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Management and Leadership

VATL Meeting
What is Management?
McLaughlin (1994) says that:
Management can be defined as the effective utilization of
resources (both human and material) to achieve an
organizations objectives. (p.3)
Hunter (1991) In some ways the task of supervising is
more demanding than that of more senior management.
The managing role can be described under five headings
[]. These are:
The Management Process
Management seen as a set of circles of Influence

Managing External Relationships

Managing the Organizational

Manage the Team

Management Theories
Weber: Bureaucratic Model of Management: Chain
of Command
Taylor: Scientific management: time and motion
Mayo: Norms powerful control over workers
Maslow: Needs Hierarchy
McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y
Hertzberg: Hygiene or Motivation theories
Likert: Human behavior/motivation and leadership
style associations.
Leadership: A Facet of Management
Managers think incrementally
Leaders think radically
Managers do things right, while
Leaders do the right thing (Pascale)
Managers follow the rules; Leaders follow their intuition
Leaders stand out by being different.
They question assumptions and are suspicious of tradition.
They seek out truth and make decisions based on fact not
Leaders are observant and sensitive people. They know
their team and develop mutual confidence within it (Fenton)
Management Vs Leadership
Management Vs Leadership

Coping with
Coping with change

Planning and
Setting a Direction

Organizing and
Staffing Aligning People

Controlling and
Motivating People
Problem solving

Replacement Development of
Planning Potential leaders
Subject Leader Manager
Essence Change Stability
Focus Leading people Managing work
Have Followers Subordinates
Horizon Long-term Short-term
Seeks Vision Objectives
Approach Sets direction Plans detail
Decision Facilitates Makes
Power Personal charisma Formal authority
Appeal to Heart Head
Energy Passion Control
Dynamic Proactive Reactive
Persuasion Sell Tell
Rules Breaks Makes
Likes Striving Action
Risks Takes Minimizes
Conflict Uses Avoids
Direction New roads Existing roads
Credit Gives Takes
Blame Takes Blames
Comparison of three leadership styles
Boss-centered Subordinate-centered
Leadership leadership

Use of authority
By the manager
Area of freedom
For subordinates

Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager

makes sells presents ideas presents presents defines limits, permits
decision and decision and invites tentative problem, get asks groups subordinates
announces it questions decision suggestions, to make to function
subject to makes decision within limits
change decision defined by

Range of behaviour

Denial Commitment

Past Future

Resistance Exploration
Factors Needed for Successful
What happens if some or one of the steps are missing?

1. No Pressure for Change= Bottom of the box

Clear shared Capacity Actionable Model the Reinforce & Evaluate Bottom of
Vision for first steps way Solidify & the Box
Change Change Improve

2. No Shared Vision=A quick start that fizzles

Evaluate Quick
Pressure for Capacity Actionable Model the Reinforce &
& start that
Change for first steps way Solidify
Improve fizzles
Change Change

3. No Capacity for Change= Anxiety and frustration

Evaluate Anxiety
Pressure for Clear shared Actionable Model the Reinforce &
& &
Change Vision first steps way Solidify
Improve frustratio
4. No Actionable first steps, plans, etc.= Haphazard efforts, false starts

Pressure for Clear shared Capacity Model the Reinforce & Evaluate Haphazard
change Vision for way Solidify & efforts, false
Change Change Improve starts

5. No modeling or leading the way= Cynicism and distress

Evaluate Cynicism
Actionable Reinforce &
& &
Pressure for Capacity first steps Solidify
Clear shared Improve Distrust
Change for Change

6. Lack of Reinforcing and solidification of change= Staff go back to old ways

Back to
Evaluate old ways
Pressure for Clear shared Capacity Actionable Model the &
Change Vision for first steps way Improve

7. No evaluation or improvement of products or processes Skepticism and stagnation

Pressure for Clear shared Capacity Actionable Model the Reinforce & & Cynical
Change Vision for first steps way Solidify
Change Change

(Adapted from the HR Monthly March 1998 p. 22)

Heraclities 535-475 BC notes that there is nothing permanent except
Anatole France all changes, even longed for change have their
melancholy, for what we leave behind us is part of ourselves; we must
die one life before we can enter another
Alfred North Whitehead Accept change and get stability -- resistance
produces chaos. He suggests that the art of progress is to preserve
order amid change and to pressure change among order.
"The past is gone; the present is full of confusion; and the future scares
the hell out of me" (D.L. Stein).

