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DL Carrier Aggregation Principles


LTE Radio Parameters 2 [FL16]

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Downlink carrier aggregation

CA principles:
Every cell called Component Carrier (CC) is
logically combined with additional cells
serving the same site sector
Primary Cell (PCell) serves both UL and DL
traffic (GBR and non-GBR)
Secondary Cells (SCells) serve DL non-GBR
traffic only
If configured so, every carrier can play a PCell CA
capable
role UE

All cells handle CA and non-CA UEs


simultaneously
CA non-
CA for UL traffic is not available yet capable UE

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Carrier aggregation features
FL16
LTE2007: Inter eNode B carrier aggregation
LTE2233: N-out-of-M downlink carrier aggregation
LTE2316: FDDTDD downlink carrier aggregation 3CC
LTE2180: TDD-FDD downlink carrier aggregation
LTE2275: Pcell swap
LTE2167: Additional Carrier Aggregation Band Combinations 3CC
LTE2200:Additional carrier aggregation band combinations III

FL15a
LTE2305: Inter eNodeB Carrier Aggregation for 2 macro eNodeBs
LTE1804: Downlink carrier aggregation 3CC - 60 MHz
LTE2168: Additional carrier aggregation band combinations - II
LTE2006: Flexible Scell selection
LTE2149: Supplemental downlink carrier

RL70
LTE1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bs
LTE2033 : Additional CA band combinations
LTE1803: Downlink carrier aggregation 3 CC - 40 MHz

RL60
LTE1332: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 40 MHz

RL50
LTE1089: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 20 MHz
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LTE1089: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 20 MHz RL50

LTE 1089 Carrier Aggregation is


the flagship RL50 feature that
brings into life the LTE Advanced
concept (as standardized in 3GPP
Rel. 10) in the NSN product
Primary aim of the feature is to
boost mean and peak user
throughput via sending the user
data simultaneously over two
CA capable UE
carriers
Maximum achievable peak user
throughput could be doubled in
Carrier 1
contrast to non-CA case
Carrier 2

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LTE1332: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 40 MHz (RL60)

RL60 embodiment of Carrier Aggregation functionality

Primary improvements coming with RL60 LTE1332 feature:

Additional cell bandwidth combinations are Support for additional band combinations is
supported on top of RL50 band combinations: provided:
band 1 + band 7 band 4 + band 17
5 MHz + 15 MHz band 2 + band 4
5 MHz + 20 MHz 20 MHz
band 5 + band 7 2.6 G
band 2 + band 5 band 7 + band 20
10 MHz + 15 MHz band 2 + band 17 band 4 + band 12
10 MHz + 20 MHz band 3 + band 3 band 3 + band 28
15 MHz + 15 MHz band 3 + band 7 band 4 + band 7
15 MHz + 20 MHz 20 MHz band 3 + band 20 band 7 + band 7 1.8 G
20 MHz + 20 MHz band 4 + band 4
Note that RL60 provides also support for
RL60 extends maximum possible
certain intra-band carrier aggregation
aggregated bandwidth from 20 MHz (RL50
options this support was not in place in
LTE 1089) to 40 MHz
RL50

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LTE1332: Downlink Carrier Aggregation - 40 MHz RL60

RL60 embodiment of Carrier Aggregation functionality

Following additional improvements to RL50 CA functionality are available in RL60 LTE1332:

improvements and enhancements of CA interworking


extensions related to CA with other features and
feature as such functionalities
refinement of handling of the scheduling fairness factor, improved cooperation between Carrier Aggregation and
refinements in RRM algorithms covering handling of DRX functionality,
transient periods during SCell addition and release, support of simultaneous activation of CA and following
improved handling of SCell lock/shutdown/outage features:
support for 3GPP rel. 10 extensions of PUCCH UL PC LTE72 (4-RX diversity),
algorithm, LTE568 (DL CL MIMO 4x2),
handling of so called delayed SCell activation, LTE980 (IRC for 4 RX paths),
LTE1542 (FDD Supercell)
introduction of algorithms aiming at reduction of negative
improved handling of measurement gaps needed for
effects of dropping periodic CSI due to SCell
Removed due to CRL- certain mobility management algorithms in the context of
transmission.
1504 CA.

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Carrier aggregation RL70

LTE1803: Downlink carrier aggregation 3 CC - 40 MHz


DL carrier aggregation in multiples of three cell combinations; wherein, a given
UE will be configured with two SCells.

LTE1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bs


DL carrier aggregation in multiples of two cell combinations; wherein, a given UE
is configured with only one SCell.

LTE2030: Additional carrier aggregation band combinations


additional downlink carrier aggregation band combinations.

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LTE1803: Downlink carrier aggregation 3 CC - 40 MHz (RL 70)

Enables data rates up to 300Mbit/s


The UE will have 1 Pcell and 2 Scell maxNumCaConfUe
Uses existing Scell activation methods Max number carrier aggr
configured UEs
Uses PUCCH format3
LNCEL: 1..50; 50

Supported bands;
band 1 + band 5 + band 7 maxNumCaConf3c
band 1 + band 3 + band 5 Max number carrier aggr
band 1 + band 3 + band 8 configured UEs 3 Carriers
LNCEL: 1..50; 20
Max Bw is 40MHz of 10+10+20MHz
maxNumScells
Max number of secondary
cells for DL carrier aggr
LNCEL: 1..2; 1

nPucchF3Prbs
Number of PUCCH PRBs
for HARQ format 3
LNCEL: 0..1; 0

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LTE1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bs (RL 70)
Key functionalities

CA capable UE PCell
Up to two secondary cells could be configured in the eNB
for the single primary cell
Similarly, given cell could play a role of a secondary cell
for up to two primary cells
Before LTE1562 there was 1:1 relationship between
primary and secondary cell SCell candidate 1

Up to two SCell candidates could be availabe for the


given UE
Choice of the actual SCell to be configured for the UE is
done according to the UE capabilities and cell load
information SCell candidate 2
Note: still all the involved cells need to be collocated,
created in the same system module and the serve the
same geographical sector

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LTE1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bs (RL 70)
Band combinations

Allowed band combinations: any combination of the size of three (with


repetitions) from the set of bands supported by basic LTE1089/LTE1332, which
contains at least two different supported band combinations (incl. intra-band
combinations).
Band combinations supported Resultant allowed band combinations for LTE1562 site sector
for dual carrier deployments level 1
SCell
PCell SCell 2

Band A Band B Band A Band B Band C

Band A Band C Band B Band C Band A

Band B Band C Band C Band A Band B

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LTE1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bs (RL 70)
Band combinations
Due to LTE2033 feature (Additional carrier aggregation band combinations) from RL70
onwards following band combinations are also allowed on top of RL60 ones.
1+3 (2100 + 1800)
1+28 (2100 + 700 APT)
2+12 (1900 + 700 AC)
7+28
These band combinations are technically supported also by FSME but not necessarily
officially tested.
These combinations are also supported in the context of LTE1562.
Three cell configurations with all cells in the same band also possible, constructed from:
- an Nokia supported intra-band non-contiguous band combination or
- from an Nokia supported intra-band contiguous band combination together with an
Nokia supported intra-band non-contiguous band combination

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LTE1562: Carrier aggregation for multi-carrier eNode Bs (RL 70)
eNB capacity

As in RL60 a cell can act as a primary carrier PCell A Max. 50 CA PCell UEs
for up to 50 UEs with the PCell role
(parameter maxNumCaConfUeDc).

The number of RRC connected users per SCell SCell


sector is dynamically reduced by up to a Max. 50 CA SCell UEs Max. 50 CA SCell UEs
maximum of 50 UEs for each configured cell
that can act as SCell within a cell pair for Each UE using the cell as an SCell reduces the
maximum number of RRC connected users per
Carrier Aggregation. cell

If a cell belongs to two cell pairs (SCell with 2


PCell A
PCells) the maximum reduction would be 100 PCell B
cause up to 100 SCell UEs could be assigned Max. 50 CA PCell UEs
to a single carrier. Max. 50 CA PCell UEs
SCell

Max. 100 CA SCell UEs

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Carrier aggregation RL15a

LTE1804: Downlink carrier aggregation 3CC - 60 MHz


LTE2305: Inter eNodeB Carrier Aggregation for 2 macro eNodeBs
LTE2168: Additional carrier aggregation band combinations - II
LTE2006: Flexible Scell selection
LTE2149: Supplemental downlink carrier

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LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz ( RL 15a)

3CC 60 MHz CA principles:


Enables aggregation of three CC
Contiguous and non-contiguous intra-band
and inter-band CA supported

band 1
Intra-band, CA
contiguous capable
UE

f
band 1
CA non-
Intra-band, non- capable UE
contiguous

f
band 1 band 2

Inter-band, non-contiguous

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Supported band combinations (RL 15a)
Operating band Note* Frequency band Operating band Note* Frequency band

1 3 5 0 2100 1800 850 2 5 30 0 1900 850 2300

LTE1803
1 3 8 0 and 2 2100 1800 900 2 12 30 0 1900 700 2300
2 29 30 0 1900 700 2300
1 5 7 1 2100 850 2600
3 3 7 0 1800 1800 2600
1 18 28 0 2100 850 700
3 3 8 0 1800 1800 900
Band 2,
2 2 5 NC, 0
1900 1900 850
3 7 20 0 1800 2600 800
Band 2, Band 4,
2 2 12 NC, 0
1900 1900 700 4 4 5 1700 1700 850
NC, 0
Band 2, C, Band 4,
2 2 29 0
1900 1900 700 4 4 12 1700 1700 700
NC, 0
Band 4,
2 4 4 1900 1700 1700 4 5 30 0 1700 850 2300
NC, 0
4 12 30 0 1700 700 2300
2 4 5 0 1900 1700 850
4 29 30 0 1700 700 2300
2 4 12 0 1900 1700 700

* - numbers indicate the bandwidth combination set supported, C contiguous, NC non-contiguous

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Supported bandwidth and eNB antenna combinations (RL 15a)

Supported bandwidth Supported eNB antenna


combinations combinations

Bandwidth [MHz] Bandwidth [MHz] Antenna configuration

LTE1803
5 5 5 10 10 10 2TX/2R 2TX/2R 2TX/2R
X X X
5 5 10 10 10 15

LTE1803
2TX/2R 2TX/2R 4TX/4R
5 5 15 10 10 20 X X X
5 5 20 10 15 15 2TX/4R 4TX/4R 4TX/4R
5 10 10 10 15 20 X X X

5 10 15 10 20 20 4TX/4R 4TX/4R 4TX/4R


X X X
5 10 20 15 15 15
5 15 15 15 15 20
5 15 20 15 20 20
5 20 20 20 20 20

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With and without the LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz (15a)

Only one (20+10+10) MHz bandwidth Additional twenty bandwidth and


combination supported eighteen band combinations supported
Joint activation of SCells
CA limitations in case of fragmented Stepwise (de)activation of SCells
spectrum owned Contiguous and non-contiguous intra-
Limitation of CA UEs number band and inter-band CA

Increased number of UEs with SCell(s)


configured

Increased number of PRBs for PUCCH


Format 3

PUCCH Format 3 ACK/NACK and


periodic CSI multiplexing

3CC CA in 3CC CA in
LTE1803 LTE1804

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LTE2305 Inter-eNB DL CA for two Macro eNBs (RL 15a)
LTE2305 Inter-eNB DL CA for two Macro
eNBs is the first feature in Nokia portfolio
allowing for direct cooperation of eNBs in 2 CC or 3CC Carrier Aggregation
terms of downlink Carrier Aggregation
It allows to aggregate FDD cells that are
eNB 1
hosted by separate System Modules
increasing flexibility and variety of
configurations that can be used for DL Carrier
Aggregation of 2CCs and 3CCs

LTE2305
Due to synchronization and delay
requirements both eNBs have to be co-
located.

eNB 2

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LTE2305 Inter-eNB DL CA for two Macro eNBs (RL 15a)

LTE2305 Inter-eNB CA for two Macro eNBs should not be confused with so-
called Dual Connectivity solution introduced in 3GPP Release 12 that allows
Carrier Aggregation between separate eNBs using the X2 connection, or by
splitting the bearer path at the serving gateway.
- Dual Connectivity in Nokia product will be introduced in the future releases. It
will require new scheduling algorithms that are more tolerant for long
latencies.

