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Presented by-

Vishal yadav
Turbocharger is a device which is used to
increase the power output of the Engine
without increasing the Cylinder Capacity.
Basically it is an air compressor which
compresses the inlet air with the help of kinetic
energy of Exhaust gases. Thus improving the
Volumetric Efficiency as well as Thermal
Efficiency of the Engine.
As compressed air is pumped into the
combustion chamber, more oxygen is supplied
in each cycle. It means more power output can
be obtained from the small turbocharged
engine and thus resulting in fewer emissions.

It consists of Turbine and Compressor sections

both of which contains Turbine and Impeller wheels
and their respective covering.
Turbine and impeller wheels are connected through
an assembly of shaft, housings and bearings known
as CHRA (Center Housing and Rotating Assembly).
The Turbine section is connected to the Exhaust
manifold and the impeller section output is
connected with the Intake manifold via Intercooler.

The exhaust gases contains about 33% of the

energy produced by the Engine (Thermal
losses).This energy is utilised to run the Turbine of
the Turbocharger.
The Exhaust gases runs the Turbine at a very high
RPM, and then discharged to the atmosphere.
This turns the impeller about the same RPM and
thus compresses the ambient air to higher pressure.
This high pressure compressed air is then passes
through the Intercooler and finally taken into the
intake manifold of the engine (known as the Boost).
Types of Turbochargers-
o Single
o Twin Turbo (Either series or parallel)
o Twin Scroll
o Variable Geometry Turbo (VGT)
o Electric Turbo
Since more oxygen is supplied in each cycle, fuel is burned
more efficiently which reduces the emissions. And Engine
Downsizing can also be achieved.
Volumetric efficiency is improved as in each cycle more amount
of air is introduced inside the combustion chamber.
Thermal efficiency is improved as the thermal energy of
exhaust gases is used to drive the Turbine.

Turbo-lag is the major disadvantage. It is defined as
the response time of the Turbocharger. It is the time
taken by the turbo to actually produce the boost.
Heating is another disadvantage. It requires
Intercoolers to cool the compressed air.
Turbochargers are used in Passenger
vehicles as well as in Sports cars.
They are used in IC Engine Aircrafts to
provide necessary air pressure in higher
They are also used in Marine and
Locomotive Diesel Engines.
Thank You