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Transistors

Camille Cruz
Chase Thompson
Tyler Nelson

September 26, 2013


Outline
Introduction
Transistors Types
Bipolar Junction Transistors
Field Effect Transistors
Power Transistors
Example
Transistors

BJT (PNP) Electrical


Different types and sizes Diagram

FET and BJT Transistor

Modern Electronics
First Transistor
Purpose
To amplify and switch electronic signals on or off
(high or low)

Modern Electronics

Microprocessor
Motor Controllers

Cell Phones
Vacuum tubes
Purpose
Used as signal amplifiers and switches
Advantages
High power and frequency operation
Operation at higher voltages
Less vulnerable to electromagnetic pulses
Disadvantages
Very large and fragile
Energy inefficient
Expensive
Invention
Evolution of electronics
In need of a device that was small, robust, reliable,
energy efficient and cheap to manufacture
1947
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Schockly
invented transistor
Transistor Effect
when electrical contacts
were applied to a crystal
of germanium, the output
power was larger than
the input.
General Applications
Doping
Process of introducing impure elements
(dopants) into semiconductor wafers to form
regions of differing electrical conductivity

Negatively charged Semiconductor Positively charged semiconductor


Doping Effects
P-type semiconductors
Created positive charges, where electrons have
been removed, in lattice structure
N-type semiconductors
Added unbound electrons create negative charge
in lattice structure
Resulting material
P-N junction
P-N junction
Forward Biasing
Reverse Biasing
P-N junction
Controls current flow via external voltage
Two P-N junctions (bipolar junction transistor,
BJT)
Controls current flow and amplifies the current
flow
Transistor Categories
Semiconductor material
Structure
Polarity
Maximum power rating
Maximum operating frequency
Application
Physical packaging
Amplification factor
Types of Transistors
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

Field Effect Transistors (FET)

Power Transistors
BJT Introduction
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
consists of three sandwiched
semiconductor layers
The three layers are connected to collector
(C), emitter (E), and base (B) pins
Current supplied to the base controls the
amount of current that flows through the
collector and emitter
BJT Schematic
NPN
NPN
BE forward bias
BC reverse bias

PNP
BE reverse bias
PNP
BC forward bias
BJT Characteristic Curves
Transfer Characteristic
Characteristic curves can be drawn to show other useful parameters
of the transistor
The slope of ICE / IBE is called the Transfer Characteristic ()
BJT Characteristic Curves
Input Characteristic
The Input Characteristic is the base emitter current IBE against
base emitter voltage VBE
IBE/VBE shows the input Conductance of the transistor.
The increase in slope of when the VBE is above 1 volt shows that the
input conductance is rising
There is a large increase in current for a very small increase in VBE.
BJT Characteristic Curves
Output Characteristic
collector current (IC) is nearly independent of the collector-emitter
voltage (VCE), and instead depends on the base current (IB)

IB4

IB3

IB2

IB1
BJT Operating Regions
Operating Parameters Mode
Region
VBE < Vcut-in
Cut Off VCE > Vsupply Switch OFF
IB = IC = 0
VBE = Vcut-in
Linear Vsat < VCE < Vsupply Amplification
IC = *IB
VBE = Vcut-in,
VCE < Vsat
Saturated Switch ON
IB > IC,max, IC,max
>0
BJT Applications
BJT Switch
Offer lower cost and substantial reliability over conventional
mechanical relays.
Transistor operates purely in a saturated or cutoff state (on/off)
This can prove very useful for digital applications (small current
controls a larger current)
BJT Applications
BJT Amplifier
BJT Applications
BJT Amplifier
Field Effect Transistors (FET)

Chase Thompson
FET Basics
Electric Field

Voltage Controlled

FET includes three distinct pieces


Drain
Source
Gate
FET versus BJT?
Same: Difference:
Applications: amplifier, Voltage vs Current Input
switch, etc. Unipolar vs Bipolar
Relies on PNP or NPN Noise
junctions to allow current Higher input impedance
flow Fragile and low gain bandwidth
Types of Field-Effect
Transistors

Type Function

Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) Uses reversed biased p-n junction to separate gate from body

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) Uses insulator (usu. SiO2) between gate and body

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Similar to MOSFET, but different main channel

Organic Field-Effect Transistor (OFET) Uses organic semiconductor in its channel

Nanoparticle Organic Memory FET (NOMFET) Combines the organic transistor and gold nanoparticles
JFET
Reverse Biased PN-
junction
Depletion mode devices
Creates a potential
gradient to restrict
current flow. (Increases
overall resistance)

http://www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk/mmg/teaching/linearcircuits/jfet.html
JFET
N-channel JFET

P-channel JFET uses same principles but


Channel current is positive due to holes instead of
electron donors
Polarity of biasing voltage must be reversed
N-Type Characteristics
Characteristics and Applications of FETs
JFETs
Simplest type of FET easy to make
High input impedance and resistance
Low Capacitance
Slower speed in switching
Uses?
Displacement sensor
High input impedance amplifier
Low-noise amplifier
Analog switch
Voltage controlled resistor
MOSFET
p-channel

Similar to JFET
A single channel of single doped SC
material with terminals at end
Gate surrounds channel with doping that n-channel

is opposite of the channel, making the


PNP or NPN type MOSFET MOSFET
BUT, the MOSFET uses an insulator to enhanced mode depleted mode

separate gate from body, while JFET uses


a reverse-bias p-n junction
How does a MOSFET work?
No Voltage to Gate Voltage to Gate

Source Drain Source Drain

n n

Simplified Notation

No current flow Short allows current flow


MOSFET
Triode Mode/Linear Region Saturation/Active Mode

VGS > Vth and VDS < ( VGS - Vth ) VGS > Vth and VDS > ( VGS - Vth )

VGS : Voltage at the gate


Vth : Threshold voltage
VDS : Voltage from drain to source
n: charge-carrier effective mobility
W: gate width
L: gate length
Cox : gate oxide capacitance per unit area
: channel-length modulation parameter
Characteristics and Applications of FETs
MOSFETs

Oxide layer prevents DC current from


flowing through gate
Reduces power consumption
High input impedance
Rapid switching
More noise than JFET
Uses?
Again, switches and amplifiers in
general
The MOSFET is used in digital
CMOS logic, which uses p- and n- Use of MOSFET in battery
channel MOSFETs as building protection circuit
blocks
To aid in negating effects that cause
discharge of batteries
Power Transistors
Concerned with delivering high power
Used in high voltage and high current application

In general
Fabrication process different in order to:
Dissipate more heat
Avoid breakdown

Different types: Power BJTs, power MOSFETS, etc.


Comparison
Property BJT MOSFET JFET
Gm Best Worst Medium
Speed High Medium Low
Noise Moderate Worst Best
Good No Yes Yes
Switch
High-Z Gate No Yes Yes
ESD Less More Less
Sensitivity
References (32)
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Questions?