LTE2305 Inter-eNB CA Dual Connectivity

SRIO link X2 connection



eNB 1 eNB 2 eNB 1 eNB 2

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LTE2305 Inter-eNB DL CA for two Macro eNBs (RL 15a)

Before After

Only intra-eNB Carrier Aggregation Inter-eNB Carrier Aggregation


was possible (all cells involved in CA between two co-located Macro eNBs
had to be hosted by the same eNB) is possible
More complex CA configurations More advanced configurations that
(such like 2 carriers of 3 x 20 MHz have to be deployed on separate
cells with UL CoMP) could not be eNBs, can now be used for DL
used due to the HW limitations Carrier Aggregation allowing for
(deployment on separate eNBs more flexibility in CA configuration
required)

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Downlink carrier aggregation (RL 15a)
LTE2006: Flexible Scell selection

Flexible Secondary Cell Selection allows the UE to change a Secondary Cell


based upon (A6) measurements from the UE
Allows each carrier frequency to have more than 1 candidate Secondary Cell
Example scenario is at sites where sectors for each carrier are not co-aligned

LNBTS: actFlexScellSelect
Activate flexible SCell selection for carrier
aggregation
0 (false), 1 (true)
Secondary 1
Default: 0

Primary

Secondary 2

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Downlink carrier aggregation (RL 15a) Regular FDD carrier

LTE2149 Supplemental DL carrier

DOWNLINK
LTE2149 Supplemental Downlink allows for usage of unpaired

UPLINK
FDD bands

Such unpaired FDD bands are called Supplemental DL Carriers


(SDLC):
- In opposite to regular FDD carriers, supplemental DL carriers frequency
do not have uplink channels they can be used for DL f1 f2
transmission only

LTE2149 allows to configure supplemental DL carrier on 3GPP Supplemental DL carrier


Band 29 as Secondary Cell (SCell) in two and three Component
Carriers (2CC and 3CC) scenarios
Cells configured as SDLCs can be used as SCells only.

DOWNLINK
NO UPLINK
frequency
f1 f2

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Downlink carrier aggregation (RL 15a)
LTE2149 Supplemental DL carrier

To prevent the UEs from camping on the SDLC cells (that could not serve them due to lack
of UL channels), SIB1 contains always cell barred message regardless of cellBarred
parameter setting
Due to this de-coupling of the SIB1 message content from cellBarred parameter value,
proper understanding of the configuration is required:

SIB1 content
No UEs can camp on SDLC cell
cellBarred = notBarred SDLC can be added as SCell for CA UEs
{

cell barred
No UEs can camp on SDLC cell
cellBarred = barred SDLC can NOT be added as SCell for CA UEs
}
Cell will be not used by any UEs

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Carrier aggregation features FL16

LTE2007: Inter eNode B carrier aggregation


LTE2233: N-out-of-M downlink carrier aggregation
LTE2316: FDDTDD downlink carrier aggregation 3CC
LTE2180: TDD-FDD downlink carrier aggregation
LTE2275: Pcell swap
LTE2167: Additional Carrier Aggregation Band Combinations 3CC
LTE2200:Additional carrier aggregation band combinations III

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LTE2007:Inter eNode B carrier aggregation (RL 16)

Sync
Source
FDD-LTE15A introduced Carrier Aggregation UE1 UE2
between 2 macro eNode B eNB 1
S1
allows the use of Carrier Aggregation
across eNode B when those eNode B F1 CC1 SRIO
can be connected with:
eNB 2
a low latency SRIO fibre F2 CC2 CC1 S1

a synchronisation connection Sync


each eNode B has its own S1 F3 CC3 CC2
eNB 3
connection S1
F4
FDD-LTE16 introduces Carrier Aggregation
between 3 macro eNode B

SRIO = Serial Rapid Input/Output

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LTE2233: N-out-of-M downlink carrier aggregation

LTE2233: N-out-of-M Downlink Carrier


Aggregation enhances the functionality
offered by:
LTE1562: Carrier Aggregation for
Multi-carrier eNode B
LTE2006: Flexible Secondary Cell
Selection
The enhancements are:
up to 6 SCell frequency layers can be
configured per primary cell
up to 6 SCells can be configured per
frequency layer
the total number of SCells that can be
configured per PCell is 12

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LTE2233: N-out-of-M downlink carrier aggregation

3 example scenarios are shown on this


slide
N=2
A PCell may add N=1 or 2 SCells out of M = 12
M=12 Scell candidates
The feature does not increase the
maximum total number of 3 serving cells

N=2
N=1 M = 11
M = 12

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CA Configuration and Related parameters

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

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Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

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Configuration and activation of CA features

Configuration and activation of CA features


Actual use of the Carrier Aggregation functionality for the given CA-
capable UEs requires several steps:
Configuration and activation of
Carrier Aggregation feature in
First of all, the feature has to be properly configured and activated on the cell
the paired cells level (for both cells to be paired)
Adding the secondary cell to Only then, the cell could be added from the UE perspective for CA capable UEs
the given CA-capable UE entering the cell
Activation of the secondary cell (triggered by the DL offered load) means that the
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE UE could be scheduled also in the second (previously added) cell also in the
same TTI as in the primary cell
Division of the DL UE buffer
into PCell and SCell and data
Similarly to the process of adding (configuring) the secondary cell
scheduling and its activation there is also a process of deactivation and releasing
Deactivation of the secondary of the secondary cell for the given UE.
cell for the UE

Releasing of the secondary


cell for the UE
SCell addition SCell activation

SCell release SCell deactivation

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Configuration and activation of CA features

Configuration and activation of CA features

Cells to be paired for CA feature should belong to


Configuration and activation of LNBTS
Carrier Aggregation feature in the same sector:
the paired cells
LCELL/sectorId is a new parameter introduced by
Adding the secondary cell to LTE1089 LCELL LNCEL
the given CA-capable UE 1
sectorId
For other than CA feature this information is meaningless
Activation of the secondary for the cells to be aggregated the same sectorId in LCELL
cell for the UE
associated with the given LNCEL should be provided CAREL
lcrId
Division of the DL UE buffer
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling
LCELL:sectorId (Cell sector id)
Deactivation of the secondary Range: 0, , 255 Step: 1 Default: -
cell for the UE

LNCEL LCELL
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE
2 sectorId

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Configuration and activation of CA features

Configuration and activation of CA features

Configuration and activation of


In the next step relation between
Carrier Aggregation feature in PCell and SCell is created. LNBTS
the paired cells
This relation is realized via providing
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE the lcrId in the new CAREL object of PCell
the primary cell
Activation of the secondary
CAREL/lcrId should be unique within LCELL LNCEL
cell for the UE
sectorI
the site d
Division of the DL UE buffer
into PCell and SCell and data CAREL
scheduling lcrId
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE

LNCEL LCELL
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE lcrId sectorId

SCell
CAREL:lcrId (Local cell resource ID of cell to be aggregated)
Range: 0, , 255 Step: 1 Default: -

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Configuration and activation of CA features

LTE1804: Downlink carrier aggregation 3CC - 60 MHz (RL 16)

LNCEL; maxNumScells
CA Relation (CAREL) objects: LNBTS
Max number of secondary cells for
DL carrier aggr 1,2,
Default; 1
Creating a relation between cells is based on
CAREL objects dependent on LNCEL with PCell
PCell SCell SCell
role
SCell PCell SCell
For 3CC CA two CAREL under LNCEL objects
are required SCell SCell PCell

Relation between cells can be


multidirectional each cell can be both PCell LNCEL LNCEL LNCEL
lcrId lcrId lcrId
or SCell

CAREL
lcrId

CAREL
CAREL; LCRID lcrId
Local cell resource ID of
cell to be aggregated
0255; LCELL LCELL LCELL

Default;

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Configuration and activation of CA features

STEP-BY-STEP ACTIVATION OF CARRIER AGGREGATION IN


BTS SITE MANAGER

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Configuration and activation of CA features

STEP 1: assignment of the sector identifiers

For all cells to be involved in the Carrier Aggregation sector ID should be


assigned

LNBTS

PCell

LCELL LNCEL
sectorId
Sector ID should be mandatory assigned
Note that this parameter does not exist before
RL50 and is meaningful only for Carrier
Aggregation

The same sector ID should be provided for the


cells serving the same geographical sector
(here 1. and 4. local cell) LNCEL LCELL
There are no means to automatically cross-check sectorId
whether this assignment is made correctly unless
LTE1367 NetAct feature is considered. SCell

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Configuration and activation of CA features

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

STEP 2: retrieving local resource ID of the SCell

Local cell resource ID of the cell to be used as a secondary cell should be


read
LNBTS

Scell LCELL LNCEL


sectorId

Local cell resource


ID of the SCell
LNCEL LCELL
lcrId sectorId

SCell

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Configuration and activation of CA features

STEP 3: creation of a new CAREL object of the PCell


New object CAREL should be created under the LNCEL related to the cell
playing a role of PCell

LNBTS

Pcel
PCell
l
LNCEL
LCELL
New sectorI
d
CAREL CAREL
object

LNCEL LCELL
lcrId sectorId

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Configuration and activation of CA features

STEP 4: creation of the relationship between primary and secondary cell

Local cell resource ID of the SCell (as retrieved in the step 2) should be
put in the local cell resource ID of cell to be aggregated parameter in the
CAREL of the PCell (as created in the step 3)
LNBTS

