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Honor & Ethics

Ancestral Beliefs
Honor & Ethics

It is the individual
acceptance of a social
ideal of behavior, but also
the judgment passed by
how a certain person
approaches such ideals.
Icelandic (12th 14th century)
Jafnaarmar (man of equity)
A combination of moderate behavior,
political wisdom and self-standing

jafnaarmar (man of inequity)


Any combination of attacks of rage, greed,
capricious behavior.
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All from within a context of belonging to or
being counted part of a collective of some sort.
Village, holding, group of people traveling together,
Chiefdom, etc.
Icelandic
drengskapr (manliness honor) fighting and oration
manndmsmar (man of honor & decent man)
mannsmi (honor recompense) honor-gift money
mannviring (worth honor)Kingly honor-gifts
metnar (honor ambition) Kingly honor land gifts
metor (esteem honor) the giver gaining honor
uppreist (upraise ) from rebellion to honor &
concession
viring (position esteem honor) Kingly title/
position bestowed
yfirlt (favor honor)
Sm mikla (great honor) sometimes monetary
like a Weregild
sm (loss of honor & dishonor) to lose
honor due to a family members actions, deeds, or
someone else triumphing over the family.
heir, vegr, smi and soemd (all meaning honor)
Icelandic
and a few adjectives,
gfugr (noble honorable)
skammlauss (lacking dishonor or shame)
soemiligr (decent honorable)
Vegsamligr (honorable)
Frami (renown)
Gfa (the luck ) Hamingja and tied to the Fylgja/ Fetch

Examples-
smiligastr (dishonorable) by not taking a side in a
discussion or disagreement by not being Friend nor enemy,
it is dishonorable

at ek veita r btr eptir brur inn ea ara sm,


that I will give you compensation for your Brother or
another honor
Brehonic (6th - 8th century)
Basic unit of Law= Tuathe (Too ah-huh)
Aurrad- Tribesperson (or oath bound tribesperson)
Deorad- Outsider
Log n-Enech (Loan In-Ek) Honor/ Face price
Eraic (Air ache) Body Fine for death
Fingal (Feen gul) Kin Slayer
Surety- someone who stands in/ a witness
Oath- verbal and witnessed by a surety
Fintiu (Feen Choo) Kin Land
Kin- All family males back to the Great Grandfather
All Kin are financially responsible for each
other for the last four generations GGF.
Agae Fine/ Conn Fine (Aw guh Feen uh, Cawn )
Wealth-Rank-Good Sense; usually elected
Brehonic
Law of Persons; Nemed- Free- Un Free
Nemed;
Chieftain, King (Ri Ree)
Bo Aire, Cattle Lord or Noble
Hospitaller (Briugu Broy goosee below)*
Cleric, Druid, Priest
Poet, Filidh, Bard
Base Nemed- Physician, Judge, Blacksmith,
Coppersmith, Harpist, Carpenter,
and other lesser Craftsman
Free People
Un Free Cumal (Slave or owned person)

* A Hospitaller is one of the only ways to increase your


Honor Price. Every householder owes hospitality, but
Hospitallers must uphold all requests for hospitality
regardless of duration or extent or frequency. So long as
they continue, they remain in the highest rank of the
Nemed.
Brehonic
Kings Justice Fir Flathemon (Feer Flaw teh-muhn)
Cannot use mallet, spade or axe
Must always be accompanied by a retinue
Must never break any oath
The ability to enforce their will
Must always make correct judgments
Must have no physical disfigurement
Must never break any geasa (Gesh-uh)
Must never show cowardice in battle
A wound in the neck would reduce
his Log n-Enech to the lowest level
unless the wound occurred while
breaking through enemy lines.
Brehonic
Examples;
To every cow its calf, to every book its copy
Potlatch Culture: Potlatch is the giving of gifts
of equality to all appropriate members of the tribe
Once the raid became part of the status system, there
was an inbuilt imperative to intensify. A successful raid
with spoils to distribute provided enhanced status for
the leader so that on the next occasion he would attract
more followers and there would be increased
expectations.
In the Celtic world this would be raids against other
tribes, especially cattle raids. As a Chieftain initiates a
cattle raid, they have warriors joining the raid. After
each successful raid the spoils would be divided. The
next raid more warriors join as there is a promise of
success, the downside is the fact that more cattle has to
be raided. If the chieftain succeeds in raiding enough for
the enlarged group his name and fame grows, as does
the next raiding party.
French Legion of Merit ;
1802 by Emperor Napoleon

Purple Heart;
1782 by President Washington

Purple Heart;
1861 by President Lincoln
Source Documents:

Icelandic Laws(12th century CE)


Egills Saga Egils saga Skalla-Grmssonar
(The saga of Egill, the son of Grmr the bald)
Njals Saga; A critical introduction

Brehonic Laws (6th century CE)


Senchas Mhor Shawn Kus More (Irish)
Hywel Dda Laws High Vell Thuh Laws (Welsh)
Corpus Iuris Hibernici CIH (Latin)
(The Laws of Judgement)
Brehon= anglicized pronunciation of Irish
Brithem