UNIT II PHASE CONTROLLED CONVERTERS

Phase-Control Converters

Single-Phase

Three-Phase

Semiconverter Semiconverter

Full converter

Full converter

Dual converter Dual converter
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Semiconverter ..is a one-quadrant converter and it has one polarity Full converter ..is a two-quadrant converter and the polarity of its output can be either positive or negative. However the output current of full converter has one polarity only Dual converter ..can operate in four quadrants ; both the output voltage and current can be either positive or negative EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

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Average Output Voltage

1 Vm 1  cos E [ Vdc ! Vm sin [td t ! ´ 2T E 2T
Maximum Output Voltage Normalizing Output Voltage RMS Output Voltage
Vrms 1 Vm 1 ¨ sin 2E ¸ 2 2 ! [td t ! [ ´ Vm sinEE2301- POWERELECTRONICS T ©T  E  2 ¹ 2T E 2 º ª
T

T

Vdm
dc n d

Vm ! T 0.5 cos 1

If the converter has a purely resistive load of R and the delay angle is , E ! T / 2 determine (a) the rectification efficiency (b) the form factor FF (c) the ripple factor RF and (d) the peak inverse voltage PIV of thyristor T1

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

1 T¸ m ¨ Vdc ! ´ Vm sin [td [t ! 2T ©1 cos 2 ¹ 2T T ª º
2 dc

T

! 0.1592

m

rms

!

m

2

¨ © 1 ©T T© © ª

T 2
2

T 2v 2 sin 2

¸ ¹ ¹ ! 0.3536 ¹ ¹ º

m

L!

2 dc 2 rms

0.1592 m ! 2 0.3536 m

! 20.27%

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

If the converter has a purely resistive load of R and the delay angle is , E ! T / 2 determine (a) the rectification efficiency (b) the form factor FF (c) the ripple factor RF and (d) the peak inverse voltage PIV of thyristor T1

Vrms 0.3536Vm ! ! 2.221 FF ! Vdc 0.1592Vm
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If the converter has a purely resistive load of R and the delay angle is , E ! T / 2 determine (a) the rectification efficiency (b) the form factor FF (c) the ripple factor RF

RF ! FF  1 ! 2.221  1 ! 1.983
and (d) the peak inverse voltage PIV of thyristor T1

2

2

PIV ! Vm
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

EE2301Semiconverter POWERELECTRONICS

Single-Phase Semiconverter

2 Vm 1  cos E [ Vdc ! Vm sin [td t ! ´ T 2T E Vrms 2 2 2 ! ´ Vm sin [td [t 2T E
T

T

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Single-Phase Semiconverter (RL-load)
diL1 L  RiL1  E ! 0 0 e [t e E dt
RE  « » E I L1 ! iL1 t ! E ! I L 0 e [  ¬1  e L [ ¼ R­ ½ Mode 2 2 2 1 [L E e [t e T Z ! R  L U ! tan [ R di  RE L[

Mode 1

L

L2

dt 

RiL 2  E ! 2VS sin [t

I L2

« » R [Et 2VS 2VS E E ! sin [t  U   ¬ I L1   sin  U ¼ e L E R Z R ­ Z ½ EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Single-Phase Semiconverter (RL-load) RMS Current for Thyristor RMS Current for Thyristor RMS Output 1 I rms ! Current 2T
IR ! 1 2T

´ i d [t
T E 2 L2

1 IA ! 2T

´ i d [t
T E L2

´

E

0

i d t [
2 L1

1 2T
T E

´ i d [t
T E 2 L2 2

1 E 1 AVG Output I dc ! ´0 i1d [t  2T Current EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS 2T

´ i d [t

The single-phase semiconverter has an RL load of L = 6.5mH, R = 2.5 Ohm, and E = 10 V. The input voltage is VS = 120 V(rms) at 60 Hz. Determine (a) the load current IL0 at [t ! 0 , and the load current IL1 at [t ! E ! 60r , (b) the average thyristor current IA (c) the rms thyristor current IR (d) the rms output current Irms and (e) the average output current Idc
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Rectification Mode

Inversion Mode

Single-Phase Full Converter

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Single-Phase Full Converter

2 Vdc ! 2T Vrms

2Vm [ cos E Vm sin [td t ! ´E T 2 T E 2 2 Vm [ Vm sin [td t ! ! 2T ´E 2
T E

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Single-Phase Full Converter (RL-load) Mode 1 = Mode 2
IL !