PCell

LCELL LNCEL
sectorI
d
CAREL
lcrId
Pointer to the Scell

Steps 2-4 to be repeated for all required PCell-SCell combinations LNCEL LCELL
in the site lcrId sectorId

SCell

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Configuration and activation of CA features

Table of Contents
LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

STEP 5: feature dependency cross-check Activation flag of


flexible BB usage
Dependencies with the following features have to be obeyed: Use of this feature limits
LNBTS/actEnhAcAndGbrServices (Activate enhanced AC and GBR services) has to be set to 'truerange of certain
LNBTS/actFlexBbUsage (Activate flexible base band usage) has to be set to 'true parameters e.g. maximum
PUCCH resource size for 5
LNCEL/actSuperCell (Activate supercell configuration) has to be set to 'false' and 10 MHz limited to 10
PRBs
Note:
.
Dependency with the following
features (LTE 72 4-way RX
diversity, LTE 980 IRC 4Rx, LTE
568 DL adaptive closed loop MIMO
(4x2)) have to be assured
manually. All these features have
to be disabled

It has to be also assured that rules related to the Admission Control Note:
parameters are satisfied e.g.: There are also other parameter
dependencies that have to be
maxNumActUE + max (addUeRrHo, addUeTcHo) 420 obeyed for the aggregated cells
maxNumRrc 420 please refer here for further details
maxNumRrcEmergency 420

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Configuration and activation of CA features

STEP 6: feature activation

In the final step Carrier Aggregation could be enabled via feature flag:

CA feature activation flag

Note:
BTS restart is required after
changing the value of
actDLCAggr (Activation of
downlink carrier aggregation)
.

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Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

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Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

If Carrier Aggregation is activated (actDLCAggr set to TRUE) and


Configuration and activation of
Carrier Aggregation feature in there is a secondary cell configured for the cell where the UE is
the paired cells
served, secondary cell could be added to this UE
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE Process of adding the secondary cell starts just after Initial Context
Setup, handover (on the target side) or RRC Connection
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE Reestablishment procedure
The process of adding the secondary cell to the UE could take place
Division of the DL UE buffer
into PCell and SCell and data only for the Carrier Aggregation capable UEs
scheduling
The UE explicitly provides the information for all combinations of
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE bands for which it supports carrier aggregation functionality details in
next slides.
Releasing of the secondary Note:
cell for the UE Pcell (primary cell) is always the
cell in which UE and eNB have
established the RRC connection

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Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE

Rel. 10 (or higher) UE is treated as CA capable from the algorithm


Configuration and activation of
Carrier Aggregation feature in perspective if supportedBandCombination-r10 in UE-EUTRA-Capability
the paired cells
indicates that at least one band combination matches with the bands
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE supported by LTE1089 and offered by earfcnDL parameter of Pcell/Scell
UE Radio Capability with respect to Carrier Aggregation
Activation of the secondary UE should at least indicate
Information Element/ Need Sour Semantics Description / Comments
cell for the UE Group name ce
rf-Parameters-v1020 OPTI UE Must be present for CA
(always explicitly) Class A for
ONAL Includes Carrier aggregation and MIMO
capabilities
each relevant band entry in
Division of the DL UE buffer >supportedBandCombination-r10 UE SEQUENCE (1...128) order to be considered for
List of band combinations
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling
>>bandCombinationParameters-r10 UE SEQUENCE(1..64)
List of bands in a band combination
Carrier Aggregation
>>>BandParameters-r10 UE Parameters for a band
>>>> bandEUTRA-r10 UE ID of band (1...64)
Deactivation of the secondary >>>> bandParametersUL-r10 OPTI UE SEQUENCE(1...16) Note:
cell for the UE ONAL List of bandwidth classes per band in UL
Ignored Class A: aggregated transmitted
>>>> bandParametersDL-r10 OPTI UE SEQUENCE(1...16)
ONAL List of bandwidth classes per band in DL BW configuration <= 100 PRBs
must be present
Releasing of the secondary >>>>> ca-BandwidthClassDL-r10 UE CA bandwidth class {a, b, c, d, e, f, ...} and 1 component carrier
cell for the UE >>>>> supportedMIMO- OPTI UE MIMO capabilities for each band and bandwidth Class B: aggregated transmitted
CapabilityDL-r10 ONAL class {twoLayers, fourLayers, eightLayers}.
UE Category 1: ignored (not MIMO capable)
UE Category 2-8: mandatory according to
BW configuration <= 100 PRBs
rf-Parameters-v1060
[3GPP 36.306 4.3.5.2] and 2 component carriers
OPTI UE This IE contains band combination sets.
ONAL Can be ignored for LTE1089 see Note 1.
1 Note 1: the band combination set restricts the bandwidth per carrier for each band combination. In 3GPP Release 11 UE
2 may restrict the carrier bandwidth to 10 MHz even if the band combination would support a bandwidth 15 or 20 MHz. As Higher classes are also
3 LTE1089 anyway supports maximum 10 MHz per carrier, there is no restriction by this parameter.
standardized by 3GPP

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Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE

LTE1804: Downlink carrier aggregation


3CC - 60 MHz (FL 15A) CA active UEs
CA UEs with SCell
configured
CA UEs with two
SCells configured

100
Configuring SCell = adding SCell

Maximum number of active UEs


Active UE UE in RRC Connected state with
DRB established (with or without data in the
buffer) 50

Cell configuration limitations: 20

Up to 100 active UEs can use CA:


LNCEL- LNCEL- LNCEL-
up to 100 of them can be configured with a maxNumCaConfUe maxNumCaConfUeDc maxNumCaConfUe3c

SCell
LNBTS; maxNumCaConfUe3c
up to 100 of them, can be configured with two
Max number CA configured UEs
SCells
0100
Default; 20 LNBTS; maxNumCaConfUeDc
Max number CA configured UEs
Until the conditions satisfied: 0100
Default; 50 LNBTS; maxNumCaConfUe
max ( maxNumCaConfUeDc , maxNumCaConfUe3c ) maxNumCaConfUe Max number CA configured UEs
0100
sum( maxNumCaConfUeDc , maxNumCaConfUe3c ) maxNumCaConfUe
Default; 50

45 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE

Example:
Cell can serve:
LNCEL-maxNumCaConfUe=50 40 UEs with one SCell + 10 UEs with two SCells
LNCEL-maxNumCaConfUeDc=40 or
LNCEL-maxNumCaConfUe3c=20 30 UEs with one SCell + 20 UEs with two SCells

40+20-50=10
LNCEL-
CA UEs with at least one maxNumCaConfUe3c
SCell
(first came first served) 50-40=10
LNCEL- CA UEs with two SCells
maxNumCaConfUe 20 can be served
Maximum number of active UEs

LNCEL-
or maxNumCaConfUeDc
50-20=30
CA UEs with one
SCell can be served

LNCEL-
maxNumCaConfUe3c

50 40 20

46 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

In order to inform the UE that secondary cell is added:


Configuration and activation of
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells
RRC Connection Reconfiguration message is sent to the UE and
acknowledged by sending RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE

Activation of the secondary


cell for the UE

Division of the DL UE buffer PCell and SCell is from now on configured (e.g. PUCCH resources
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling are reserved)
Deactivation of the secondary It means that e.g. CQI reporting is now performed for these UEs in the CA
cell for the UE specific way
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE If cell is added, it means that it could be later on activated

47 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

48 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Activation of the secondary cell for the UE

Activation of the secondary cell means for the UE that: LNBTS: sCellActivationMethod
PDCCH of the SCell is from now on monitored in order to find SCell activation method.
potential DL grant for this UE nonGBRBufferBased (0),
CQI/PMI/RI reporting for the SCell is performed via primary cell blind (1),
(no UL carrier aggregation) nonGBRBufferBasedStepWise (2)
Default: 2

Activation procedure Activation methods:


Activation of the SCell(s) is done by The variety of activation methods has been
setting proper bits of Activation MAC extended with LTE1804 (FL15a)
Control Element (CE) to the value of 1 The method is selected with the
LNBTS-sCellActivationMethod parameter
taking on values:

SCell SCell - blind activation


2 1
- buffer based activation

not used new


- buffer based stepwise activation implementation

49 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Activation of the secondary cell for the UE

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Blind activation means that Configure UE with SCell
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells secondary cell is activated right RRM signalling
after adding it. SCell configured, not activated
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE
nGBR buffer Blind
Start
Activation of the secondary
However, in case of blind calculatin
based activation
cell for the UE activaton there is no defined g Start periodic Scell
procedure for re-activating it if e.g. activation activation cycle activated
Division of the DL UE buffer earlier on the cell is deactivated threshold
into PCell and SCell and data value Period activation
scheduling due to sCellDeactivationTimereNB occassion
Restart
Deactivation of the secondary
expiry (please refer to section on timer
Compare nGBR
cell for the UE deactivation procedures) buffer against
current
Releasing of the secondary activation
cell for the UE threshold

Scell activated
At subframe n+8

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Activation of the secondary cell for the UE

Configure UE with SCell


Buffer based activation of the secondary cell
means that every sCellActivationCyclePeriod it is RRM signaling

checked whether all non-GBR data awaiting initial SCell configured, not
transmission in the buffer of that UE is greater than activated
the certain dynamically calculated threshold.
nGBR buffer based Blind activation

amount of data that could be


transmitted solely by the Start periodic Scell
primary cell based on the Start activated
activation cycle
calculating
throughput reached in the
activation
past by this UE threshold
Period activation occasion
value
Restart
timer
LNBTS; sCellActivationCyclePeriod
SCell activation cycle period Compare nGBR buffer
0.5s (0), 1s (1), 2s (2), 4s (3), 8s (4), 16s (5) against current
, 0.1s (6), 0.001s (7) activation threshold
Default: 0.001s (7)

Scell activated
At subframe n+8

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Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
LNBTS: scellActivationLevel
Conservativeness level of SCell activation
Buffer based stepwise activation 1TTI (1), 10TTI (10), 100TTI (100),
1000TTI (1000), 0.1TTI (1010), 0.25TTI
(1020), 0.5TTI (1030), 0.75TTI (1040)
Default: 1

Stepwise activation:
2s
Data in the buffer is compared with the data that One SCell
checking activated

bit rate
can be drained on: cycle
PCell transfer limit
PCell (if no SCell activated yet) or
PCell and SCell (if a SCell activated already) Case a
time
during LNBTS-scellActivationLevel 2s

checking
If data in the buffer exceeds the threshold cycle Two SCells
PCell and SCell
activation is performed activated

bit rate
transfer limit

The check is done every PCell transfer limit


LNBTS-sCellActivationCyclePeriod [s]
Case b
SCell with lower Normalized Load Compare time
2s
Value (NLCV) is activated in the first place
checking Two SCells
cycle
PCell and SCell activated
bit rate

transfer limit
LNBTS; sCellActivationCyclePeriod
SCell activation cycle period PCell transfer limit

