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Systems

AUTOMATIC

PROCESS

CONTROL

DEFINITION

characteristic that is important to a living organism

Example:

natural regulation in humans include body

temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate

Process Control Variables

DISTURBACES

MANIPULATED CONTROLLED

VARIABLES PROCESS VARIABLES

Element of process control

system is to maintain the

liquid level at some

prescribed height (H)

above the bottom of the tank

Element of process control

1-Process

2-Measurement

3-Evaluation

4-Control

General Requirements of a

Control System

The primary requirement of a control system is that it be reasonably stable.

1. SYSTEM ERROR

The system error is the difference between the value of

the controlled variable set point and the value of the

process variable maintained by the system

e(t) = PV(t) SP(t)

SYSTEM RESPONSE

-under damped (cyclic response)

-damped.

Intuitive Approach to Process

Control Concepts

The practice of process control arose long

before the theory or analytical methods

underlying it were developed. Processes

and controllers were designed using

empirical methods that were based on

intuition (feel) and extensive process

experience. Most of the reasoning involved

was nonmathematical. This approach was

unscientific trial and error, but it was a

successful control method.

30 November 2017 By Eng. Hesham A. Selim

Intuitive Approach to Process Control Concepts

A further process requirement is that the level of the tank must

neither overflow nor fall so low that it exposes the heater coils.

On/Off Control

expressed mathematically as follows:

e = PV SP

Proportional Control

Proportional Control (continue)

V = Kce + m

where

V = is the control valve position

Kc = is the adjustable proportional gain of a typical process

controller

m = is a constant, which is the position of the control valve when

the system error (e) is zero.

Proportional control can be illustrated by using the three graphs

in Figure 1-12 and setting the proportional constant to three

different values (i.e., Kc = 1, Kc <1, and Kc >1).

Proportional Control (continue)

Proportional Control (continue)

This definition can be related to proportional gain Kc by

PB=(1/Kc) .100

Proportional Control (continue)

Proportional & Integral

Control

On what basis should the manual reset

be automated?

Proportional & integral Control (continue)

After the initial upset the reset action returns the error to zero and there is no offset.

Recognizing that the reset action moves the control valve at a rate proportional

to error, this control mode is described mathematically as follows:

where

dV/dt = the derivative of the valve position

with respect to time (t)

Ki = an adjustable constant

Proportional & integral Control (continue)

Valve equations:-

Proportional & integral Control (continue)

mentioning. If a control loop is using PI

control, the possibility exists with the

integral (reset) mode that the controller

will continue to integrate and change the

output even outside the operating range of

the controller. This condition is called

reset windup.

For example, the heat exchanger

Proportional & integral Control (continue)

Reset windup control

Proportional& Derivative

(PD) Control

Proportional-Integral-

Derivative Control

-Deciding which control action (i.e., PD, PID, etc.) should be used in a control

system will depend on the characteristics of the process being controlled.

-By understanding these concepts you will be better able to select the proper

control action type for effective control.

Table 1-1. Guidelines for

Selecting Controller Modes

What Is Good Control?

Purpose Of Automatic Control

Single-loop Feedback Control

Process Controllers

Time Elements of a Feedback Loop

Sensor Time Response

Types of Control

Combinations of Control Functions

Tuning Control Loops

Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Methods

Open Loop Method I.E Process Reaction Curve Method :

Advanced Control Loops

Purpose Of Automatic Control

to provide a means by which any

process operating condition within a

production system can be maintained

in a stable and consistent manner.

Single-loop Feedback

Control

In a feedback control

loop, the variable to be

manipulated is

measured. This

measured process value

(PV) is then compared

with a set point (SP) to

generate an error signal

(e = PV - SP).

Process Controllers

There are three types of

controllersmechanical,

pneumatic, and electronic

and they all serve the same

function.

The four common controller

functions are proportional,

proportional plus integral (PI),

proportional plus derivative (PD),

and proportional plus integral

plus derivative (PID).

Single-loop Feedback

Control

same units

Time Elements of a Feedback

Loop

combination of the responses of the sensor, the

transmitter, the controller, the final control

element, and the process.

it is necessary to understand the concept of

time delays or lags in process control

systems.

