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Provide large amount of power to the load
Such as
Loud Speaker
Public address systems


Commonly known as
audio amplifier
Which is used in
 Tape recorders
 Stereo systems
 Television receivers
 Radio receivers
 Broadcast transmitters

Why it is called as power
 It is d.c to a.c power convertor whose action is
controlled by the input signal
 It is not actually amplify the power
 It takes the power from the d.c power supply
connected to the output circuit and converts it
into useful a.c signal power.

Large signal amplifiers……….
Large signal
Use a large part of their a.c load line for
But small signal amplifiers uses only 10% of their
a.c load line for operation

Different between voltage amp.
And power amp.
Voltage amplifier Power amplifier
output Increased voltage Increased power or
appreciable amount of
current flow

High resistance load Low resistance load

Current gain 100 20 and 50
Input resistance low High
Output resistance high Low
Physical size of transistor Small known as low or Large size. Power
medium power transistor. amplifiers. Required to
dissipate heat
Coupling medium RC coupling Transformer coupling

Circuit efficiency A figure of merit for the power amplifier is its efficiency. Efficiency ( h ) of an amplifier is defined as the ratio of ac output power (power delivered to load) to dc input power . Performance parameters 1. h. This is primary consideration when deciding which type of power amplifier to use for a specific application. By formula : ac output power P (ac) h 100%  o 100% dc input power Pi (dc) As we will see. . certain amplifier configurations have much higher efficiency ratings than others.

There are two types 1. 2.Distortion The difference between the input and output of an amplifier is known as distortion. Crossover distortion Occurs when transistor s do not operate in the correct phase with each other. Amplitude or harmonic distortion Due to non-linearity of the transistor 2. .

. • These two keeps the temp. 3.Power dissipation capability • The ability of power transistor to dissipate heat is known as Power dissipation capability. • Heat in the transistor is due excessive current passing through it during amplification • PDC can be increased by connecting heat sink to the transistor and increase the surface area of the transistor. within permissible limit.

e. is I CC Ptot = P1 + P2 + PC + PT + PE I1 The difference between I CQ this total value and the P1 = I12R1 R1 RC PC = I2CQR C total power being drawn from the supply is the power that actually goes PT = I2TQ R T to the load – i. Ptot . Amplifier Power Dissipation The total amount of power VCC being dissipated by the amplifier. I EQ P2 = I22R2 R2 RE PE = I2EQ R E I2 . output power.

C load line .A.

C load line .D.

To find d.c load line .

To find ICQ and VCEQ Voltage drop across R2 is V R2= VCC(R2/( R1+R2) Q point Emitter current is IEQ=VR2-VBE/RE Q point collector current is ICQ= IEQ Q point collector-to-emitter voltage is VCEQ=VCC-ICC(RC+RE) .

A.C. equivalent circuit .

the resistance driving the base is rB=Rs//(R1//R2) The load resistance seen from the collector is rl=Rc//Rl Now summing up the voltage around the collector of the a. ic=A.rl=0 Therefore Ic=-vce/rl--------------------------------.C equivalent circuit.(i) Where. To find A.C load line From the A.C collector current .c equivalent circuit is Vce+ic.

c collector-to-emitter voltage at Q point IC(sat)=the d. Vce=A.c cut-off voltage Then the a.c collector current is ic=ΔIC=IC-ICQ the a.C collector-to-emitter voltage ICQ=The d.c saturation current VCE(cut-off)= the d.c collector current at Q point VCEQ= the d.( i ) IC-ICQ= (VCE-VCEQ)/ rl =-VCE/ rl +VCEQ / rl .c collector-to-emitter voltage vce=ΔVC=VCE-VCEQ by substituting these two values in eqn.

c load line By joining these two points a. or IC = ICQ (-VCE/ rl +VCEQ / rl) ------------------------------------------ ---------------------.c load line can be obtained.c load line for saturation VCE=0 IC = ICQ +VCEQ / rl=IC(sat) this is the upper end point for a. .c load line For cut-off IC=0 0 = ICQ (-VCE/ rl +VCEQ / rl) from this VCE(cut-off)= VCEQ+ IC. rl this is the lower end point for a.(ii) The above is equation is the equation of straight line called a.

A.C. load line .

• In other words. the ac load line will tell you the maximum possible peak-to-peak output voltage (Vpp ) from a given amplifier. What does the ac load line tell you? • The ac load line is used to tell you the maximum possible output voltage swing for a given common-emitter amplifier. • This maximum Vpp is referred to as the compliance of the amplifier. AC Cutoff Voltage VCE(off) ) . (AC Saturation Current Ic(sat) .

AC Saturation Current and AC Cutoff Voltage IC(sat) = ICQ + (VCEQ/rC) ac load line rC IC vin vce R1//R2 VCE(off) = VCEQ + ICQrC VCE rC = RC//RL Ref:080314HKN EE3110 DC and AC Load Line 20 .

