( sI A) X ( s) BU ( s)

X ( s) ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) (7)

Substituting (7) into (6) Y ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) DU ( s)

C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D U ( s) (8)
If U(s) and Y(s) are
Y ( s)
scalar quantities T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D (9)
U ( s)
Chapter 5 State Space 10
SS2TF
Example 2
Find the TF, T(s)=Y(s)/U(s), where U(s) is the input and
Y(s) is the output
0 1 0 10
x 0 0 1 x 0 u

1 2 3 0
y 1 0 0x

Chapter 5 State Space 11

SS2TF
Example 2 (cont.)
SOLUTION:
- Determine (sI-A)-1:
s 0 0 0 1 0 s 1 0
( sI A) 0 s 0 0 0 1 0 s 1
0 0 s 1 2 3 1 2 s 3

s 2 3s 2 s3 1

1 s ( s 3) s
adj ( sI A) s (2s 1) s
2
1
( sI A)
det( sI A) s 3 3s 2 2s 1

Chapter 5 State Space 12

SS2TF
Example 2 (cont.)
- Substituting all matrices into
Y ( s)
T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D
U ( s)

yields:
100( s 2 3s 2)
T (s) 3
s 3s 2 2s 1

Chapter 5 State Space 13

Controllability
A test of the ability of the actuator
If an input to a system can be found that takes every state
variable from a desired initial state to a desired final state,
the system is said to be controllable; otherwise it is
uncontrollable
The controllability can be explored from the state equation
When the system matrix is diagonal, it is apparent whether
or not the system is controllable.
Example: a 0 0 1
1

x 0 a2 0 x 1u
0 0 a3 1
Chapter 5 State Space 14
Controllability
a1 0 0 1 a4 0 0 0
x 0 a2 0 x 1u (i) x 0 a5 0 x 1u (iii)
0 0 a3 1 0 0 a6 1
or or
x1 a1 x1 u x1 a4 x1
(ii) x2 a5 x2 u (iv)
x2 a 2 x2 u
x3 a3 x3 u x3 a6 x3 u
Since each equation (ii) is From (iii) and (iv) we see that
independent and decoupled state variable x1 is not
from the rest, the control u controlled by the control u.
affects each of the state Thus uncontrollable
variables. This is
controllability
Chapter 5 State Space 15
Controllability
The Controllability Matrix
To determine controllability or to design state
feedback, a matrix can be derived that must have a
particular property if all state variables are to be
controlled by the plant input, u.
An n-th order plant whose state equation is x Ax Bu
is controllable if the matrix
CM = [B AB A2B An-1B]
is of rank n. CM is the controllability matrix

Chapter 5 State Space 16

Controllability
Example 3
Given: 1 1 0 0
x Ax Bu 0 1 0 x 1u
0 0 2 1

Chapter 5 State Space 17

Controllability
Example 3 (cont)
SOLUTION:
At first, it would appear that the system is uncontrollable because of the
zero in the B matrix. This configuration leads to uncontrollability
only if the poles are real and distinct. In this case, there are
multiple poles at -1
- The controllability matrix, CM:

0 1 2

CM B AB
A2 B 1 1 1
1 2 4

Chapter 5 State Space 18

Controllability
Example 3 (cont)
0 1 2
CM B AB
A2 B 1 1 1
1 2 4
- The rank of CM equals the number of linearly independent rows or
columns
- The rank can be found by finding the highest-order square submatrix
that is nonsingular
- |CM|=-10 thus the 3x3 matrix is nonsingular, with rank of CM=3
- Conclusion: The system is controllable since the rank of CM equals the
system order. Thus, the poles of the system can be placed using state-
variable feedback design

Chapter 5 State Space 19

Observability
A test of the ability of the sensor
If the initial-state vector , x(t0), can be found fron
u(t) and y(t) measured over a finite interval of
time from t0, the system is said to be observable;
otherwise it is unobservable
Observability is the ability to deduce the state
variables from a knowledge of the input, u(t), and
the output, y(t)

Chapter 5 State Space 20

Observability
The Observability Matrix
System represented in other that diagonalized form cannot be reliably
evaluated for observability by inspection
A matrix can be derived that must have a particular property if all state
variables are to be observed at the output
An n-th order plant whose state and output equations are:
x Ax Bu
y Cx
is observable if the matrix C
CA
OM

n 1
CA
is of rank n, where OM is the observability matrix

Chapter 5 State Space 21

Observability
Example 4
Given: 0 1 0
x Ax Bu x u
5 21 / 4 1
y Cx 5 4x
Determine if the system is observable

Chapter 5 State Space 22

Observability
Example 4 (Cont.)
SOLUTION:
- The observability matrix, OM for the system:
C 5 4
OM

CA 20 16
- |OM|=0, thus the observability matrix does not have full
rank, and the system is not observable
- Inspecting the output, we might consider this system as
observable since all states feed the output. Observability by
inspection is valid only for a diagonalized representation of a
system with distinct eigenvalues
Chapter 5 State Space 23
Tutorial
Question 1
Investigate the controllability and observability of
(i)

(ii)

(iii) Y ( s) ( s 2)
G( s)
U ( s) ( s 3)( s 4)
(iv) Obtain the TF given
0 1 0 0
x 0 0 1 x 0 r