0.5s (0), 1s (1), 2s (2), 4s (3), 8s (4), 16s (5) , 0.1s (6), Case c
0.001 (7) time
Default: 0.001s (7)
52 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016
Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

53 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Apart from the regular DL scheduler algorithms, there are separate
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells CA specific algorithms running on top crucial one is the algorithm
Adding the secondary cell to deciding about data split between PCell and Scell
the given CA-capable UE
Pcell and SCell schedulers as such run separately on TTI
Activation of the secondary basis, like in pre-RL50 case
cell for the UE
There are certain modifications implemented in the generic
Division of the DL UE buffer scheduler algorithm running in the cells once Carrier Aggregation is
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling enabled in the cell
Deactivation of the secondary Only non-GBR data could be sent via Scell
cell for the UE

Releasing of the secondary


cell for the UE

54 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of The fact of having the SCell activated does not necessarily mean
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells that it will be actually used in every TTI.
Adding the secondary cell to The scheduler evaluates whether the amount of buffered non-
the given CA-capable UE
GBR data justifies the use of SCell, because PCell resources
Activation of the secondary may be sufficient.
cell for the UE

The amount of buffered data is compared to


Division of the DL UE buffer the threshold dynamically derived from past
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling transmission efficiency. It is additionally
modified in case of bursty data arriving at
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE
buffer

Releasing of the secondary


cell for the UE
The decision about the need to use the SCell uses the same algorithm and thresholds as the
procedure that activates the SCell

55 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of In each TTI at which the amount of buffered data indicates that
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells SCell shall be used, the scheduler needs to determine the ratio at
Adding the secondary cell to which to split the amount of buffered non-GBR data between the
the given CA-capable UE
PCell and SCell.
Activation of the secondary
GBR data is sent only via Pcell
cell for the UE
The same holds for SRB

Division of the DL UE buffer The scheduler needs to know the current amount of data in the
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling downlink transmission buffer and shall also measure and update
Deactivation of the secondary
the non-GBR throughputs achieved in the past in PCell and SCell
cell for the UE
The buffered non-GBR data is divided between PCell and SCell according to non-
GBR throughput share achieved in the past
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE More details in next slide

56 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of The division factor is limited to the range of 1090% to avoid
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells possible deadlock.
Division factor
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE
PCell SCell

Activation of the secondary


cell for the UE 0% 10% 90% 100%

Division of the DL UE buffer If any of the serving cells succeeds in allocating all of its data share in current
into PCell and SCell and data TTI (while the other cell does not), this indicates that this cell has high
scheduling
scheduling potential. Therefore in the next TTI it will be given additional 10% of
Deactivation of the secondary the throughput share
cell for the UE
The actual buffer is not divided, as the buffer share indicates only
Releasing of the secondary the maximum amount of non-GBR data that a given serving cell
cell for the UE
shall try to assign to a particular UE in given TTI
Both serving cells try to assign as much as possible of their
respective share.

57 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Equal share of Scell data Pcell data


Configuration and activation of assigned data Scell data Pcell data
Carrier Aggregation feature in Scell data Pcell data
the paired cells
Scheduling process not all assigned data was scheduled
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE
Actually Pcell data
Activation of the secondary scheduled data Scell data Pcell data
cell for the UE
Outcome: better conditions in PCell, more data actually
Division of the DL UE buffer scheduled, so bigger share assigned in the next TTI
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling
New share of
Deactivation of the secondary
assigned data
cell for the UE determined by Pcell data
past throughput Pcell data
efficiency Scell data Pcell data
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE Scheduling process all assigned data was scheduled in PCell

Actually Pcell data


Scell data Pcell data
scheduled data Pcell data

PCell will have additional 10% share in the next TTI

58 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Time domain scheduling step determines which UEs shall be
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells
considered for scheduling in current TTI.
Adding the secondary cell to The UEs are put in groups according to the bearer type and ordered inside
the given CA-capable UE each group according to individual priority.

Activation of the secondary


Only limited number of highest priority UEs will qualify for next steps of
cell for the UE scheduling (i.e. actual assignment of resources)

Division of the DL UE buffer


No changes with respect to handling of signaling and GBR bearers.
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling
The scheduling weight is calculated by summing up the individual
weights of all non-GBR bearers of this UE. Each individual weight is
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE related to the QCI value of the bearer (parameter: schedulWeight).

Releasing of the secondary


The non-GBR scheduling weight for the CA-capable UEs is
cell for the UE modified (multipied) by two components:
fairness factor (database parameter)
throughput correction factor (derived from past average and current
conditions)

59 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Modification of the scheduling weight related to the fairness factor
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells
Modification consists of multiplying the original weight by the
Adding the secondary cell to additional component (2 caSchedFairFact) both in PCell and
the given CA-capable UE
Scell
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE
0 1
caSchedFairFact
Division of the DL UE buffer The lower value, the more given UE The higher the value is, the more
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling is pushed upwards nGBR group in fair treatment of CA and non-CA
the serving cell. The probability of UEs is in place as specific boost
Deactivation of the secondary serving CA UEs in the given TTI is given to CA UEs is limited more
cell for the UE increased at the cost of non-CA UEs
LNCEL:caSchedFairFact (Sched Carrier Aggr fairness control factor)
Releasing of the secondary Range: 0, , 1 Step: 0.1 Default: 1
cell for the UE

Use of fairness factor is the most efficient way to control the promotion
of CA UEs vs. non-CA UEs.
However, in low load scenarios the caSchedFairFact will not have much significance
in TD scheduling phase as all UEs are likely to be served anyway. It would have
some impact in the frequency domain even if all UEs go through TD scheduling.

60 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Modification of the scheduling weight related to the throughput
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells correction factor
Adding the secondary cell to modified UE non-GBR weight is corrected by the ratio of expected
the given CA-capable UE
throughput in a given serving cell to combined averaged past
Activation of the secondary throughput in both serving cells (throughput correction factor).
cell for the UE
UE expected to achieve higher throughput in one of the serving
Division of the DL UE buffer cells will be further boosted in this cell
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling

Deactivation of the secondary


cell for the UE This mechanism of scheduling weight adaptation will help the given
cell to handle its share of the non-GBR buffer
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE

61 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of There are certain limitations related to number of UEs per TTI served by
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells FSMr2 and FSMr3:
Adding the secondary cell to Number of CA
5 MHz 10 MHz
the given CA-capable UE UEs per TTI
FSMr2 5 5
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE FSMr3 7 10

Division of the DL UE buffer Limitation of


into PCell and SCell and data total number 5 MHz 10 MHz
scheduling
of UEs per TTI
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE UEs without SCell active + UEs without SCell active +
FSMr2
2*UEs with active SCell 10 2*UEs with active SCell 10
Releasing of the secondary UEs without SCell active + UEs without SCell active + UEs
cell for the UE FSMr3
UEs with active SCell 7 with active SCell 10

Note:
Maximum value of UEs per TTI (covered by maxNumUeDl) was increased in RL50 for 10 MHz BW from 10 to 14 for three-cells
site deployments. For Carrier Aggregation feature values provided in the table takes precedence over maxNumUeDl if the latter
one is higher.

62 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Frequency domain scheduling Allocate resources to signaling


Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells step determines: bearers of the UE
Adding the secondary cell to how much resources shall be allocated
the given CA-capable UE to individual UEs Allocate resources to GBR bearers
which Resource Block Groups shall be (GBR bearers with the worst delay
Activation of the secondary budget are taken)
cell for the UE assigned to individual UEs
The resources are allocated in
Division of the DL UE buffer Allocate remaining resources to
into PCell and SCell and data several rounds, each dedicated to Non-GBR bearers of the UE
scheduling
specific type of bearer (signaling, according to scheduling weights
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE
GBR, non-GBR). Therefore the
final assignment for an individual Allocate remaining resources to
Releasing of the secondary UE having multiple bearers is built remaining GBR bearers with data
cell for the UE in buffer
in several steps
No changes with respect to handling of signaling and GBR bearers.

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Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

Table of Contents
LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of The resources are allocated to Allocate resources to signaling
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells UEs having non-GBR bearers bearers of the UE
Adding the secondary cell to using Weighted Round Robin
the given CA-capable UE
algorithm. The QCI specific weight Allocate resources to GBR bearers
(schedulWeight) determines how (GBR bearers with the worst delay
Activation of the secondary budget are taken)
cell for the UE often a given UE will be considered
in decision process.
Division of the DL UE buffer Allocate remaining resources to
into PCell and SCell and data Similarly to TD scheduling phase Non-GBR bearers of the UE
scheduling
the non-GBR scheduling weight for according to scheduling weights
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE the CA-capable UEs is modified by
two components: Allocate remaining resources to
Releasing of the secondary
remaining GBR bearers with data
cell for the UE fairness factor (network parameter) in buffer
throughput correction factor
(derived from past average and
current conditions)

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Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Non-CA capable UE
Configuration and activation of
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells
nGBR bearer QCI=7 Non-CA
schedulWeight =10 case
UE nGBR scheduling
Adding the secondary cell to weight: 15
the given CA-capable UE nGBR bearer QCI=8
schedulWeight =5
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE CA capable UE
nGBR bearer QCI=8
Selection of UEs by
UE nGBR scheduling
weight: 5 Weighted Round Robin
Division of the DL UE buffer schedulWeight =5
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling
Non-CA capable UE
Deactivation of the secondary CA case
cell for the UE UE nGBR scheduling
weight: 15
Releasing of the secondary Pcell: new_weight = CA capable UE
cell for the UE
schedulWeight* Pcell UE nGBR Selection of UEs by Weighted
(2-caSchedFairFact)* scheduling weight: 3 Round Robin in Pcell
caSchedFairFact = 0.8 throughput_correction
Throughput correction factor = High value of caSchedFairFact deprioritize the
(equal conditions in PCell and non-GBR bearer of CA-capable UE, thus it will be
Scell) less often selected by WRR

65 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Active secondary cell is deactivated if:


Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells 1 There is no data scheduled for the SCell during sCellDeactivationTimerEnb
Adding the secondary cell to The timer is reset to zero at each new SCell PDCCH assignment
the given CA-capable UE
2 No HARQ feedback was received during sCellDeactivationTimerEnb
Activation of the secondary Ambiguous HARQ feedback is treated as DTX
cell for the UE
LNBTS: sCellDeactivationTimerEnb
(SCell deactivation timer eNB) Note:
Division of the DL UE buffer Range: rf2 (0), rf4 (1), rf8 (2), rf16 (3), Parameter range is provided in radio
into PCell and SCell and data rf32 (4), rf64 (5), 128 (6), infinity (7) frames, so default 128 means 1280
scheduling Default: 128 (6)
ms
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE

Releasing of the secondary As a special case, If sCellDeactivationTimerEnb = 'infinity', the SCell


cell for the UE is not deactivated and the timer is not handled.
Note that GBRs are served on a primary cell only. Establishment of a
GBR DRB does not cause SCell deactivation or de-configuration

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Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

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Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of Deactivation is done through sending of Activation/Deactivation MAC


Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells CE to the UE
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE
NOT USED
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE

Division of the DL UE buffer


into PCell and SCell and data Set to 0 for cell deactivation
scheduling

Deactivation of the secondary


cell for the UE
Deactivation means that:
Releasing of the secondary no transmission could be scheduled to the UE on the secondary cell
cell for the UE
UE stops sending periodic CSI reports related to the SCell

68 RA4122CEN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016


Activation / Deactivation of the Scell for the UE based on UE buffer

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Simplified scenario is shown, with equal split of nGBR data between PCell and SCell
Configuration and activation of
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells SCell activation:
buffered nGBR data n+8 TTI: start of Not enough buffered
Adding the secondary cell to exceeds activaton actual transmission data to use both PCell
the given CA-capable UE threshold over SCell and SCell

Activation of the secondary Sufficient amount of data


cell for the UE to use SCell again

Division of the DL UE buffer


into PCell and SCell and data Not enough buffered data to
scheduling use both PCell and SCell
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE SCell deactivation at the expiry
of sCellDeactivationTimerEnb
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE
.