[L 2 2 Z ! R  L [ U ! tan R 
1

» R [Et « E E 2VS 2VS sin t  U   ¬ I L 0   [ sin  U ¼ e L E Z R ­ R Z ½

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Single-Phase Full Converter (RL-load) RMS Current for Thyristor RMS Current for Thyristor RMS Output Current AVG Output Current
IR ! 1 2T

´ ´
E

T E

E

i d t [
2 L

1 IA ! 2T
2 R

T E

iL d t [

I rms ! I  I ! 2 I R

2 R

I dc ! I A  I A ! 2 I A
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Dual EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS Converter

Single-Phase Dual Converter

2Vm Vdc1 ! cos E1 T 2Vm Vdc 2 ! cos E 2 T Vdc1 ! Vdc 2

High-Power Variable-Speed Drives EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Three-Phase Semiconverter

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3 Phase Controlled Rectifiers
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage. They provide higher dc output voltage. Higher dc output power. Higher output voltage ripple frequency. Filtering requirements are simplified for smoothing out load voltage and load current.
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‡ Extensively used in high power variable speed industrial dc drives. ‡ Three single phase half-wave converters can be connected together to form a three phase half-wave converter.

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3-Phase Half Wave Converter (3-Pulse Converter) with RL Load Continuous & Constant Load Current Operation
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Vector Diagram of 3 Phase Supply Voltages
VCN 120 120
0 0 0

VAN R N 120 VBN

v

! v AN

vYN ! v B N v BN ! vCN

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3 Phase Supply Voltage Equations

W deifine three line to neutral voltages e (3 phase voltages) as follows
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vRN ! van ! Vm sin [ t ; Vm ! Max. Phase Voltage vYN 2T ¸ ¨ ! vbn ! Vm sin © [ t  ¹ 3 º ª

! Vm sin [ t  1200

vBN

2T ¸ ¨ ! vcn ! Vm sin © [ t  ¹ 3 º ª ! Vm sin [ t  240
0

! Vm sin [ t  1200

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van

vbn

vcn

van

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Each thyristor conducts for 2T/3 (1200)
Constant Load Current io=Ia Ia

Ia

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To Derive an Expression for the Average Output Voltage of a 3-Phase Half Wave Converter with RL Load for Continuous Load Current
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¨T ¸ 0 T1 is triggered at [ t ! ©  E ¹ ! 30  E ª6 º ¨ 5T ¸ 0 E ¹ ! T2 is triggered at [ t ! © 150  E ª 6 º ¨ 7T ¸ 0  E ¹ ! 270  E T3 is triggered at [ t ! © ª 6 º 2T 0 Each thytistor conducts for 120 or radians 3
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T « 56 E » 3Vm ¬ ¼ Vdc ! ´ sin [ t.d [ t ¼ 2T ¬ T ¬ 6 E ¼ ­ ½ 5T E » « 6 3Vm ¬ ¼ Vdc !  cos [ t ¼ 2T ¬ T E ¼ ¬ 6 ­ ½ 3Vm « ¨ 5T ¸ ¨T ¸» Vdc ! ¬  cos © 6  E ¹  cos © 6  E ¹ ¼ 2T ­ ª º ª º½

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Note from the trigonometric relationship cos A  B ! cos A.cos B  sin A.sin B « ¨ 5T ¬  cos © 6 3Vm ¬ ª Vdc ! 2T ¬ ¬ ­ » ¸ ¨ 5T ¸ ¹ cos E  sin © ¹ sin E ¼ º ª 6 º ¼ ¼ ¨T ¸ ¨T ¸  cos © ¹ .cos E  sin © ¹ sin E ¼ ª6º ª6º ½

«  cos 0 cos E  sin 0 sin E » 150 150 3Vm ¬ ¼ Vdc ! 2T ¬  cos 300 .cos E  sin 300 sin E ¼ ­ ½
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«  cos 0  300 cos E  sin 0  30 0 sin E » 180 180 3Vm ¬ ¼ Vdc ! 2T ¬  cos 300 .cos E  sin 300 sin E ¼ ­ ½ Note: cos 800  300 !  cos 300 1
0 0 0