3 2 5 10
y 1 0 0x
Chapter 5 State Space 24
TF2SS (Polynomial in numerator)
Find the state-space representation of the transfer
function:
R(s) s 2 7s 2 C(s)
s 3 9s 2 26s 24

s 2 7s 2
s 3 9s 2 26s 24

Chapter 5 State Space 25

TF2SS (Polynomial in numerator)
Step 2: Find the state equations for block containing denominator
x1 0 1 0 x1 0
x 0 0 1 x 0 r
2 2
x3 24 26 9 x3 1
Step 3: Introduce the effect of the block with numerator, where b2=1,
b1=7, b0=2
C ( s ) (b2 s 2 b1s b0 ) X 1 ( s) ( s 2 7 s 2) X 1 ( s)
Taking inverse LT with I.C zero
c x1 7 x1 2x1
But x1 x1
x1 x2
x1 x3
Chapter 5 State Space 26
TF2SS (Polynomial in numerator)
Thus,
y c(t ) b2 x3 b1 x2 b0 x1 x3 7 x2 2 x1

The last box collects the states and generates the

output equation
x1 x1
y b0 b1 b2 x2 2 7 1 x2
x3 x3

Chapter 5 State Space 27

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation

Chapter 5 State Space 28

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation

Chapter 5 State Space 29

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 5

Chapter 5 State Space 30

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 5 (cont.)

Chapter 5 State Space 31

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 5 (cont)

Chapter 5 State Space 32

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 5 (cont)
Noting that
1 (t ) (t ) e At

2et e 2t et e 2t
1 (t ) e At t 2t
2e 2e 2t
e 2e
t

Chapter 5 State Space 33

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 6
Obtain the response of the following system:
x1 0 1 x1 0
x 2 3 x 1u
2 2

Where u(t) is the unit-step response function occuring

at t=0, or u(t)=1(t)

Chapter 5 State Space 34

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 6 (cont)
SOLUTION:
0 1 0
- For this system A ; B
2 3 1

- The response to the unit-step input is then obtained from:

x(t ) e At x(0) A1 (e At I ) Bu
Chapter 5 State Space 35
Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Example 6 (cont)
- Thus,
2e (t ) e 2(t )
t
e (t ) e 2(t ) 0
x(t ) e x(0)
At
( t ) 2 ( t )
1d
0 2e 2e 2(t ) e ( t )
2e 1
OR

e t e 2t x1 (0) e t e 2t
1 1
x1 (t ) 2e t e 2t
x (t ) 2t 2 2
2 2e 2e
t
e 2e x2 (0) e t e 2t
2t
t

- If the initial state is zero, or x(0)=0, then x(t) can be simplified to

x1 (t ) e t e 2t
1 1
x (t ) 2 2
2 e t e 2t

- How about the response of the output y(t)??

Chapter 5 State Space 36
Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Problem 1:
Obtain the response y(t) of the following system:
x1 1 0.5 x1 0.5 x1 (0) 0
x 1 u ,
2 0 x2 0 x2 (0) 0
x1
y 1 0
x2

Where u(t) is the unit-step input occurring at t=0 OR

u(t) = 1(t)
Chapter 5 State Space 37
Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Problem 1 (SOLUTION)
- For this system 1 0.5 0.5
A
0 0
; B
1
- The state transition matrix:
(t ) e At L1[( sI A) 1 ]
1
1 s 1 0.5 1 s 0.5
( sI A)
1 s s 2 s 0.5 1 s 1
s 0.5 0.5 0.5
( s 0.5) 2 0.52 ( s 0.5) 2 0.52

1 s 0. 5 0. 5
( s 0.5) 0.5
2 2
( s 0.5) 0.5
2 2

Chapter 5 State Space 38

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Problem 1 (SOLUTION-cont)
- Therefore, (t ) e At L1[( sI A) 1 ]

s 0.5 0.5 0.5

( s 0.5) 0.5
2 2
( s 0.5) 0.5
2 2
L1[( sI A) 1 ] L1
1 s 0 .5 0.5
( s 0.5) 0.5
2 2
( s 0.5) 0.5
2 2

e 0.5t (cos 0.5t sin 0.5t ) e 0.5t sin 0.5t

0.5t 0.5t
2 e sin 0.5 t e (cos 0 .5 t sin 0.5t )

Chapter 5 State Space 39

Solving The Time-Invariant State
Equation
Problem 1 (SOLUTION-cont)
- Therefore,
e 0.5t sin 0.5t
x(t ) 0.5t
e (cos 0.5t sin 0.5t ) 1

x1
y(t ) 1 0 x1 e 0.5t sin 0.5t
x2

Chapter 5 State Space 40

Steady-State Error Final Value
Theorem
A closed-loop system is represented in state space as:
x Ax Br (10)
y Cx

The LT of the error is: E ( s) R( s) Y ( s) (11)

But Y ( s ) R ( s )T ( s ) where T(s) is the closed-loop TF. Substituting
into (11) yield E ( s) R( s)[1 T ( s)]
Since Y ( s)
T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 BU ( s) D
U ( s)
we obtain
E ( s) R( s)[1 C (sI A) 1 B]

Applying final value theorem

lim sE (s) lim sR(s)[1 C(sI A)1 B] (12)
s 0 s 0

Chapter 5 State Space 41

Steady-State Error Final Value
Theorem
Example 5
Given:
5 1 0 0
A 0 2 1; B 0; C 1 1 0
20 10 1 1

ramp input.

Chapter 5 State Space 42

Steady-State Error Final Value
Theorem
Example 5 (cont)
SOLUTION:
- Substituting A, B and C into (12), we obtain:
s4
e() lim sR ( s)1 3
s 0
s 6 s 2
13 s 20
s 3 6s 2 12s 16
lim sR ( s) 3
s 0
s 6 s 2
13 s 20
- For a unit step input, R(s)=1/s, e()=4/5
- For a unit ramp input, R(s)=1/s2, e()=
- The system behaves like Type 0 system

Chapter 5 State Space 43

Chapter 5 State Space 44