Time (individual
nGBR data nGBR TTIs)
sent over data sent Each TTI: decision whether to use SCell
PCell over SCell and determination of PCell/SCell data limits

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Activation / Deactivation of the Scell for the UE based on UE buffer

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

In this scenario the SCell offers more favourable conditions


Configuration and activation of allowing for allocating of more data to SCell
Carrier Aggregation feature in
the paired cells
All data allocated to SCell scheduled (considered as indication
Adding the secondary cell to More favourable
of high available PDSCH capacity) additional 10% allocation
the given CA-capable UE conditions in SCell
boost on top of calculated throughput share
lead to higher share
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE
Split of data limits between PCell and SCell
Division of the DL UE buffer favors the cell that allows to achieve higher
into PCell and SCell and data nGBR throughput (based on past average).
scheduling Therefore in each TTI the better cell (here
Deactivation of the secondary SCell) will get higher share of the buffered
cell for the UE nGBR data

Releasing of the secondary


cell for the UE
.

Time (individual
nGBR data nGBR TTIs)
sent over data sent Max share of buffered data in one of the cells: 90%
PCell over SCell

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Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

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Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

Configuration and activation of


Carrier Aggregation feature in Scell is released if:
the paired cells
RRC connection is released
Adding the secondary cell to
the given CA-capable UE RRC Connection Reestablishment message is sent to the UE
TTI bundling is about to be switched on
Activation of the secondary
cell for the UE TTI bundling is used if radio conditions justify use of TTI bundling (low MCS, low
number of PRBs allowed by E-ULLA and high BLER). By default, it is used if GBR
Division of the DL UE buffer bearer QCI1 is used by the UE
into PCell and SCell and data
scheduling Secondary cell is also deconfigured due to any kind of handover
Deactivation of the secondary
cell for the UE
The secondary cell could be added again on the target side of the
handover similarly like during the initial context setup.
Releasing of the secondary
cell for the UE

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Index

Configuration and activation of CA features


Adding the secondary cell to the given CA-capable UE
Activation of the secondary cell for the UE
Division of the DL UE buffer into PCell and SCell and data scheduling
Deactivation of the secondary cell for the UE
Releasing of the secondary cell for the UE
Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO,
Link Adaptation,DRX,RLF,others
Related parameters and How to configure it

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH All associated UL traffic (PUCCH


as well as PUSCH) related to both
PUSCH PCell and SCell is transmitted on
Ambigous HARQ the primary carrier including all
feedback corresponding signaling needed for
MIMO
proper handling of RRM algorithms CA capable UE
in the Scell
Link Adaptation Uplink Control Information to be
considered here consists of Carrier 1
DRX
ACK/NACK, CQI, PMI and RI
Carrier 2
Others

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

PUCCH If CA is activated for the given UE there will be a need to transmit multi-
cell ACK/NACK message the report covering simultaneous all
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH
resources per cell
transport blocks for both cells
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous
feedback
At maximum there are four such transport blocks one pair for each
Additional PUCCH
resources for given serving cell.
UE MIMO
TB1 PCell TB2 PCell TB1 SCell TB2 SCell
Additional PUCCH
resources for given
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI
Choice of the ACK/NACK ACK/NACK ACK/NACK ACK/NACK
DRXto
PUCCH resource
be used
Multi-cell ACK/NACK sent via PUCCH is handled via special message:
Transmission
Others
CQI, SR, RI
of PUCCH format 1b with channel selection standardized specifically
for Carrier Aggregation for the cases where there is a need to send up to
Admission Control 4 bits of HARQ information (2 per each cell due to MIMO one bit for
each transport block)

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

PUCCH From the system perspective there are 48 (36 if MIMO is not used)
additional HARQ resources.
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH These additional HARQ resources are taken out from regular PUCCH resources for SR at
resources per cell once if CAREL is created under PCell.
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous
feedback Further implications on PUCCH dimensioning in the dedicated section
Additional PUCCH
resources for given
UE MIMO These resources are organized into groups of 4 REs:
Additional PUCCH
resources for given Transmission Number of additional Number of Number of elements
UE in Link Adaptation riEnable
the given TTI Modes HARQ resources groups within the group
Choice of the FALSE TM1/TM2 36 9 groups 4
DRXto
PUCCH resource
be used 12 coupled
TRUE TM3/TM4 48 4
groups
Others
Transmission of
CQI, SR, RI
TM3/TM4 case additional HARQ resources: 12 coupled groups of 4
Admission Control elements each to serve all UEs in the given cell (in total 48 elements)

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

PUCCH Each UE is assigned to:


one group if TM1/TM2 is used
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH two coupled groups in case of MIMO
resources per cell
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous of these resources.
feedback
Additional PUCCH
resources for given Resources (one group of 4 elements or
UE MIMO 1
two coupled groups) are semi-statically
Additional PUCCH
resources for given assigned to the given UE and are
UE in Link Adaptation
the given TTI
provided in n1PUCCH-AN-CS-List-r10 2
Choice of the
DRXto
PUCCH resource structure
be used

Others
Transmission of
CQI, SR, RI
TM3/TM4 case additional HARQ resources available for the given
UE : two coupled groups of 4 elements each are assigned (in total 8
Admission Control elements)

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

PUCCH The use of:


Given single element out of four (in non-MIMO case)
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH Two elements out of eight (in MIMO case)
resources per cell
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous for the given allocation is dynamically signaled to the UE via TPC field.
feedback
Additional PUCCH
resources for given Value in the TPC field points to the position of the resource in both first and
UE MIMO
second PUCCH resource list as configured by n1PUCCH-AN-CS-List-r10
Additional PUCCH
resources for given
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI
Choice of the
DRXto
PUCCH resource
be used Dynamic signalling
Others
Transmission of
CQI, SR, RI

Admission Control
TM3/TM4 case additional HARQ resources available
for the given UE in the given TTI: 2 elements

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH In TM mode supporting up to 4 TBs e.g. in TM3, for the given round of
HARQ particular UE could send the ACK/NACK message with the help
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH of one of following four PUCCH resources
resources per cell 1 2 3 4
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous A HARQ-ACK(j)
feedback
Additional PUCCH
HARQ-ACK(0) HARQ-ACK(1) HARQ-ACK(2) HARQ-ACK(3)
resources for given 2 TB1 Primary cell TB1 Secondary cell NA NA
UE MIMO
3 TB1 Serving cell1 TB2 Serving cell1 TB1 Serving cell2 NA
Additional PUCCH 4 TB1 Primary cell TB2 Primary cell TB1 Secondary cell TB2 Secondary cell
resources for given
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI
position implicitly
Choice of the position implicitly one of four semi-statically assigned pair of
DRXto determined by the
PUCCH resource determined by the lowest additional PUCCH resources (= two elements)
be used lowest CCE index
CCE index used to according to the value defined within the TPC
used to construct the
construct the PDCCH (for field in the PDCCH DL assignment on the
Others
Transmission of PDCCH (for Pcell) +
CQI, SR, RI
Pcell) + n1PucchAn Scell.(1) (1)
1+ n1PucchAn(1) nPUCCH,2 nPUCCH,3
(as in regular
(1)
nPUCCH,0non-CA nPUCCH,1
case)
Admission Control TM3/TM4 case there are 4 HARQ resources in total available for the given
UE in the given TTI: 2 from the regular pool and 2 from the additional pool
Note: Use of additional resource from the regular pool ( 2 ) will affect PDCCH
blocking refer to Link Adapatation section

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

Technical Details

WHERE WHAT

PUCCH The final choice of one PUCCH 2


resource out of these four resources 3
(1) (1)
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH (so nPUCCH,0 , ,nPUCCH,3 ) and the 2
resources per cell 4
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous actual content of the PUCCH 2
feedback
Additional PUCCH
(sequence of two bits) depends on 3
resources for given
UE MIMO
ACK/NACK/DTX for the four 2

transport blocks (two for PCell and 4


Additional PUCCH
3
resources for given
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI
two for Scell) 3

Choice of the 4
DRXto
PUCCH resource 4
be used Actual HARQ report (four
1
NACK/ACK/DTX fields) affects not
Transmission
Othersof 1
CQI, SR, RI only WHAT is sent via PUCCH but
1
also WHERE it is sent
1
Admission Control 1

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

Table of Contents
LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation

PUCCH Transmitted Impact of LTE1089 if CA is enabled in the cell General


information impact
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH CQI For the UEs with added (but not activated) secondary
resources per cell
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous cell:
feedback CQI periodicity for CQIs related to PCell increased from cqiPerNp cqiPerNp is
Additional PUCCH
resources for given (non-CA case) to 2*cqiPerNp extended in
UE MIMO No CQIs for the Scell
RL50 to
Additional PUCCH include 80ms
resources for given For the UEs with added and activated secondary cell:
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI periodicity
CQI periodicity for CQIs related to PCell is 2*cqiPerNp
Choice of the The same periodicity of 2*cqiPerNp for reports related to Scell.
DRXto
PUCCH resource The CQI reports for PCell and SCell are sent alternately
be used

Transmission of
Others RI If CAREL is created under LNCEL and riEnable = TRUE
CQI, SR, RI then only riPerM = 1 is allowed
Frequency reduced (as CQI)
Admission Control SR No change