sin 180  30 3Vm @Vdc ! 2T
0

! sin 30 «  cos 30 cos E  sin 30 sin E » ¬ ¼ ¬  cos 30 .cos E  sin 30 sin E ¼ ½ ­
0 0 0
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3Vm « 2 cos 300 cos E » Vdc ! ½ 2T ­ » 3Vm « 3 cos E ¼ Vdc ! ¬2 v 2T ­ 2 ½ 3Vm « 3 3Vm 3 cos E » ! cos E Vdc ! ½ 2T ­ 2T 3VLm cos E Vdc ! 2T Where VLm ! 3Vm ! Max. line to line supply voltage
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The maximum average or dc output voltage is obtained at a delay angle E ! 0 and is given by 3 3 Vm Vdc max ! Vdm ! 2T Where Vm is the peak phase voltage. And the normalized average output voltage is Vdcn Vdc ! Vn ! ! cos E Vdm
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

The rms value of output voltage is found by using the equation « ¬ 3 VO RMS ! ¬ 2T ¬ ­ and we obtain
5T E 6 1 2

» ¼ 2 2 ´ Vm sin [ t.d [ t ¼ T E ¼ 6 ½
1 2

«1 » 3 cos 2E ¼ VO RMS ! 3Vm ¬  ­ 6 8T ½
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

3 Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier Output Voltage Waveforms For RL Load at Different Trigger Angles
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

o V0
E 30
0
30
0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

E

o V0
0
30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

¡

Va

 
0

E

Va

V bn

Vcn

0

E=300
[t

180

0

210

0

240

0

270

0

300

0

330

0

360

0

390

0

420

0

V bn

Vcn

E=60

0

E=600
[t

0

180

0

210

0

240

0

270

0

300

0

330

0

360

0

390

0

420

0

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Van

Vbn

Vcn

o V0
0

E=900
90
0

30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

390 420

0

0

[t

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3 Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier With R Load and RL Load with FWD
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T1 a T2 b T3 c R V0 c b a

T1 T2 + T3 R V0 L

n

n
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3 Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier Output Voltage Waveforms For R Load or RL Load with FWD at Different Trigger Angles
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

V an Vs
0
30
0

Vbn

Vcn

E=0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

210

0

240

0

270

0

300

0

330

0

360

0

390

0

420

0

E=00 [t

E

V an

Vbn

Vcn

E=150
V0
0
30
0

E=150
[t

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

210

0

240

0

270

0

300

0

330

0

360

0

390

0

420

0

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E

Van

Vbn

Vcn

E 30
V0
0
30
0

0

E=300
[t

60

0

90

0

120

0

150 180 210

0

0

0

240 270 300 330 360 390 420

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

E

Van

Vbn

Vcn

E 60
V0

0

E=600
[t

0
30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150 180 210

0

0

0

240 270 300 330 360 390 420

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

To Derive An Expression For The Average Or Dc Output Voltage Of A 3 Phase Half Wave Converter With Resistive Load Or RL Load With FWD
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

T1 conducts from 30  E to 180 ;
0 0

¨T ¸ 0 T1 is triggered at [ t ! ©  E ¹ ! 30  E ª6 º vO ! van ! Vm sin [ t

T2 conducts from 150  E to 300 ;
0 0

¨ 5T ¸ 0 E ¹ ! T2 is triggered at [ t ! © 150  E ª 6 º vO ! vbn ! Vm sin [ t  1200
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

¨ 7T ¸ 0  E ¹ ! 270  E T3 is triggered at [ t ! © ª 6 º
T3 conducts from 270  E to 420 ;
0 0

vO ! vcn ! Vm sin [ t  240

! Vm

sin [ t  120
0 0

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

3 Vdc ! 2T

E vO ! van ! Vm sin [ t ; for [ t !  30 3 Vdc ! 2T 3Vm Vdc ! 2T « » ¬ ´ Vm sin [ t.d [ t ¼ ¬E 300 ¼ ­ ½
1800

« » ¬ ´ vO .d [ t ¼ ¬E 300 ¼ ­ ½
1800

0

to 180
0

« » ¬ ´ sin [ t.d [ t ¼ ¬E 300 ¼ ­ ½
1800
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

3Vm Vdc ! 2T

« ¬  cos [ t ¬ ­

» ¼ E  300 ¼ ½
1800

3Vm «  cos1800  cos  300 » E Vdc ! ­ ½ 2T 0 cos180 ! 1, we get Q 3Vm 0 «1  cos  30 » E Vdc ! ½ 2T ­
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Three Phase Semiconverters
‡ 3 Phase semiconverters are used in Industrial dc drive applications upto 120kW power output. ‡ Single quadrant operation is possible. ‡ Power factor decreases as the delay angle increases. ‡ Power factor is better than that of 3 phase half wave converter.
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

