UNIT I Power Semiconductor Devices

Introduction
‡ What are Power Semiconductor Devices (PSD)? They are devices used as switches or rectifiers in power electronic circuits

‡

What is the difference of PSD and low-power semiconductor device?  Large voltage in the off state  High current capability in the on state
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Classification

Fig. 1. The power semiconductor devices family
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Important Parameters ‡ ‡ Breakdown voltage. On-resistance. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS ‡ ‡ . Rise and fall times for switching between on and off states. Trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance. Safe-operating area.

Power MOSFET: Structure Power MOSFET has much higher current handling capability in ampere range and drain to source blocking voltage(50-100V) than other MOSFETs.2.Repetitive pattern of the cells structure in power MOSFET EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . Fig.

3. where RCH L ! W QnCox (VGS  VT ) Fig.Power MOSFET: R-V Characteristics An important parameter of a power MOSFET is on resistance: Ron ! RS  RCH  RD . EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . Typical RDS versus ID characteristics of a MOSFET.

4 (a) The basic four-layer pnpn structure. (b) Two two-transistor equivalent circuit. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .Thyristor: Structure ‡ Thyristor is a general class of a four-layer pnpn semiconducting device. Fig.

Thyristor: I-V Characteristics Three States:  Reverse Blocking  Forward Blocking  Forward Conducting Fig. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .5 The current-voltage characteristics of the pnpn device.

Blenders. Mixers. Air conditioners and Heaters EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . stereo.Applications Power semiconductor devices have widespread applications:  Automotive Alternator. Regulator. Ignition. stereo tape  Entertainment Power supplies. radio and television  Appliance Drill motors.

they have a rating of 1200V / 1500A with switching frequencies ranging from 1KHz to 20KHz.Thyristors ‡ Most important type of power semiconductor device. ‡ Have the highest power handling capability. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . ‡ Used as a latching switch that can be turned on by the control terminal but cannot be turned off by the gate.‡ Is inherently a slow switching device compared to BJT or MOSFET.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO). DIAC. TRIAC.Different types of Thyristors ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR).

SCR Symbol of Silicon Controlled Rectifier EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Structure Gate Cathode n J3 J2 + 10 19 cm -3 17 -3 n 10 cm + 10 19 cm -3 a a 10Qm 30-100Qm 50-1000 Qm 30-50Qm p - n J1 ± 10 10 13 -5 x 10 cm -3 -3 14 cm -3 a a p p + 17 19 10 cm Anode EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Device Operation Simplified model of a thyristor EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

V-I Characteristics EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Effects of gate current EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Two Transistor Model of SCR   EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

E ! E1 . I C ! I C1 .Considering N transistor o the equivalent circuit. I B ! I B1 @ I B1 ! I A . I CBO ! I CBO1 . I E 1 ! I A .

1  E1  I CBO1    .

1 EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

I B ! I B2 .Considering P transistor of the equivalent circuit. I C ! I C2 . I E2 ! I K ! I A  I G I C2 ! E 2 I k  I CBO2 I C2 ! E 2 .

I A  I G  I CBO2    .

2 EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

e see that @ I C2 ! I B1   IA ! E 2 I g  I CBO1  I CBO 2 1  .From the equivalent circuit.

E1  E 2 EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Case 1: When I g ! 0 IA ! I CBO1  I CBO2 1  .

E1  E 2 E 2 I g  I CBO1  I CBO 2 1  .

E1  E 2 Case 2: When I G { 0 IA ! EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Turn-on Characteristics ton ! td  tr EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

V AK C q IA A de urre begi s de rease C Re ua i very di d Re bi a i q=devi e ff i ff i e e rr q gr = ir ui EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS ¤ £ ¥ ¢ ¡   ¥ Turn-off Characteristi c .

Light. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .Methods of Thyristor Turn-on ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Thermal Turn-on. High Voltage. dv/dt. Gate Current.

Reverse-conducting Thyristors (RCTs). Bidirectional triode Thyristors (TRIACs). EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . Gate-turn-off Thyristors (GTOs).Thyristor Types ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Phase-control Thyristors (SCR¶s). Fast-switching Thyristors (SCR¶s).

‡ Static induction Thyristors (SITHs). ‡ Light-activated silicon-controlled rectifiers (LASCRs). ‡ FET controlled Thyristors (FET-CTHs). ‡ MOS controlled Thyristors (MCTs). EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

‡ Commutation is natural commutation ‡ On state voltage drop is 1. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . ‡ Used for low switching frequency. ‡ The turn-off time tq is in the order of 50 to 100Qsec.15V for a 600V device.Phase Control Thyristor ‡ These are converter thyristors.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .‡ They use amplifying gate thyristor.