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH
CQI in CA
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH
resources per cell
For CA capable UE, when second cell is configured (but not
for ACK/NACK HARQ
Ambigous necessarily activated), CQI periodicity is modified.
feedback
Additional PUCCH
resources for given
Pcell CQIs are interleaved with SCell CQIs but CQI periodicity is not
UE MIMO changed (cqiPerNp is not affected). It means that in fact for the single
Additional PUCCH
resources for given
involved cell real CQI periodicity = 2*cqiPerNp
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI

Choice of the
real CQI periodicity
DRXto
PUCCH resource
be used
cqiPerNp real CQI periodicity
Transmission of
Others
CQI, SR, RI PCell CQI SCell CQI PCell CQI SCell CQI time

Admission Control

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH Admission Control vs. PUCCH resources


Before RL50: there is no automatic cross-check between parameterization of
AdditionalPUSCH
PUCCH Admission Control (like e.g. maximum number of RRC connections) and PUCCH
resources per cell
for ACK/NACK HARQ
channel.
Ambigous
feedback It means that e.g. if PUCCH resources are under dimensioned and there is no room for
Additional PUCCH
resources for given CQI or SR resources for a new RRC connection, this RRC connection is rejected.
UE MIMO
Consistency between PUCCH parameters that define the resources for SR, CQI,
Additional PUCCH
resources for given ACK/NACK and the maximum number of RRC connections (incl. additional margins for
Link Adaptation
UE in the given TTI HOs) should be assured manually.
Choice of the
DRXto
PUCCH resource
RL50: it is possible to activate automatic cross-check between Admission Control
be used and PUCCH parameters (irrespectively of Carrier Aggregation activation status)
Others
Transmission of via setting actCompChecks = TRUE. eNB could not be configured once any
CQI, SR, RI consistency rule is violated.
Note: actCompChecks parameter now consider
LNCEL: actCompChecks (Activation LTE 786 (Flexible Uplink Bandwidth) feature, so if
Admission Control of complete consistency checks) LTE786 is activated (blankedPucch>0) verification
Range: true, false Default: true of AC parameters vs. PUCCH resources respects
For the migrated sites (from RL40) parameter is added with the value false. also pucchBlanked PRBs.

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DL Carrier Aggregation
Periodic Channel State information handling in case of SCell transmission
recap

CA capable UE
CA capable UE

nGBR in Pcell only nGBR in Pcell and SCell

Simultaneous sending of ACK/NACK and CSI via PUCCH channel:

if PDSCH is scheduled from PCell only: ACK/NACK and periodic CQI are sent
simultaneously (format 2a/2b could be used instead of PUCCH format 1b with
channel selection).
If PDSCH is scheduled from SCell or PCell and Scell: periodic CQI is dropped

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DL Carrier Aggregation
PUCCH implications

As introduced in LTE1089, up to 4 CA UEs could share the same HARQ


resources (group) in the given TTI.
Other CA UEs sharing the same HARQ resources (group) are blocked from
scheduling in this TTI. The UEs with lower scheduling weights are excluded
first. These are treated as blocked due to PDCCH Link Adaptation.

As a consequence of LTE1562 specific PUCCH handling (PUCCH resources


split statically between SCell A and SCell B), probability of UE blocking due to
scheduling is increased

n1PucchAn has to be always higher or equal to 72, 3CC are used

LNCEL; n1PucchAn
ACK/NACK offset
10...2047,
Default; 36

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DL Carrier Aggregation
PUCCH implications

If CA is activated for a UE, there will be a need to transmit multi-cell ACK/NACK


messages reports covering simultaneously all transport blocks for all cells (PCell and
two SCells)
- At maximum there are six transport blocks for 3 cells (one pair for each serving cell)

TB1 PCell TB2 PCell TB1 SCell 1 TB2 SCell 1 TB1 SCell 2 TB2 SCell 2

ACK/NACK ACK/NACK ACK/NACK ACK/NACK ACK/NACK ACK/NACK

This requires more data to be sent in a single ACK/NACK report than normally available
so PUCCH Format 3 is used.

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DL Carrier Aggregation
PUCCH implications

DMRS

DMRS
Introduced in R10 to support increased HARQ acks from CA.
For FDD supports up to 5CC CA each with 2 acks- up to
HARQ 10 acks total.
For TDD supports up to 5CC CA each with 2 acks, may have
to ack multiple frames, support up to 20HARQ acks
total(further mux can be used).
Unlike format 1,1a,1b format 3 can transmit Scheduling
Request at the same time as the HARQ acks, (format 1,1a,1b
use a dedicated SR PUCCH resource) .
Format 3 uses 5 orthogonal codes to differentiate UEs using
the same PUCCH resource (unlike format1) .
The PUCCH 3 resource in use is signalled by n3PUCCH-AN- PUCCH format 3 uses the same
List parameter range 0-549 ( to all for 5 Ues per RB over 110 DMRS structure as format 2
RB).
RRC signalling gives the UE 4 values of n3PUCCH-AN-List, LNCEL: nPucchF3Prbs
Number of PUCCH PRBs for HARQ
UE is dynamically allocated one of the 4 values via the TPC format 3
command for PUCCH (different interpretation for PUCCH3). 0..2;
Default 0
This value determines the allocated RB and the orthogonal
code, (ie only 4 codes orthogonal codes used).

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LNCEL: nPucchF3Prbs

DL Carrier Aggregation Number of PUCCH PRBs for HARQ


format 3
0..2;
PUCCH implications Default 0

PUCCH Format 3 reports are sent in dedicated PRBs allocated


on the outer edge of PUCCH region
Number of PRBs dedicated for PUCCH Format 3 can be
adjusted using nPucchF3Prbs parameter
- In LTE1803 number of PRBs for PUCCH Format 3 is restricted
to 1 (nPucchF3Prbs=1)
In LTE1803, PRB dedicated for PUCCH Format 3 can carry up to
4 such reports (contains four PUCCH Format 3 resources),
meaning that it can simultaneously serve up to 4CA UEs with
more than one SCell configured
Format 3 will be placed on the outer bandwidth after format 2
have been allocated.
Format 3 will be allocated within the area defined nCqiRB but
according to nPucchF3Prbs only 1 RB is used, therefore
nCqiRb needs to be increased by 1 to maintain capacity for
PUCCH Format 2 LNCEL: nCqiRB
PUCCH bandwidth for CQI
0..98
Default; 2

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH PUSCH on the PCell covers (apart from uplink data transmission on the
Pcell):
PUSCH transmission of multi-cell ACK/NACK
Ambigous HARQ always 4 bits, no special coding for DTX, NACK is used instead
feedback
aperiodic CQI/PMI/RI,
MIMO periodic CQI/PMI/RI (if shifted from PUCCH)

Link Adaptation
related to both PCell and SCell and UL data for Pcell
cqiAperEnable could have different activation flags in PCell and Scell
DRX
Aperiodic CQI on PUSCH are sent alternately for Pcell/Scell so for the
Others default value of cqiAperPollT (that is 3ms) they will be received every 6
ms from the given serving cell perspective

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH Ambigous HARQ detection


Due to certain physical constraints posed by the transmission of multi-cell
PUSCH HARQ, there are certain cases for which it is not possible to distinguish by
Ambigous HARQ the eNB whether for the given transmission NACK or DTX is applicable.
feedback This is caused by the 3GPP implementation of HARQ feedback on top of Carrier
MIMO Aggregation (standardized in such a way to avoid exceeding the PUCCH size too much)
This ambiguity may take place during PUCCH as well as PUSCH
Link Adaptation transmission
DRX Number of RRM areas are affected by this ambiguity and treat this
ambigous HARQ feedback in a different way (details will follow):
Others Outer Loop Quality Control
PDCCH OLLA
Schedulers
DRX
Radio Link Failure mechanism

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH Ambigous HARQ feedback on PUCCH MIMO, only multi-cell


ACK/NACK carried by PUCCH (PUCCH format 1b with channel selection)
PUSCH
In the following cases HARQ feedback is ambigous:
Ambigous HARQ
feedback PCell SCell
PCell TB1 PCell TB2 SCell TB1 SCell TB2
scheduled scheduled
? ?
MIMO NO YES DTX DTX NACK/DTX NACK/DTX
YES YES NACK/DTX NACK/DTX * *
Link Adaptation ? ?
YES YES * * NACK/DTX NACK/DTX
* means wildcard, so whatever is transmitted as HARQ feedback for the corresponding TB
DRX

All other combinations of transmitted information could be fully


Others
recognized by the eNB (HARQ feedback is unambigous)

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH No direct impact of Carrier Aggregation feature on MIMO mode


adaptation algorithm algorithms in both PCell and SCell run
PUSCH independently
Ambigous HARQ If the same cqiPerNp setting is used as before Carrier Aggregation
feedback introduction, the amount of wideband CQI samples used for the MIMO
MIMO adaptation is reduced by 50% at once, if the cell is configured for the
UE
Link Adaptation Please refer to DRX section on further details related to DRX settings and amount of
CQI samples gathered by eNB
DRX
Note that actFastMimoSwitch parameter introduced together with
Others Closed Loop 4x2 MIMO is also applicable for CL 2x2 MIMO, so Fast
adaptive MIMO Switching mode could enabled together with Carrier
Aggregation feature.

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH PDSCH Link Adaptation


Less amount of CQIs is available also to PDSCH Link Adaptation
PUSCH algorithm. However, cause this algorithm utilizes both wideband and
Ambigous HARQ subband CQIs, the performance degradation is expected to be negligible.
feedback

MIMO
OLQC
Link Adaptation Outer Loop Quality Control corrects the CQI reports coming from the
given UE taking into account ACK/NACK reports and DL target BLER
DRX
Ambigous HARQ feedback is treated in this algorithm as if NACK was
Others received

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

PUCCH DRX Manager (DRX algorithm) decisions for both


cells are always coming from the Primary Cell
PUSCH
DRX Manager handles following triggers:
Ambigous HARQ from its own algorithm e.g. OnDurationTimer starts
feedback (timer defines DRX Active period at the beginning of
MIMO
each DRX Cycle),
coming from the Primary Cell (Pcell) e.g.
Link Adaptation drxInactivityTimer start/restart triggers. Timer is
started/restarted with each UL/DL grant and it extends
DRX DRX Active period if the transmission is still ongoing.
Restart is confirmed or not by HARQ feedback in the
PCell which is treated as trigger too
Others
coming from the Secondary Cell (Scell) i.e.
drxInactivityTimer start/restart triggers due to DL grants
in the Scell
Note:
SFN and subframe number are aligned in both cells.