3 Phase Half Controlled Bridge Converter (Semi Converter) with Highly Inductive Load & Continuous Ripple free Load Current

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Wave forms of 3 Phase Semiconverter for E > 600

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3 phase semiconverter output ripple frequency of output voltage is 3 f S The delay angle E can be varied from 0 to T uring the period 30 e [ t T e [t 6
0

210

0

7T , thyristor T1 is for ard biased 6
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

¨T ¸ If thyristor T1 is triggered at [ t ! ©  E ¹ , ª6 º T1 & D1 conduct together and the line to line voltage
vac appears across the load. 7T t [t ! , vac becomes negative & WD Dm conducts. 6 The load current continues to flo through WD Dm ; T1 and D1 are turned off.
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

If WD Dm is not used the T1 ould continue to conduct until the thyristor T2 is triggered at ¨ 5T ¸ [t ! ©  E ¹ , and ree heeling action ould ª 6 º be accomplished through T1 & D2 . T If the delay angle E e , each thyristor conducts 3 2T for and the WD Dm does not conduct. 3
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

We deifine three line neutral voltages (3 phase voltages) as follo s vRN ! van ! Vm sin [ t vYN vBN ; Vm ! Max. hase Voltage 2T ¸ ¨ 0 ! vbn ! Vm sin © [ t  ¹ ! Vm sin [ t  120 3 º ª 2T ¸ ¨ 0 ! vcn ! Vm sin © [ t  ¹ ! Vm sin [ t  120 3 º ª ! Vm sin [ t  2400

Vm is the peak phase voltage of a ye-connected source.
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

vRB ! vac ! van  vcn ! vYR ! vba ! vbn  van ! vBY ! vcb ! vcn  vbn ! vRY ! vab ! van  vbn !

T¸ ¨ 3Vm sin © [ t  ¹ 6º ª 5T ¸ ¨ 3Vm sin © [ t  ¹ 6 º ª T¸ ¨ 3Vm sin © [ t  ¹ 2º ª T¸ ¨ 3Vm sin © [ t  ¹ 6º ª

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Wave forms of 3 Phase Semiconverter for E e 600

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To derive an Expression for the Average Output Voltage of 3 Phase Semiconverter for E > T / 3 and Discontinuous Output Voltage

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

T For E u and discontinuous output voltage: 3 the Average output voltage is found from « 6 » 3 ¬ Vdc ! vac .d [ t ¼ ´ 2T ¬T ¼ ­ 6E ½ « 6 » 3 ¬ T¸ ¨ 3 Vm sin © [ t  ¹ d [ t ¼ Vdc ! ´ 2T ¬T 6º ¼ ª ­ 6E ½
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

7T

7T

3 3Vm Vdc ! 1  cos E 2T 3VmL Vdc ! 1  cos E 2T VmL ! 3Vm ! Max. value of line-to-line supply voltage The maximum average output voltage that occurs at a delay angle of E ! 0 is Vdc max ! Vdm 3 3Vm ! T

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

The normalized average output voltage is Vdc ! 0.5 1  cos E Vn ! Vdm The rms output voltage is found from « 3 VO rms ! ¬ ¬ 2T ­ » 2 vac .d [ t ¼ ´ ¼ T 6 E ½
6
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

7T

1 2

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Resistive Load
id

va
vb vc

a ia b ib c ic

D1

D3

D5

vd

Rd

D4

D6

D2

Supply Voltages: va ! 2 VPH sin([t )
vb ! 2 VPH sin([t  2T / 3) vc ! 2 VPH sin([t  4T / 3) vab ! va  vb ! 2 VLL sin([t  T / 6)
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Waveforms
v
0

va

vb

vc

va

T

2T

[t

vd vab A1
0

vd vac vbc vba vca vcb vab
Vdo
T 2

ia
0

T 6

[t

I

II

T

[t
2T

D1 , D6 D1 , D2 N ON

3 2 area A1 1 T /2 ! VLL } 1.35VLL ! Vdo ! ´T / 6 2 VLL sin [t  T / 6 d ([t ) T T /3 T /3
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Capacitive Load
id va
D1 D3 D5

Ls

a ia

vb

Ls

b

ib ic
D4 D6 D2

Cd
g

R Vd Vd

vc

Ls

c

(a)

