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Learning Objectives

To encourage students to be physically

To illustrate Exercise and its effect on
disease prevention
To provide examples of simple,
moderate intensity physical activity
To encourage regular physical activity
in developing countries with focus on
To encourage physical fitness in people
with disabilities
To build an Olympic Physical activity
and health super course
The Olympic Games This Year
Beijing 2008

Population 14,000,000
Visitors 2-2.5,000,000
Athletes 18,000
Helpers 5,000
Referees 2,500
Volunteers 6,000
Journalists 15,000
What is Physical Activity
Physical activity
Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles
that results in an expenditure of energy
Physical fitness
A measure of a person's ability to perform physical
activities that require endurance, strength, or
Regular physical activity
A pattern of physical activity is regular if activities
are performed in some order
Physical activity is something you do.
Physical fitness is something you
acquire, a characteristic or an attribute
one can achieve by being physically
active. And exercise is structured and
tends to have fitness as its goal"
Spectrum of Physical Activity
and Health
Physically Fit

Physically Active
Differences between Exercise
and Sport
Its a form of physical activity
done primarily to improve
ones health and fitness.
Is complex, institutionalized,
competitive and these very
characteristics works against
moderate and rhythmical
Common Reasons Not To
I dont have the time
I dont like to sweat
Ill look silly
It hurts
I dont know what to do
Its not important
Why Exercise ???
Do you know?
13.5 million people have coronary heart disease.
1.5 million people suffer from a heart attack in a
given year.
250,000 people suffer from hip fractures each year.
Over 60 million people (a third of the population)
are overweight.
50 million people have high blood pressure.
Do you Know that.
Adjusted RR for CVD Mortality by Fitness and % Body Fat

3 Unfit
Lean Normal Obese
Do you Know that.
Adjusted RR for All-Cause Mortality
by Fitness and % Body Fat

1 Fit
lean Normal Obese
<16% 16-24% >24%
Do you know that
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic
proportions in most part of the world
Children are eating more and exercising less.
Time spent watching television or using computers
This lack coupled with poor dietary habits has led
to significant increases in the number of children
with Type II diabetes and predisposition to
hypertension, coronary artery disease and others
All of these can be Prevented by
Regular Physical Activity !!!
How Physical Activity Impacts Health

Helps control weight.

Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety.
Helps build and maintain healthy bones,
muscles, and joints.
Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer.
Helps reduce blood pressure in people who
already have high blood pressure.
Causes the development of new blood vessels in
the heart and other muscles.
Enlarges the arteries that supply blood to the
Health Risk of Physical Inactivity

Leading causes of disease and disability associated

with physical inactivity
1. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
2. Stroke
3. Obesity
4. Type II Diabetes
5. Hypertension
6. Colorectal cancer
7. Stress and Anxiety
8. Osteo-arthritis
9. Osteoporosis
10. Low back pain
What Can Exercise do for You?

Reduce the risk of the three leading causes of death: Heart

Disease, stroke, and cancer
Control or prevent development of Disease

Enhance Mental Abilities

Improve Sleeping Habits and Increase Energy Levels

Lift Depression and Help Manage Stress

Control Weight, improving self-image, appearance and health

Exercise & Cardiovascular Disease
Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for CVD,
according to the American Heart Association
Exercise reduces Blood Pressure
High blood pressure (above 140/90) is the main
cause of Heart Attack and Stroke
Exercise prevents Atherosclerosis (clogged
Exercise reduces cholesterol plaques that clog
arteries and can lead to stroke and heart attack
Exercise and Cancer
The Basics
Exercise helps to prevent obesity, a
major risk factor for several types of
Exercise enhances immune function
Exercise activates antioxidant
enzymes that protect cells from free
radical damage
Exercise and Diabetes
Increase insulin sensitivity

Control blood glucose

Control Weight/Lower body fat

Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

Exercise and Depression
Exercise can help prevent depression. In fact, recent
studies have shown that exercise was found to be
just as effective (despite a slower initial response) as
antidepressant medication for treatment of
Exercise reduces health problems , making you feel
Exercise helps you sleep better
Exercise controls weight, enhancing self-esteem
Exercise and Your Mind
Short-term benefits:
Boost alertness (possibly by triggering the release of
epinephrine and nor epinephrine)
Improve memory
Improve intellectual function
Spark creativity

Long-term benefits:
Exercise has been shown to slow and even reverse age-
related decline in mental function and loss of short-
term memory
Opportunities for Physical Activity

At work
For transport
In domestic duties
In leisure time

The majority of people do very little or no physical

activity in any of these domains
Getting Started.Setting Goals
What will motivate you?
Think about your reasons for exercising
Are your goals important enough to keep
you motivated long-term?
Think short-term and long-term
How will you benefit from your fitness
plan day-to-day?
In 1 year? In 5 years? In 10 years?
Before You Start...
If you are over 40 or have health
problems (heart disease, high blood
pressure, diabetes, obesity, muscle or
joint problems) see a physician
before beginning exercise
Be informed
Learn as much as you can about exercise
by reading and talking to other people
Learn safety precautions before you do
any exercise
Fitness Equipment / Safety
Fitness Equipment / Safety
Buy Appropriate SHOES
Wear Comfortable Clothing
Run and Walk with a Friend
More fun, safer, with a physical and mental
support system
Night Time: stay to the well lit areas
Select activities that are fun .. To
Get Moving!
Components of an exercise
Aerobic Activity
Strength Training
Flexibility Training