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Influence on PUCCH, PUSCH, HARQ, MIMO, Link Adaptation,DRX

C-RNTI handling

H. Fischer, M. Ruff, D. Sekula, P. Stckl, LTE


1089 Carrier Aggregation 20 MHz, TS CoDe
PUCCH
UE has the same C-RNTI from PCell and SCell perspective
PUSCH

Ambigous HARQ
feedback

MIMO

Link Adaptation

Source:
DRX
Two entries with the same timestamp and cRnti Indicator flag of Scell

RLF
The range of C-RNTIs is split by the eNB on the cells which can be aggregated
Others
Ambigous HARQ feedback in the context of schedulers
Ambigous HARQ feedback is always treated as if NACK is received

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Configuration Management

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Configuration Management

Table of Contents
LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation
Definition of terms and rules for parameter classification:

- The Basic Parameters category contains primary parameters which should be considered during cell deployment and
must be adjusted to a particular scenario. These are:
- Network Element (NE) identifiers
- Planning parameters, e.g. neighbour definitions, frequency, scrambling codes, PCI, RA preambles
- Parameters that are the outcome from dimensioning, i.e. basic parameters defining amount of resources
- Basic parameters activating basic functionalities, e.g. power control, admission control, handovers
- Parameters defining operators strategy, e.g. traffic steering, thresholds for power control, handovers, cell reselections, basic parameters
defining feature behaviour

- The Advanced Parameters category contains the parameters for network optimisation and fine tuning:
- Decent network performance should be achieved without tuning these parameters
- Universal defaults ensuring decent network performance need to be defined for all parameters of this category. If this is not possible for a
given parameter it must be put to the Basic Parameters category
- Parameters requiring detailed system knowledge and broad experience unless rules for the Basic Parameters category are violated
- All parameters (even without defaults) related to advanced and very complex features

- Purpose: Categories of parameters have been defined to simplify network parameterisation. Parameterisation effort
shall be focused mainly on parameters included in basic category.
- Categorisation will be reflected in a view definition in NetAct CM Editor (planned in RL60) i.e. parameters will be
displayed according to the category: either in the Basic parameters view or the Advanced parameters view.

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Configuration Management

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New basic parameters (1/5)

actDLCAggr Activation of downlink carrier aggregation


Object: LNBTS The parameter activates the feature LTE1089 'Downlink carrier aggregation'.
Range: true, false The feature allows higher UE downlink peak data rates by aggregation of two cells.
Note: Carrier Aggregation as introduced in RL50 LTE 1089 feature makes possible the
Step: aggregation of two downlink carriers in the following band combinations:
Default: false - band 1 + band 5,
- band 1 + band 8,
Multiplicity: 1 - band 3 + band 5,
Unit: - - band 3 + band 8,
- band 5 + band 12.
Category: BASIC
The uplink is solely handled by the primary cell meaning that all signalling and data is
transmitted with the help of PCell UL.

Primary benefit of Carrier Aggregation is boosted UE throughput (both: peak and


instantaneous) in all radio conditions - for the UEs for which Carrier Aggregation was activated.

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Configuration Management

Table of Contents
LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation
New basic parameters (2/5)

sectorId Cell sector id


Object: LCELL This parameter defines the spatial sector covered by the
Range: 0, 1, cell. Cells in the same sector must have same value for
, sectorId.
255
Step: 1 Background:
Default: - Before introduction of the Carrier Aggregation functionality
there was no need to introduce any identifier that handles
Multiplicity: 1 the dependency between cells and the geographical sector.
No pre-RL50 feature requires such mapping.
Unit: -
Category: BASIC Carrier Aggregation feature:
The aim of the Carrier Aggregation feature is to aggregate
the DL transmission from two collocated cells that belong
to the same sector. So, there was a need to introduce the
sector id the value of which should be the same to make
use of CA from the given two cells.

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Configuration Management

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New basic parameters (3/5)

lcrId Local cell resource ID of cell to be aggregated


Object: CAREL This parameter is the Local Cell Resource ID of cell to
Range: 0, 1, , 255 be aggregated.
Step: 1 Note: LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation feature introduces
new MOC in the database: CAREL (Carrier
Default: -
Aggregation RELation) - that is subordinated to the
Multiplicity: 1 LNCEL object and points to the Secondary Cell paired
Unit: - with the primary cell as described in LNCEL.
lcrId points to the Secondary Cell (SCell) and creates
Category: BASIC the relation between Primary Cell (parent LNCEL of the
CAREL where the described lcrId is placed) and
Secondary Cell (its LNCEL/ lcrId is the same as the
one stored within LNCEL/CAREL/lcrId). There are
certain dependencies that have to be considered while
creating such association (please refer to the
parameter dependency entry).
Note that in LTE1089 only one secondary cell could be
configured for the given (primary) cell, so one CAREL
(with single lcrId) per LNCEL could be created.

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Configuration Management

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New basic parameters (4/5)

sCellActivationCyclePeriod SCell activation cycle period


Object: LNBTS This parameter defines the period of the SCell Activation cycle.
Range: 0.5s (0), 1s (1), 2s (2), 4s The parameter value is in seconds.
(3), 8s (4), 16s (5) This parameter is not used when sCellActivationMethod is set to 'blind'.
Step: 1 Note: Depending on the settings of the parameter sCellActivationMethod the
secondary cell is activated:
Default: 2s (2)
- blindly (if sCellActivationMethod = blind) that is it is activated once configured,
Multiplicity: 1 - according to the status of the DL buffer (if sCellActivationMethod =
Unit: - nonGBRBufferBased) that is every sCellActivationCyclePeriod it is checked
whether All non-GBR data in buffer of that UE is greater than the threshold of
Category: BASIC data in buffer for transmission via PCell).
Recommendation:
sCellActivationCyclePeriod: to boost the CA penetration it is recommended to
use the lowest possible value i.e. 0.5 s instead of default value equal to 2 s -
especially for some trials/showcases etc. Potential drawbacks of activation of
CA too early (limited amount of users per TTI or scheduler processing load) are
not believed to be significant as far as eNB side is concerned. Possible higher
battery draining (on the UE side) caused by necessity of handling
simultaneously two active serving cells may occur to be important in certain
deployments detailed information about influence of CA on UE battery
draining is not yet available.

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New basic parameters (5/5)

caSchedFairFact Sched Carrier Aggr fairness control factor


Object: CAREL This parameter controls scheduling fairness between UEs with and without activated SCell (S-LNCEL).
Range: 0, 0.1, This parameter controls scheduling fairness in DL time and frequency domain scheduling between UEs with
and without an active SCell. Value 0 means that no fairness is provided; i.e. UEs with an SCell activated get
,maximal benefits; and value 1 means that full fairness is provided i.e. UEs with and without an active SCell will
1be treated similarly.
The pair of cells that are aggregated should have the same setting for this parameter..
Step: 0.1
Note: The parameter affects the scheduling process only for the UEs with active secondary cell. So, the
Default: 1 parameter is meaningful only for the cells with Carrier Aggregation configured and only if there are some UEs
with configured and active CA. However, the aim of this parameter is to provide means to secure
Multiplicity: 1 performance of non-CA UEs.
Unit: -
The parameter plays a role only if the traffic in the given cell is considerably high. For less loaded cells,
Category: BASIC even if no fairness is configured (that is caSchedFairFact = 0), performance of non-CA UEs will be not
affected. Even if there is no fairness and high load, then there is a limited influence on the non-CA users if
the penetration of CA UEs is low. Generally speaking, the higher the PRB occupancy is, the lower
setting of the fairness factor is needed to still assure throughput gains for CA UEs.

The actual parameterization in the field should reflect also operator policy, that is to what extent the operator
would like to promote CA UEs in the highly loaded cluster/periods. For the boosting of the CA user throughput
at any cost, fairness factor equal to 0 should be provided.

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caSchedFairFact Sched Carrier Aggr fairness control factor


(continuation) Recommended starting value is 0.5 - to boost up to the certain extent end-user throughput of CA users
(taking also into consideration the limited penetration of CA users in the initial deployments of CA).

Influence of fairness factor on the mean UE throughput example


DETAILS in the Benefits and Gains section

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Configuration Management

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (1/8)

actCompChecks Activation of complete consistency checks


Object: LNBTS The parameter activates Complete Consistency Checks in Validator tool.
This parameter can be used to disable the checks that could block eNB reconfiguration after SW
Range: true, false upgrade.
Step: Only particular checks in Validator tool are disabled by this parameter.
When, after SW upgrade, configuration validation fails in BTS Site Manager or in NetAct, it is possible to
Default: true set this parameter to "false" and proceed with eNB reconfiguration.
Multiplicity: 1 Note: During migration from RL40 to RL50 the parameter will be added with disabled complete checks,
Unit: - i.e. added with value "false".
It is recommended to reconfigure the parameter to value "true" and adjust the configuration in case the
Category: ADVANCED Validator tool does identify inconsistencies.

Note: Background (pre-RL50):

Till RL50, there is no automatic cross-check between parameterization of Admission Control (like e.g.
maximum number of RRC connections) and PUCCH channel. It means that e.g. if PUCCH resources
are under dimensioned and there is no room for CQI or SR resources for a new RRC connection, this
RRC connection is rejected. Consistency between PUCCH parameters that define the resources for
SR, CQI, ACK/NACK and the maximum number of RRC connections (incl. additional margins for HOs)
should be assured manually.

RL50:

In RL50, it is possible to assure consistency between maximum possible number of RRC


connections to be served by the system and PUCCH resources via setting this parameter to TRUE
(default value).

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Table of Contents
LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation
New advanced parameters (1/8)

actCompChecks Activation of complete consistency checks


(continuation)
Parameter considers LTE 786 (Flexible Uplink Bandwidth) feature (blankedPucch parameter is
included in the consistency check between AC and PUCCH.
Parameter limitation: parameter is meaningful only if riEnable is set to 'true'.

IMPORTANT NOTE: If actCompChecks is set to TRUE, the specific consistency checks will be
done - however, any configuration file for which at least one consistency rule (covered by this
parameter) is not satisfied will be blocked. The eNB could be reconfigured via setting this
parameter to FALSE (that is the dependency rules covered by this parameter will not be checked).

Parameter was introduced together with LTE 1089 (Carrier Aggregation) feature. However, it works
also if CA is disabled.

For the migrated sites (from RL40) parameter is added with the value false.

Parameter enables and disables the consistency checks only for the cells for which no CAREL was
defined. If CAREL is defined (cell could play a role of the primary cell), the consistency check
between Admission Contronl and PUCCH size is always performed.

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LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (2/8)

maxNumCaConfUeDc Max number Carrier Aggr configured UEs double carrier


Object: LNCEL Threshold to limit the maximum number of carrier aggregation configured UEs in a cell PCell (P-
Range: 0, , 50 LNCEL); Dc (Double carrier) indicates that these UEs have 1 PCell (P-LNCEL) and only 1 SCell
(S-LNCEL).
Step: 1 Carrier aggregated UEs with 1 SCell need double amount of UL resources compared with single
Default: 20 carrier UEs as long as UL signaling is done only via PCell. That's why the information Dc is
relevant.
Multiplicity: 1
Note: the parameter restricts the maximum number of UEs in the cell for which Carrier
Unit: - Aggregation is configured (that is, secondary cell is added). However, Carrier Aggregation
may be activated only for subset of these UEs depending on their buffer status. Maximum value
Category: ADVANCED is 50 meaning that up for up to 50 UEs secondary cell could be added. Note however that
simultaneously up to 50 UEs could have this given cell configured (added) as a secondary one.