(b)

Assumption:

C d ! g   V d ! constant
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Waveforms
v vab vac vbc vba vca vcb vab vac
Vd
0

ia
0

T

2T

[t [t

ib
0

[t

ic
0

[t

id
0

D1 , D6 ON

D1 , D2 ON

T

2T

[t

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Discontinuous Current Operation
v v ab v ac

Vd
0

T /3

T /3

T

[t

id
0

Ip
U1 U2 U3U4 U5

[t

¨ Vd ¸ U1 ! sin 1 © ¹ © 2V ¹ ª LL º U1 U2
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Discontinuous Current Operation
id

v
va vb vc
D1 D3 D5

v ab

v ac

Ls

ia
Vd

Ls

ib
Vd
0

T /3

T /3

T

[t

Ls

ic
D4 D6 D2

id
0

Ip
U1 U2 U3U4 U5

[t

Differential Equation: Solution:

2 Ls
U U1

d id ! vab  Vd dt

U e [t U

1 id U ! 2[ Ls
!

´

2VLL sin [ t  Vd d [ t

1 2 VLL cosU1  cosU  Vd U1  U 2[ Ls EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Discontinuous Current Operation
v v ab v ac

Vd
0

T /3

T /3

T

[t

id
0

Ip
U1 U2 U3U4 U5

[t

1 2VLL cosU 1  cosU 2  Vd U1  U 2 2[ Ls 1 U3 Average dc current: I d ! ´U1 id U d U T /3 cosU 1  cosU 3 Vd Voltage ± theta relation: ! U1  U 3 2 VLL Peak dc current: Ip !
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Continuous Current Operation
id va vb v
Ls
£

i
ia

ib
Ip
T

ic
2T ia
[t

Ls

ia
ib

Ls

ib ic
D4 D6 D2

Note: - With the increase of the load current, the rectifier will enter into continuous current operation. - During commutation interval, three diodes are on.
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

¢

D1

D

D5

ic
Uc

K

Vd

id

I

II

III

Ip
[t

D1 On-state D1 , D2 D2 D2 , D3 Diode D3

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Definition of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Phase voltage (pure sine): va ! Line current (distorted): ia !
¨ 1 Ia ! © ª 2T
2T

2 Va sin [1t
g

n !1, 2 , 3,...

§

2 I an sin ([ n t )  J n
1/ 2

RMS line current:

´

0

ia 2 d ([ t ) ¸ ¹
º

¨ g 2 ¸ ! © § I an ¹ ¹ © ª n !1, 2 ,3,... º

1/ 2

Line current THD:

T D !

2 2 I a  I a1 I a1

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Definition of Power Factor (PF)
Per-phase average (real) power: P ! Per-phase apparent power: Total power factor (PF): PF ! Distortion factor (DF) :
2T ´
2T

0

va v ia d t ! Va I a cosJ

S ! Va I a P Va I a1 cosJ1 I a1 cosJ1 ! DF v DPF ! ! S Va I a Ia

DF ! I a1 / I a
DPF ! cos
1

Displacement power factor (DPF) : PF = f (THD) : F ! D F 1  THD 2

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ Typical Waveforms / Harmonic Content
ia ia1

ia ia1

0

T

2T

3T

4T

Harmonics n

5

7

11

13

17

19

23

25

THD (%)

I an / I a1 (%) I a1 ! 0.2pu I an / I a1 (%) I a1 ! 1pu

63.4 38.7 8.99 8.64 4.22 3.61 2.48 2.02 75.7

30.4 8.79 6.31 3.40 2.30 1.89 1.04 1.03 32.7

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Six-pulse Diode Rectifier
‡ THD and PF
100 T D(% ) 1.0

A: L s
80

0.05 0.10 0.15
0.8 0.9

C B

B: Ls C: Ls

60

A A: L s 0.05 0.10 0.15

A
40

B C

0.7

B: Ls C: Ls

20

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

I a 1 (pu)

0.6 0 0.2 0.4 (b) 0.6 0.8

I a 1 (pu)

(a) T D

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Inductive load, quantitative analysis
Differential equation d io  Ri o ! 2U 1 sin [ t dt io [ t !E ! 0 (4-5) L
E[t » 2 1« tgN io ! [ E ¬sin( t N) sin( N)e ¼ Z ¬ ¼ ­ ½