Ref:080314HKN EE3110 DC and AC Load Line 21 . In another words. the ac load line will tell the maximum possible peak-to-peak output voltage (VPP) from a given amplifier. This maximum VPP is referred to as the compliance of the amplifier. • The compliance of an amplifier is found by determine the maximum possible of IC and VCE from their respective values of ICQ and VCEQ. Amplifier Compliance • The ac load line is used to tell the maximum possible output voltage swing for a given common-emitter amplifier.

Maximum Possible Compliance Ref:080314HKN EE3110 DC and AC Load Line 22 .

Two times this value will give the maximum peak-to-peak transition of the output voltage: VPP = 2ICQrC (A) VPP = the output compliance. in peak-to-peak voltage ICQ = the quiescent value of IC rC = the ac load resistance in the circuit Ref:080314HKN EE3110 DC and AC Load Line 23 . the maximum peak output voltage from the amplifier is equal to ICQrC. Since this transition is equal to ICQrC. Compliance The maximum possible transition for VCE is equal to the difference between VCE(off) and VCEQ.

Ref:080314HKN EE3110 DC and AC Load Line 24 . • Equation (B) sets of the limit in terms of IC(sat). the output voltage changes by an amount equal to VCEQ. Compliance When IC = IC(sat). VCE is ideally equal to 0V. VCE is at VCEQ. Note that when IC makes its maximum possible transition (from ICQ to IC(sat)). because the output voltage is clipped off at the value of VCE(off). which is not possible. When IC = ICQ. the output will experience saturation clipping. If the value obtained by this equation is exceed. If the value obtained by this equation is exceed. This is called cutoff clipping. the output voltage will try to exceed VCE(off). Thus the maximum peak-to-peak transition would be equal to twice this value: VPP = 2VCEQ (B) • Equation (A) sets the limit in terms of VCE(off).

Cutoff and Saturation Clipping • When determining the output compliance for a given amplifier. solve both equation (A) and (B). The lower of the two results is the compliance of the amplifier. Ref:080314HKN EE3110 DC and AC Load Line 25 .

The amount the output signal varies over one cycle of operation for a full cycle of input signal. Amplifier Classifications Power amplifiers are classified according to the percent of time that collector current is nonzero. vin Av vout Class-A vin Av vout Class-B vin Av vout Class-C .

5% Class C 99% . and C amplifiers are: Amplifier Maximum Theoretical Efficiency. hmax Class A 25% Class B 78. B. Efficiency Ratings • The maximum theoretical efficiency ratings of class-A.

Class A Amplifier vin Av vout • output waveform  same shape  input waveform +  phase shift.e. ICQ is nonzero (i. transistor dissipates power in the rest. since even with zero input signal. or quiescent. condition) .  inefficient. • The collector current is nonzero 100% of the time.

Basic Operation Common-emitter (voltage-divider) configuration (RC-coupled amplifier) +VCC I CC I CQ RC I1 R1 RL v in R2 RE .

Typical Characteristic Curves for Class-A Operation Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 30 .

Why? (DC and AC analyses  discussed in previous sessions) Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 31 . is usually set to be in the center of the ac load line. Typical Characteristic • Previous figure shows an example of a sinusoidal input and the resulting collector current at the output. ICQ . • The current.

DC Input Power +VCC The total dc power. We can rewrite for the above equation for the ideal amplifier as Pi (dc)  2VCEQ I CQ Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 32 . that an amplifier I CC draws from the power supply : I CQ RC I1 R1 Pi (dc)  VCC I CC RL I CC  I CQ  I 1 v in R2 I CC  I CQ ( I CQ  I 1 ) RE Pi ( dc )  VCC I CQ Note that this equation is valid for most amplifier power analyses. Pi(dc) .

HOW?? Disadvantage of using class-A amplifiers is the fact that their efficiency ratings are so low. AC Output Power AC output (or load) power. hmax  25% .  Class-B Amplifier Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 33 . Why?? A majority of the power that is drawn from the supply by a class-A amplifier is used up by the amplifier itself. Po(ac) ic 2 vo vo ( rms) Po (ac)  ic ( rms) vo ( rms)  RL vin vce rC RC//RL Above equations can be used to R1//R2 calculate the maximum possible value of ac load power.

IC(sat) = VCC/(RC+RE) IC(sat) = ICQ + (VCEQ/rC) DC Load Line ac load line IC IC (mA) VCE(off) = VCC VCE(off) = VCEQ + ICQrC VCE VCE ac load line  VCEQ  I CQ  1 VPP2 Po ( ac)      VCEQ I CQ  IC Q .point  2  2  2 8 RL dc load line 1 Po ( ac ) VCEQ I CQ h  100%  2  100%  25% Pi ( dc ) 2VCEQ I CQ VCE Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 34 .

Limitation Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 35 .

5mA  0.5% Pi ( dc) Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 36 .625W 2 2 Pi ( dc)  VCC I CQ  (20V )(0.6W Po ( ac) h  100%  6.7V   25 IBQ    19.3mA RB 1k Vi ICQ  I B  25(19. 1k Vo VCC  VBE 20V  0.4V V 20V I c ( sat)  CC   1000mA  1A RC 20 VCE ( cu to ff )  VCC  20V IC ( p ea k)  Ib ( p ea k)  25(10mA peak )  250mA peak Po ( ac)  I C2 ( peak ) RC  250  10 A) 3 2 (20)  0.48 A)( 20)  10.3mA)  482. and efficiency [h] of the amplifier circuit for an input RB IC RC 20 voltage that results in a base current of 10mA peak.48 A)  9. Example +VCC = 20V Calculate the input power [Pi(dc)].48 A VCEQ  VCC  ICRC  20V  (0. output power [Po(ac)].