It might be the case that if the parameter is set to too low value:
- CA UEs that come first to the cell have secondary cell configured but do not use this potential
to the full extent (due to low DL traffic)
- for new CA-capable UEs that enter the cell, secondary cell could not be added (cause the limit
would be then exceeded).
This fact may limit UE throughput performance gains achievable with CA - especially if the
penetration of the CA capable mobiles is considerable and the traffic profile of these UEs is not
throughput demanding. Changing the default value to higher > 20 may be considered (note that
both FSME and FSMF serve up to 50 CA users per cell)..

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LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (3/8)

caMinDlAmbr Min UE-AMBR downlink for carrier aggregation


Object: LNBTS This parameter excludes those UEs from carrier aggregation whose UE-AMBR Downlink
Range: 64...150000 is below the threshold caMinDlAmbr.
kbps Note: During the process of configuration (adding) of the secondary cell for the given UE
one of the condition checked during such configuration is related to AMBR parameter. If
Step: 1 kbps
the QoS parameter UE-AMBR (it could be received by the eNB e.g. in the S1 Initial
Default: 512 kbps Context Setup Request) is lower than caMinDlAmbr*1000, such a UE is blocked from
being used in the Carrier Aggregation mode. The reason is that primary aim of the
Multiplicity: 1 Carrier Aggregation introduction is to boost the end user peak and instantaneous
Unit: - throughput. Both of them will be either compromised if UE-AMBR is set to some low value,
so there is no point in use of CA for such a user.
Category: ADVANCED
If the penetration of CA capable UEs is significant, increasing of caMinDlAmbr to values
higher than 512 kbps may be considered.
Parameter range changed from 64 10 000 kbps to 64 150 000 kbps due to CRL
1042

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Configuration Management

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (4/8)

sCellActivationMethod SCell activation method


Object: LNBTS This parameter defines the Method to be used for SCell Activation.
Range: nonGBRBufferBased (0), blind (1) "blind" means that SCell is blindly activated and it is never re-activated after
sCellDeactivationTimereNB expiration.
Step: - "nonGBRBufferBased" means that SCell activation is triggered depending on the non-
Default: nonGBRBufferBased (0) GBR data in buffer. Period of the SCell Activation cycle is configured in
sCellActivationCyclePeriod.
Multiplicity: 1
Unit: - Note: sCellActivationMethod = nonGBRBufferBased is the only preferred method and
apart from possibly some trials/specific test cases there is no justification to set
Category: ADVANCED
sCellActivationMethod = blind

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LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (5/8)

disableSCellPDCCHOlLa Disable PDCCH outer loop link adaptation in SCell


Object: CAREL The parameter controls if PDCCH outer loop link adaptation shall be disabled in SCell for a
Range: true, false UE with an activated SCell.

Step: - If disableSCellPDCCHOlLa is set to true, PDCCH OLLA will be disabled for a UE with an
Default: false active SCell in its SCell (other UEs in this cell which do not have SCell activated/configured
can use PDCCH OLLA depending on the setting of actOlLaPdcch in this cell).
Multiplicity: 1 If actOlLaPdcch in PCell and SCell is 'true' and disableSCellPDCCHOlLa is set to false,
PDCCH OlLa in the SCell will be used for the UE with an active SCell and it will reuse the
Unit: - calculations of the PDCCH OlLa in the PCell of this UE.
Category: ADVANCED
If actOlLaPdcch in PCell or SCell is configured to 'false', PDCCH OlLa in SCell is never used
and the configured value of disableSCellPDCCHOlLa is not considered by BTS SW.

The parameter shall be set to 'false' when it is expected that there is some correlation
between pdcchCqiShift(t) in the pair of cells that are aggregated and it shall be set to 'true'
otherwise.

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disableSCellPDCCHOlLa Disable PDCCH outer loop link adaptation in SCell


(continuation) Note: Due to the specifics of reporting of ACK/NACK in the UL in case of use of Carrier
Aggregation for the given UE (crucial issue: reports are sent only on PUCCH of primary cell, no
carrier aggregation in the UL direction in RL50), there are two ways specified to handle PDCCH
OLLA in the secondary cell: either CQI shift from the primary cell is reused
(disableSCellPDCCHOlLa set to false) or PDCCH OLLA in the secondary cell is disabled at all
(disableSCellPDCCHOlLa set to true).

The expectation is that the level of shift between actually reported CQI and the CQI that
corresponds to the required BLER target is mainly driven by the UE behaviour. So, the default
value of this parameter (false, that is PDCCH OLLA in the secondary cell uses the outcome of
OLLA in the primary cell) is the recommended value. This parameter should not be tuned unless
there are clear evidences coming from the field that there is a serious discrepancy between
PDCCH CQI shift for primary cell and secondary cell for CA that would justify disabling the
PDCCH OLLA in the SCell at all.

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Configuration Management

LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (6/8)

sCellpCellHARQFdbkUsage SCell and PCell ambiguous HARQ feedback usage


Object: LNBTS The parameter selects how the ambiguous HARQ feedback of UE with an active SCell
Range: conservative(0), related to DL transmission shall be interpreted for the purpose of controlling DRX
Inactivity Timer.
aggressive (1)
Step: - If set to conservative, the ambiguous HARQ feedback is interpreted as DTX for the
purpose of controlling the timer. If set to aggressive, the ambiguous HARQ feedback is
Default: conservative (0) interpreted as NACK for the purpose of controlling the timer. It is expected that the
Multiplicity: 1 aggressive setting will favor the UE throughput of UEs with an active SCell. It is
expected that the conservative setting will favor cell throughput.
Unit: -
Note: In order to reduce the resource consmuption in the UL channel of PCell (where
Category: ADVANCED all signalling from both cells should be transmitted) 3GPP decided to use certain
"compression" schemes for dual-cell HARQ ACK/NACK.
Due to these limitations (as posed by the 3GPP standard - please refer to 3GPP
36.213, section 10.1.2.2), there are certain cases where the eNB could not distinguish
whether NACK or DTX is applicable for the given Transmission Block. Such a situation
is called ambigous HARQ feedback. Note that ACKs are always unambigous.

Various algorithms in the eNB handle this ambiguity in a different way (for details
please refer to the NEI section on technical details). Handling of ambiguity in the
context of drxInactivityTimer is left to the parameterization of
sCellpCellHARQFdbkUsage.

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sCellpCellHARQFdbkUsage SCell and PCell ambiguous HARQ feedback usage


(continuation) DRX manager considers activity of the UE related to both PCell and Scell. Activity related to one
cell only is enough to treat the UE as active one - irrespectively whether this cell is PCell or SCell.

Consequently, choice between NACK and DTX for DRX handling (determined by the setting of
sCellpCellHARQFdbkUsage) will be meaningless if:
Simultaneously there is any valid ACK/NACK feedback from the another cell probability of
having such simultaneous valid feedback is very high
PUSCH is used

Taking into account some example probabilistic modelling (see dedicated slide for further details),
the probability that the choice between NACK and DTX for ambigous HARQ FB will be meaningful
is quite low. In turn, the role of this DRX parameter seems to be quite marginal. Considering
however into account that far more often in case of this ambigous HARQ feedback NACK is
reported not DTX, it's recommended to set sCellpCellHARQFdvbUsage to aggresive value -
meaning that ambigous HARQ feedback is treated as if NACK is received (not DTX).

For starting/stopping of DRX Retransmission Timer and starting of HARQ RTT


Timer ambigous HARQ feedback is always treated as NACK irrespectively of the setting of
sCellpCellHARQFdbkUsage. Parameter is also not related to handling of ambiguous HARQ
feedback in the context of other than DRX related RRM procedures.

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LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (7/8)

sCellDeactivationTimereNB SCell deactivation timer eNB


Object: LNBTS This timer controls the deactivation of Secondary Cell for Carrier Aggregation
Range: rf2 (0), rf4 (1), rf8 (2), configured UEs.
rf16 (3), rf32 (4),
rf64 (5), 128 (6), The timer behaves in the same way as the SCell deactivation timer defined in TS
infinity (7) 36.321, but result is explicit SCell deactivation by MAC CE instead of implicit SCell
deactivation in order to avoid eNB UE misalignment due to ambiguous HARQ
Step: - feedback.
Default: 128 (6) The value represents the number of radio frames.
Value "infinity" means that the SCell is never deactivated by
Multiplicity: 1 sCellDeactivationTimereNB.
Unit: - Note: Deactivation of the secondary cell means that UE does not monitor the
PDCCH on the SCell and eNB does not transmit the PDCCH to the UE on the SCell
Category: ADVANCED and does not schedule the UE on the Scell.
Cell is deactivated if the UE is not scheduled on the SCell for the duration of the timer
sCellDeactivationTimereNB or the only detected HARQ feedback related to scheduling
on the SCell is DTX for the duration of the timer sCellDeactivationTimereNB. The
recommendation is to keep this timer at its default value (highest usable value apart
from inf)
Parameter range is provided in radio frames, so default 128 means 1280 ms
It is not recommended to set sCellDeactivationTimereNB to value of 20 ms or 40 ms.
The reason is (reported) poor UE implementation with respect to delayed activation of
Scell (for some UEs).

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LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation


New advanced parameters (8/8)

caRelId Carrier aggregation relation identifier


Object: CAREL This parameter is the naming attribute of the MOC CAREL.
Range: 1 It uniquely identifies a CAREL instance.
CAREL creation activates Carrier Aggregation in the related cells.
Step: 1 CAREL is created in the LNCEL that will be P-LNCEL (primary cell for Carrier Aggregation).
Default: 1 LNCEL contains lcrId of the S-LNCEL (secondary cell for Carrier Aggregation).
Depending on enableAutoLock and enableGrflShdn settings, LNCEL is automatically locked
Multiplicity: 1 during plan activation for CAREL creation/deletion.
Unit: - Note: LTE1089 Carrier Aggregation feature introduces new MOC in the database: CAREL
(Carrier Aggregation RELation) - that is subordinated to the LNCEL object and points to the
Category: ADVANCED Secondary Cell paired with the primary cell as described in LNCEL. Parameter caRelId uniquely
identifies the CAREL. Note that in LTE1089 only one secondary cell could be configured for
the given (primary) cell, so one CAREL per LNCEL could be created. Consequently, the
parameter is in RL50 actually meaningless.

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