180

ã 90¡ N= ¡ã 75 ¡ã 605¡ã 4 ¡ã 30 5¡ã 1 ¡ã 0

140

E e[t eE U
+

U/(° )

Solution

100 60

Considering io =0 when We have

t=

(4-6) 
U tg N

20 0 20 60 100 E/(° ) 140 180

sin(E  U  N ) ! sin(E  N ) e

(4-7)

The RMS value of output voltage, output current, and thyristor current can then be calculated.
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Three Phase Dual Converters
‡ For four quadrant operation in many industrial variable speed dc drives , 3 phase dual converters are used. ‡ Used for applications up to 2 mega watt output power level. ‡ Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full converters which are connected in parallel & in opposite directions across a common load.

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Outputs of Converters 1 & 2
‡ During the interval (T/6 + E1) to (T/2 + E1), the line to line voltage vab appears across the output of converter 1 and vbc appears across the output of converter 2

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

W deifine three line neutral voltages e (3 phase voltages) as follows vRN ! van !Vm sin[t ; Vm ! Max. Phase Voltage 2T ¸ ¨ 0 vYN ! vbn !Vm sin©[t  ¹ !Vm sin t 120 [ 3º ª 2T ¸ ¨ 0 vBN ! vcn !Vm sin©[t  ¹ !Vm sin t 120 [ 3º ª !Vm sin t 240 [
0

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

We deifine three line neutral voltages (3 phase voltages) as follows vRN ! van !Vm sin[t ; Vm ! Max. Phase Voltage 2T ¸ ¨ 0 [ vYN ! vbn !Vm sin©[t  ¹ !Vm sin t 120 3º ª 2T ¸ ¨ [ vBN ! vcn !Vm sin ©[t  ¹ !Vm sin t 1200 3º ª

[ !Vm sin t  2400

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

To obtain an Expression for the Circulating Current If vO1 and vO2 are the output voltages of converters 1 and 2 respectively, the instantaneous voltage across the current limiting inductor during the interval (T/6 + E1) e [t e (T/2 + E1) is given by

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

vr ! vO1 vO2 ! vab vbc

« ¨ T¸ ¨ T ¸» vr ! 3Vm ¬sin©[t  ¹ sin©[t  ¹¼ 6º 2 º½ ª ­ ª ¨ T¸ vr ! 3Vm cos©[t  ¹ 6º ª The circulating current can be calculated by using the equation
EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

1 ir t ! [ Lr 1 ir t ! [ Lr 3Vm ir t ! [ Lr 3Vm ir max ! [ Lr

[t

T E1 6

´

vr .d [t

T¸ ¨ ´ 3Vm cos ©[t  6 ¹.d [t ª º T E
6
1

[t

« ¨ » T¸ ¬sin © [t  6 ¹  sin E1 ¼ º ­ ª ½

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Four Quadrant Operation

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

‡ There are two different modes of operation.  Circulating current free (non circulating) mode of operation  Circulating current mode of operation

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Non Circulating Current Mode Of Operation
‡ In this mode of operation only one converter is switched on at a time ‡ When the converter 1 is switched on, For E1 < 900 the converter 1 operates in the Rectification mode Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the average load power Pdc is positive. ‡ Power flows from ac source to the load

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

‡ When the converter 1 is on, For E1 > 900 the converter 1 operates in the Inversion mode Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the average load power Pdc is negative. ‡ Power flows from load circuit to ac source.

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

‡ When the converter 2 is switched on, For E2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in the Rectification mode Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the average load power Pdc is positive. ‡ The output load voltage & load current reverse when converter 2 is on. ‡ Power flows from ac source to the load

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

‡ When the converter 2 is switched on, For E2 > 900 the converter 2 operates in the Inversion mode Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the average load power Pdc is negative. ‡ Power flows from load to the ac source. ‡ Energy is supplied from the load circuit to the ac supply.

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

Circulating Current Mode Of Operation
‡ Both the converters are switched on at the same time. ‡ One converter operates in the rectification mode while the other operates in the inversion mode. ‡ Trigger angles E1 & E2 are adjusted such that (E1 + E2) = 1800

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

When E1 < 900, converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier. E2 is made greater than 900 and converter 2 operates as an Inverter. ‡ Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc is positive.

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

‡ When E2 < 900, converter 2 operates as a controlled rectifier. E1 is made greater than 900 and converter 1 operates as an Inverter. ‡ Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and Pdc is positive.

EE2301- POWERELECTRONICS

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