This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Fay

**General Chemistry: Atoms First Chapter 9 Gases: Their Properties and Behavior
**

Lecture Notes

Alan D. Earhart Southeast Community College • Lincoln, NE

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Gases and Gas Pressure

Chapter 9/2

**Gases and Gas Pressure
**

Force Pressure: Unit area Conversions 1 atm = 760 mm Hg (exact) 1 torr = 1 mm Hg 1 bar = 1 x 105 Pa 1 atm = 101 325 Pa (exact) (exact)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/5

**The Gas Laws
**

Ideal Gas: A gas whose behavior follows the gas laws exactly. The physical properties of a gas can be defined by four variables: P T V n pressure temperature volume number of moles

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chapter 9/7

**The Gas Laws
**

Boyle’s Law 1 V (constant n and T) P

PV = k

Chapter 9/8

**The Gas Laws
**

Boyle’s Law

**Pinitial Vinitial = Pfinal Vfinal
**

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chapter 9/9

**The Gas Laws
**

Charles’ Law V T (constant n and P)

V T

=k

Chapter 9/10

**The Gas Laws
**

Charles’ Law

Vinitial Tinitial

=

Vfinal Tfinal

Chapter 9/11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

**The Gas Laws
**

Avogadro’s Law Vn (constant T and P) V n Vinitial ninitial =k = Vfinal nfinal

Chapter 9/12

**The Gas Laws
**

Summary

Boyle’s Law: Pinitial Vinitial = Pfinal Vfinal Vinitial Tinitial Vinitial ninitial = Vfinal Tfinal Vfinal nfinal

Charles’ Law:

Avogadro’s Law:

=

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/13

The Ideal Gas Law

Is there a mathematical relationship between P, V, n, and T for an ideal gas?

Chapter 9/14

**The Ideal Gas Law
**

Boyle’s Law: PV = nRT = k V T V n nR P RT P (n and T are constant)

Charles’ Law:

=

=k

(n and T are constant)

Avogadro’s Law:

=

=k

(n and T are constant)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/15

**The Ideal Gas Law
**

Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT R is the gas constant and is the same for all gases. L atm R = 0.082058 K mol Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) for Gases T = 0 °C (273.15 K) P = 1 atm

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/16

**The Ideal Gas Law
**

What is the volume of 1 mol of gas at STP?

V=

nRT P

L atm (1 mol) 0.082058 (273.15 K) K mol = (1 atm) = 22.414 L

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/17

**Stoichiometric Relationships with Gases
**

The reaction used in the deployment of automobile airbags is the high-temperature decomposition of sodium azide, NaN3, to produce N2 gas. How many liters of N2 at 1.15 atm and 30.0 °C are produced by decomposition of 45.0 g NaN3? 2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/19

**Stoichiometric Relationships with Gases
**

2NaN3(s) Moles of N2 produced: 45.0 g NaN3 x 1 mol NaN3 65.0 g NaN3 x 3 mol N2 2 mol NaN3 = 1.04 mol N2 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)

**Volume of N2 produced: L atm (1.04 mol) 0.082058 (303.2 K) K mol = (1.15 atm)
**

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

V=

nRT P

= 22.5 L

Chapter 9/20

**Partial Pressure and Dalton’s Law
**

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases in a container at constant V and T is equal to the sum of the pressures of each individual gas in the container. Ptotal = P1 + P2 + … + PN Mole Fraction (X) = Moles of component Total moles in mixture ni ntotal or Xi = Pi Ptotal

Chapter 9/21

Xi =

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

**The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
**

1. A gas consists of tiny particles, either atoms or molecules, moving about at random. 2. The volume of the particles themselves is negligible compared with the total volume of the gas; most of the volume of a gas is empty space. 3. The gas particles act independently of one another; there are no attractive or repulsive forces between particles. 4. Collisions of the gas particles, either with other particles or with the walls of a container, are elastic (constant temperature). 5. The average kinetic energy of the gas particles is proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the sample.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chapter 9/22

**The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
**

molar mass average speed

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/24

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

Chapter 9/25

Graham’s Law: Diffusion and Effusion of Gases

**Graham’s Law: Diffusion and Effusion of Gases
**

Graham’s Law: Rate 1 m

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/27

**The Behavior of Real Gases
**

The volume of a real gas is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law.

**The Behavior of Real Gases
**

Attractive forces between particles become more important at higher pressures.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/29

**The Behavior of Real Gases
**

van der Waals equation Correction for intermolecular attractions. an2 P+ 2 V V - n b = nRT Correction for molecular volume.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 9/30

The Earth’s Atmosphere

Chapter 9/31

Chapter 9/32

The Earth’s Atmosphere

- Prelab Alum
- Recycling Aluminum Chemically FY09
- HIST1301_ARE1
- English1302Paper#10
- Daddy Article Scholarly Reading
- English 1302 Response Prompts
- Daddy by Sylvia Plath
- Heart of Darkness Quiz 1
- Heart of Darkness Quiz 1
- English 1302 Weekly Responses 0
- English 1302 Lab Turn in Sheet
- Power Point Final Presentation
- Midterm%20Study%20Guide
- CAREER%20SEARCH%20ASSIGNMENT
- TheArgumentEssayComponentsSCC%5b1%5d
- AchalaArgumentPPT
- Cause and Effect
- Ch04 Lecture
- Ch05 Lecture
- Comparison Essay Outline
- ComparativeEssayAssignment-S40
- ch03-final-fix
- Ch03 Final Fix
- English Lab Worksheet
- AchalaSyllabusCalenderFall2010S40

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Ch07 Final
- Ch02 Final Fix
- Ch04 Lecture
- Ch06 Final
- Ch05 Final Fix
- Ch01 Final
- Ch08 Final Fix
- Avogadro
- thermodynamics
- Main ISM Ch07
- Pertemuan-5
- 1 Wiki Phys Gas Constant
- Study Guide Gas Laws
- Ch05_Lecture (2016-2017) (2)
- Pertemuan-5
- Gas (1)
- chm3410hwk01-soln.249211458
- P v n R T Notes Scott
- Nchapter1
- 6_PP-412 Propiedades de los gases ideales.pdf
- Gas Laws Sec 5
- Resolucion de Los Probles de Chapter 5
- Chapter 10
- Basic rules and laws of science for food technology
- Ideal Gas Law
- thermodynamic
- Chapter 10 Properties of Gases.ppt
- 93232171-Chapter-1a
- Accelerated Chemistry - Chapter 12 Notes Molec Gases (Teacher)
- Thermodynamics Clonk
- Ch09 Final Fix