Time Lags

any relationship in which some result

happens after some cause.

We will start our discussion of time

response and time lag with sensor time

response.

Sensor Time Response

where

mi = the initial sensor output

measurement

mf = the final sensor output

value

= the sensor time constant

If mi=0

Sensor Time Response

(continue)

If we wish to find the value of the output exactly

seconds after a sudden change occurs, then

Thus, we see that one time constant (1)

represents the time at which the output value

has changed by 63.2 percent of the total

change. If we solve the Equation for time equal

to 5 or five time constants, we find that

This means that the sensor reaches 99.3 percent

of its final value after five time constants

Sensor Time Response

The following example illustrates a

typical sensor response application.

The first-order lag is the most common

type of time element encounteredin

process control

Sensor Time Response (continue)

because the output lags behind the input, and the

differential equation for the system shown in

Figure is a linear first-order differential equation.

Laplace transform method

Response of a first-order

system to step

Dead Time Lag

td = t 1 - to .

In this process, the maximum rate of change for the output does not occur

at time zero (to) but at some later time (t1). This is called dead time in

process control:

During dead time, there is no process response and

therefore no information available to initiate corrective action.

Dead Time Lag(continue)

EXAMPLE

Problem: Determine the dead time for the process shown in Figure 1-9 if the

temperature detector is located 50 meters from the heat exchanger and the

velocity of the process fluid in the discharge pipe is 10 m/s.

Solution: The dead time is given by td = D/v. Since D = 50 m and v = 10 m/s

Types of Control

Two-step action,

Proportional action,

Integral action,

Derivative action.

Combinations of Control Functions

proportional plus integral (P + I),

proportional plus derivative (P + D),

proportional plus integral plus derivative (P + I + D).

Deciding which control action (i.e., PD, PID, etc.) should be used in

a control system will depend on the characteristics of the process

being controlled

Guidelines for Selecting Controller

Modes

tuning a PID controller:

1-The characteristics of the process,

2-The selection of controller modes,

3-The performance criteria of the control loop

Tuning Control Loops

What Is Good Control?

the system's response curve has an amplitude ratio or decay ratio of one-quarter.

A decay ratio of one-quarter means that the ratio of the overshoot of the first

peak in the process response curve to the overshoot of the second peak

is four to one

What Is Good Control?

In some cases, it is important to tune the

system so that there is no overshoot; in other

cases, a slow and smooth response is

desired; some cases warrant fast response

and significant oscillations are no problem,

etc. The point is you must determine what

control is good for each specific loop.

The Tuning Concept

The feedback controller is only one

piece of hardware in the entire loop;

there are many other hardware items

connected to form the balance of the

loop. For the purposes of adjusting

the feedback controller, it is

convenient and sufficient to view

everything else

The Tuning Concept

why controllers cannot be preset at the factory but.

instead, must be individually tuned for individual

loops.

Each of the individual blocks around the feedback

loop represents an algebraic or differential

equation, i.e., it represents a mathematical

statement for that particular piece of hardware

Since all of these blocks are coupled together, all

of these equations represent a simultaneous set

of mathematical equations. If you are able to

determine what you think good control is.

Advanced Control Loops

Cascade Control Loops

Ratio Control Loops

Override Control

Cascade Control Loops

the output from one controller

, the master, is the set point for

another controller commonly

referred to as the slave.

The master will have an independent

plant measurement.

Ratio Control Loops

ratio is maintained between two or more variables.

in which two or more streams must be mixed together

continuously to maintain a steady composition in the resulting mixture

Override Control

Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

Methods

ultimate gain or sensitivity (Su).

The period of these sustained oscillations

is called the ultimate period (Pu).

Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

Methods

P CONTROL

Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

Methods

EXAMPLE

Problem: The Ziegler-Nichols ultimate method was used to determine an

ultimate sensitivity of 0.3 psi/ft and an ultimate period of 1 min for a level

control loop. Determine the PID controller settings that are needed for good

control.

Solution: Using the equations for PID control,

OPEN LOOP METHOD

i.e Process Reaction Curve Method

OPEN LOOP METHOD

i.e Process Reaction Curve Method

Thank you.

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