V2 = the primary and secondary voltages I1. RL Z1 R1 The relationship between the primary Z2 = RL and secondary values of voltage. I2 = the primary and secondary currents Z1. N2 = the number of turns in the primary and secondary V1. Z2 = the primary and seconadary impedance ( Z2 = RL ) Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 37 . Transformer-Coupled Class-A Amplifier +VCC A transformer-coupled class-A amplifier uses a transformer to couple the output N1:N2 signal from the amplifier to the load. current and impedance are summarized as: N 1 V1 I 2   N 2 V2 I 1 Input R2  N1 2  RE Z Z    1  1  N2  Z 2 RL N1.

or kick emf. • When an inductor experiences a rapid change in supply voltage. it will produce a voltage with a polarity that is opposite to the original voltage polarity. Transformer-Coupled Class-A Amplifier • An important characteristic of the transformer is the ability to produce a counter emf. • The counter emf is caused by the electromagnetic field that surrounds the inductor. Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 38 .

+ This counter emf will be present only for an instant. Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 39 . Counter emf SW1 + - + + 10V 10V 10V 10V . - . As the field collapses into the inductor the voltage decreases in value until it eventually reaches 0V.

VCEQ = VCC – ICQ(RC + RE) The value of RL is ignored in the dc analysis of the transformer-coupled class-A amplifier. +VCC The dc load line is very close to being a vertical line N1:N2 indicating that VCEQ will be approximately equal to VCC Z1 RL R1 for all the values of IC. Z2 = RL The nearly vertical load line of the transformer- coupled amplifier is caused by the extremely low dc Input R2 RE resistance of the transformer primary. Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 40 . Since the load resistance is in the secondary of the transformer it IB = 0mA dose not affect the dc analysis of the primary VCE circuitry. DC Operating Characteristics The dc biasing of a transformer-coupled class-A amplifier is very similar to any other class-A amplifier with one important exception :  the value of VCEQ is designed to be as close as possible to VCC. The reason for DC load line this is the fact that transformer provides dc isolation I C between the primary and secondary.

Determine the corresponding change in IC •Find the value of Z1 for the transformer: Z1 = R2 (N1/N2)2Z2 and ic = vce / Z1 Input RE 3. Plot a line that passes through the Q-point and IC the value of IC(max). Determine the maximum possible change in VCE +VCC N1:N2 •Since VCE cannot change by an amount RL Z1 greater than (VCEQ – 0V). R1 Z2 = RL 2. vce = VCEQ. AC Operating Characteristics 1. These two points are ac load line then used to find the maximum and minimum values of IC and VCE IB = 0mA VCE ~ VCEQ ~ VCC ~ 2VCC Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 41 . Locate the two points where the load line passes through the lies representing the minimum Q-point and maximum values of IB. IC(max) = ?? •IC(max) = ICQ + ic DC load line 4.

+VCC N1:N2 Z1 RL R1 IC Z2 = RL IC(max) = ?? DC load line Input R2 RE ICQ Q-point ac load line ic IB = 0mA VCE Z1 vo ~ VCEQ ~ VCC ~ 2VCC vin vce R1//R2 Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 42 .

Maximum load power and efficiency The Power Supply for the amplifier : PS = VCCICC Maximum peak-to-peak voltage across the primary of the transformer is approximately equal to the difference between the values of VCE(max) and VCE(min) : VPP = VCE(max) – VCE(min) N1 : N2 Maximum possible peak-to-peak load voltage is found by V(P-P)max = (N2 / N1)V PP VPP RL V(P-P) max The actual efficiency rating of a transformer-coupled class-A amplifier will generally be less than 40%. Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 43 .

VCEQ will always be some value that is less the VCC . In practice. The transformer is subject to various power losses. Among these losses are couple loss and hysteresis loss. These transformer power losses are not considered in the derivation of the h = 50% value. The derivation of the h = 50% value assumes that VCEQ = VCC . Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 44 . 2. There are several reasons for the difference between the practical and theoretical efficiency ratings for the amplifier : 1.

• One of the primary advantages of using the transformer-coupled class-A amplifier is the increased efficiency over the RC-coupled class-A circuit.the tuned amplifier. Ref:080327HKN EE3110 Power Amplifier (Class A) 45 . • Another advantage is the fact that the transformer-coupled amplifier is easily converted into a type of amplifier that is used extensively in communications :. • A tuned amplifier is a circuit that is designed to have a specific value of power gain over a specific range of frequency.


biased at cutoff :- . ?? Where is the Q-point on the load line ??? The dc bias point for class-B amplifier is therefore at 0 volt.Class-B amplifier provides an output signal varying over one-half the input signal cycle + zero phase shift.e. i.