Advanced Library and Cultural Studies Project2008.doc

Adoption of Change
Change is adopted at different rates:

# of
People Bell curve

Innovators Early Early Late Late Die

Adopters Majority Majority Adopters Hards
Rate of Change
Percentage of people adopting a change
20% unstoppable

5% embedded


When 5% of the people adopt the change it is said to be embedded.

When 20% of staff adopt the change it is said to be unstoppable.
Self Help Exercise 24 Change Leadership indicators

Instructions: Tick or cross the Yes or No boxes to the following statements

Yes No Change Leadership indicators

More employee involvement at all levels of decision making?

Increased emphasis on meaningful work?
More responsibility and accountability for individual employees?
Fewer managers and more participation in the form of self-managing teams?
A flatter organisational structure?
People responsible for their own skill development.
A focus on human capital demonstrated by increases in training, retraining
An atmosphere that encourages mutual respect and trust
A need for continuous learning
An increase in the protection of employee rights.
Programs that support balancing work and family life.
Increased encouragement of learning and creativity away from the workplace
Better recognition and reward for superior performance? .
Smaller managerial groups
Greater diversity in the workplace
Continuous need for workers with specialised skills.(Adapted from Scott, p. 7).
Tick the following checklist to identify problems which arose from your manager/you!

Problem 1 Ignoring Resistance Yes No Solution

Ignoring or resisting resistance: Invite comments;
Denying resistance makes it go deeper. Listening and good communication
Blame, everyone wants to blame you.
Everyone is angry at you.

Problem 2 Jumping Ahead Yes No Solution

Jumping to team building: The group needs a chance to complain
when a group is in denial, and assess their loss before beginning
resistance or early moments of exploration to rebuild trust and co-operation

Problem 3. Pushing Productivity Yes No Solution

The Draino approach: pushing productivity Work on team building and support
too soon. If you demand it you will get it. Try to give team a chance to rebuild
Employees respond in the short term skills, trial and test new products or
but plateau and then decrease their productivity. procedures
The danger is of a clogged organisation
where everything breaks down.

Problem 4. Scroogs-itis. Yes No Solution

focus is primarily on economic factors; Within your ability as a manager
people hear through their wallets provide direct incentives
not through their ears. ensure financial security
* increase earning potential
* provide cost/benefit analysis
Problem 5: Buried Treasures: Yes No Solution
Here the benefits are not spelled out. Within your ability as a manager
Those affected are not involved. clarify specific and personal benefits
* involve those affected in planning

Problem 6: Ugly Baby syndrome: Yes No Solution

Here people have worked hard to develop Avoid negative comments
their way of doing something and feel like Recognize the past
you are criticizing their little baby. Focus on enhancements
* Get direct involvement

Problem 7: Defensive fence building: Yes No Solution

Characteristics, people put up a fence Stroke egos
around their egos because they feel incompetent. Demonstrate how direct
* involvement is necessary
* ask for advice and help from staff

Problem 8: Comfortable habits: Yes No Solution

Characteristics, people feel safe, secure Find good in the past and present ways
and comfortable in what they do. focus on enhancement
They take on the attitude "not to upset provide a taste-test to loosen attitudes
the apple cart". evaluate impacts
relate change to organisational goals
(Adapted from Chang, p. 95-99).
McGowan, John, Miller, Paul, Management vs Leadership in the School Adnimistrator, 2001
The difference between management and leadership
Leadership vs management in
The difference between leadership and management