Use an exercise log to help you

plan and keep track of your
exercise program
Aerobic Activity
Continuous movement that uses big muscle
groups and is performed at an intensity that
causes your heart, lungs, and vascular system
to work harder than at rest
Cardio respiratory Fitness is built through
aerobic exercise
Aerobic exercise conditions and strengthens
our heart, respiratory system, muscles, and
immune system
Types of Aerobic Exercise
Outdoor Activities Indoor Activities
Walking Treadmill machine
Jogging/running Stair climbing
Bicycling machine
Swimming Stationary bike
Basketball Elliptical trainer
Soccer Rowing machine
Jumping Rope Aerobics, boxing...
Strength Training

Muscle work against resistance that improves
strength and endurance
Strength allows us to move, and endurance allows us to
perform work over time
Muscles = 40% of our lean body mass
Use it or lose it: unused muscle disappears
Types of Strength Training

Free Weights
use of dumbbells and/or bars with weights on the ends
involves balance and coordination; useful for enhancing
function in daily activities and recreational sports
Bonuses: convenient, cheap, and provides a wide variety
of exercises that work several muscle groups together
Your body, your weight
The most convenient form of resistance exercise
Pushups, pull-ups,. Lunges, squats.
Flexibility Training
Flexibility = The ability to move a joint through its
range of motion
We lose flexibility with disuse and aging
Decreased chance of muscular injury, soreness, and
Helps prevent and reduce lower back pain
Improves joint health (tight muscles stress our joints)
Activities stretching, yoga, pilates, tai chi
How Much and How Hard?
Frequency: 3-5 days per week
Aerobic exercise: a minimum if 3 days a week are
necessary to reach most exercise goals and minimize
health benefits
Strength training: a minimum of 2 days per week
Flexibility training: a minimum of 3-5 days per week
Aerobic: 20-60 minutes of continuous aerobic activity
Strength: 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions
Stretching: Stretch all muscle groups and hold positions
for 10-30 seconds
Timing Questions
What time of day is best?
Choose the most convenient time for your schedule
Choose a regular time--the same time every day
Timing may depend on the activity you choose
Can I eat before exercise?
It is best not to eat a meal for 2 hours beforehand
Be sure to drink plenty of water before and during
Should I exercise when Im sick?
No, especially if you have a fever
Exercise for people with special needs
People with disabilities are less likely to
engage in regular moderate physical
activity than people without disabilities,
yet they have similar needs to promote
their health and prevent unnecessary
Exercise is for everyone!!!!!!!
Individuals who have physical
disabilities or chronic, disabling
conditions such as arthritis can improve
muscle stamina and strength with
regular physical activity
Exercise for people with special needs
"You don't stop exercising because you grow old.
You grow old because you stop exercising
People with disabilities should first consult
a physician before beginning a program
of physical activity to which they are
Provide community-based programs to
meet the needs of persons with disabilities.
Ensure that environments and facilities
conducive to being physically active are
available and accessible to people with
disabilities, such as offering safe,
accessible, and attractive trails for
bicycling, walking, and wheelchair
Exercise for Women in developing
There has been several studies which
have shown that less emphasis is
given to exercise especially in women
The reasons are several and most
important one is awareness.
Women sports are not encouraged
in most of developing countries
There is stigma that women should
not be involved in outdoor sports
Exercise is for everyone
There is need for awareness for physical
fitness in developing countries
Exercise is not only for men but for everyone
With commitment, opportunities can be
Even shopping malls provide opportunities for
fitness walking
Health Risks of Physical Activity
Most musculo-skeletal injuries sustained during
physical activity are likely to be preventable

Injuries sustained during competitive sports have

been shown to increase the risk of developing

Serious cardiac events can occur with physical

The overall benefit of regular physical activity is
lower all-cause mortality
Prevention Caring for Injuries
exercise regularly Rest: stop immediately
gradually increase Ice: apply immediately
intensity and repeat every few
rest between sessions hours for 15-20 minutes
warm-up and cool down Compress: wrap injured
stay flexible area with elastic bandage
dont exercise when sick Elevation: raise injured
area above heart
dont exercise when
muscles are fatigued and After 2 days, apply heat if
straining there is no swelling
know proper form for Gradually ease back into
any activity you do activity when pain is gone
Physical inactivity is one of the top 10 leading
causes of death and disability in the
developed world
Exercise improves our body and minds
Even moderate exercise has many health
It is important to set fitness goals that are
realistic and meaningful for you
It takes time to make fitness part of a lifestyle,
and we will all have ups and downs in
following our exercise programs
Exercise feels good!
The first wealth is health."