7V for 2200A. 1800V thyristor. ‡ High dv/dt and high di/dt rating. On-state voltage drop of typically 1. Used for high speed switching applications. Turn-off time tq in the range of 5 to 50Qsec.Fast Switching Thyristors ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Also called inverter thyristors. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Bidirectional Triode Thyristors (TRIAC) EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

Gate Positive EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .Mode-I Operation MT (+) 2 P1 N1 Ig P2 N2 MT1 () G (+) Ig V MT2 Positive.

Gate Negative I EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .Mode-II Operation (+) 2 P1 I N1 P2 N3 G N2 1 () MT2 Positive.

Gate Positive EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .Mode-III Operation T 2 () 4 P1 1 P2 2 T1 ( ) ( ) Ig MT2 Negative.

Gate Negative (-) Ig EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .Mode-IV Operation 2 () 4 P1 1 P2 3 1( ) MT2 Negative.

Triac Characteristics EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .BJT structure heavily doped ~ 10^15 provides the carriers lightly doped ~ 10^8 lightly doped ~ 10^6 note: this is a current of electrons (npn case) and so the conventional current flows from collector to emitter.

BJT characteristics EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

BJT characteristics EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

BJT modes of operation Mode Cutoff Forward active Reverse active Saturation EBJ Reverse Forward Reverse Forward EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS CBJ Reverse Reverse Forward Forward .

Saturation: With both junctions forward-biased. Reverse-active (or inverse-active or inverted): By reversing the biasing conditions of the forward-active region. the emitter and collector regions switch roles. Since most BJTs are designed to maximise current gain in forward-active mode.BJT modes of operation Cutoff: In cutoff. There is very little current flow. Most bipolar transistors are designed to afford the greatest common-emitter current gain. but many times larger. This transistor mode is seldom used. the collector-emitter current is approximately proportional to the base current. This mode corresponds to a logical "on". which corresponds to a logical "off". The reverse bias breakdown voltage to the base may be an order of magnitude lower in this region. active): The emitter-base junction is forward biased and the base-collector junction is reverse biased. the f in inverted mode is several times smaller. or a closed switch. both junctions reverse biased. or an open switch. a BJT is in saturation mode and facilitates current conduction from the emitter to the collector. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . If this is the case. f in forward-active mode. Forward-active (or simply. a bipolar transistor goes into reverse-active mode. In this mode. for small base current variations.

BJT structure (active)

current of electrons for npn transistor ± conventional current flows from collector to emitter.

IE E VBE

-

VCE +

IC C + VCB -

IB B

+ EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS

MOSFET
‡ NMOS: N-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor W ‡ L = channel length ‡ W = channel width L

GATE

³Metal´ (heavily doped poly-Si)

DRAIN

SOURCE ‡ A GATE electrode is placed above (electrically insulated from) the silicon surface, and is used to control the resistance between the SOURCE and DRAIN regions
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N-channel MOSFET
Gate Source

I
gate oxide insulator

Drain

IS
n

ID
n

p

‡ Without a gate-to-source voltage applied, no current can flow between the source and drain regions. ‡ Above a certain gate-to-source voltage (threshold voltage VT), a conducting layer of mobile electrons is formed at the Si surface beneath the oxide. These electrons can carry current between the source and drain.
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VGS > VT ‡ Enhancement mode: VT > 0 ‡ Depletion mode: VT < 0 ± Transistor is ON when VG=0V ‡ For current to flow. ³p+´ denotes very heavily doped p-type material) EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . VGS < VT ‡ Enhancement mode: VT < 0 ‡ Depletion mode: VT > 0 ± Transistor is ON when VG=0V (³n+´ denotes very heavily doped n-type material. P-channel MOSFETs NMOS n poly-Si n p-type Si n p n-type Si PMOS p poly-Si p ‡ For current to flow.N-channel vs.

MOSFET Circuit Symbols NMOS n+ poly-Si n+ p-type Si n+ G G S S PMOS p+ poly-Si p+ n-type Si p+ G Body G S S Body EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

± For an n-channel MOSFET. the BODY is connected to VDD EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . the BODY is connected to 0 V ± For a p-channel MOSFET. the SOURCE is biased at a higher potential (often the supply voltage VDD) than the DRAIN (Holes flow from SOURCE to DRAIN when VG < VT ) ‡ The BODY terminal is usually connected to a fixed potential.MOSFET Terminals ‡ The voltage applied to the GATE terminal determines whether current can flow between the SOURCE & DRAIN terminals. the SOURCE is biased at a lower potential (often 0 V) than the DRAIN (Electrons flow from SOURCE to DRAIN when VG > VT) ± For a p-channel MOSFET. ± For an n-channel MOSFET.

so there is no significant steady gate current. VGS Characteristic Consider the current IG (flowing into G) versus VGS : IG S VGS +  G D +  oxide semiconductor VDS IG The gate is insulated from the semiconductor. always zero! VGS EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .NMOSFET IG vs.

VDS Characteristics Next consider ID (flowing into D) versus VDS.NMOSFET ID vs. so conduction between S and D is possible Below ³threshold´ (VGS < VT): no charge no conduction EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . as VGS is varied: S VGS +  G ID D +  VDS oxide semiconductor ID VGS > VT zero if VGS < VT VDS Above threshold (VGS > VT): ³inversion layer´ of electrons appears.

The MOSFET as a Controlled Resistor ‡ The MOSFET behaves as a resistor when VDS is low: ± Drain current ID increases linearly with VDS ± Resistance RDS between SOURCE & DRAIN depends on VGS ‡ RDS is lowered as VGS increases above VT NMOSFET Example: ID VGS = 2 V VGS = 1 V > VT VDS IDS = 0 if VGS < VT Inversion charge density Qi(x) = -Cox[VGS-VT-V(x)] where Cox | Iox / tox EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS oxide thickness | tox .

VDS Characteristics The MOSFET ID-VDS curve consists of two regions: 1) Resistive or ³Triode´ Region: 0 < VDS < VGS  VT W d « GS  ! kn ¬ ­ d r k n ! Q n C ox » 2 ¼ ½ S I T  S process transconductance parameter 2) Saturation Region: VDS > VGS  VT d kn W .ID vs.

S I SAT ! 2 d r k n ! Q n C ox 2 EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS ³CUTOFF´ region: VG < VT .

The Evolution Of IGBT Part I: Bipolar Power Transistors ‡ Bipolar Power Transistor Uses Vertical Structure For Maximizing Cross Sectional Area Rather Than Using Planar Structure .

The Evolution Of IGBT Part II:Power MOSFET ‡ Power MOSFET Uses Vertical Channel Structure Versus The Lateral Channel Devices Used In IC Technology .

Lateral MOSFET structure EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

The Evolution Of IGBT Part III: BJT(discrete) + Power MOSFET(discrete) ‡ Discrete BJT + Discrete Power MOSFET In Darlington Configuration .

The Evolution Of IGBT Part IV: BJT(physics) + Power MOSFET(physics) = IGBT ‡ More Powerful And Innovative Approach Is To Combine Physics Of BJT With The Physics Of MOSFET Within Same Semiconductor Region This Approach Is Also Termed Functional Integration Of MOS And Bipolar Physics Using This Concept. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Emerged Superior On-State Characteristics. Reasonable Switching Speed And Excellent Safe Operating Area ‡ ‡ ‡ .

The Evolution Of IGBT Part IV: BJT(physics) + Power MOSFET(physics) = IGBT ‡ IGBT Fabricated Using Vertical Channels (Similar To Both The Power BJT And MOSFET) .

Device Operation ‡ Operation Of IGBT Can Be Considered Like A PNP Transistor With Base Drive Current Supplied By The MOSFET .

‡ Functions: ± amplifies control signal to a level required to drive power switch ± provides electrical isolation between power switch and logic level ‡ Complexity of driver varies markedly among switches. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .DRIVER CIRCUIT (BASE / GATE) ‡ Interface between control (low power electronics) and (high power) switch. MOSFET/IGBT drivers are simple but GTO drivers are very complicated and expensive.

‡ Normally opto-coupler (shown below) or high frequency magnetic materials (as shown in the thyristor case) are used.ELECTRICAL ISOLATION FOR DRIVERS ‡ Isolation is required to prevent damages on the high power switch to propagate back to low power electronics. EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

TRIACs EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . GTOs b) Voltage-driven devices ± MOSFETs. MCTs c) Pulse-driven devices ± SCRs.ELECTRICAL ISOLATION FOR DRIVERS ‡ Power semiconductor devices can be categorized into 3 types based on their control input requirements: a) Current-driven devices ± BJTs. MDs. IGBTs.

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS . leading current than would normally be expected for a given load or collector current. Many standard driver chips have built-in isolation. For example TLP 250 from Toshiba.CURRENT DRIVEN DEVICES (BJT) ‡ Power BJT devices have low current gain due to constructional consideration. HP 3150 from HewlettPackard uses opto-coupling isolation. ‡ The main problem with this circuit is the slow turn-off time.

ELECTRICALLY ISOLATED DRIVE CIRCUITS EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .

EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS .EXAMPLE: SIMPLE MOSFET GATE DRIVER ‡ Note: MOSFET requires VGS =+15V for turn on and 0V to turn off. VGS is pulled to ground. VGS is pulled to VGG. ‡ When B1 is low. ‡ When B1 is high. MOSFET is off. LM311 is a simple amp with open collector output Q1. Q1 conducts. the MOSFET turns on. Q1 will be off. If VGG is set to +15V.

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