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BLG and EDGs Operation

Contents

Classification
Introduction
Main Components
Air Intake and Exhaust System
Fuel System
Lube Oil System
Cooling System

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Classification of Engines

The following are the main categories of engines

Caterpillar engines installed at our plant site which come


under the following classification

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T11-Power Network

Power Sources
KESC power Supply
Diesel Generators
KESC Power Supply

PIPRI
BIN EAST
QASIM
PAK
STEEL

PTA WAPDA
PLANT

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Introduction
Power taken from KESC

Sanction Load = 40MW

On Site Generation

Base Load Generator ( BLG) = 2.3 MW

Emergency Diesel Generators ( EDGs)= 1.69 MW

The Base Load Generator (L1-2101) is a 3600 series generator


having model no. 3608.
The Emergency Diesel Generator (L1-2115 ) is a 3500 series
generator having model no 3516

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Introduction

Role of BLG & EDGs at PTA Plant

To provide continuous power to essential loads that are


critical to plant operation ( like HP steam boiler & HP
dissolver pump) and necessary to power-up incase of
KESC Power failure.
MCC-14 MCC-15
OX OX
G1-408,C1-331A/B G1-607 A/B,G1- Nill
401, G1-409 A/B, G1-402, C1-830 P ure
A/B, G1-403, G1-407 A/B, M1-428. G1-1816 A, G1-1207 A, G1-1222
P ure A/C/E, C1-1224 A/C/E (GEN)
G1-1509, G1-1414, G1-1817 A/B, G1- G1-1816 B, G1-1207 B, G1-1222
1410 A/B, G1-1420 A/B, G1-1502 B/D, C1-1224 B/D (KESC)
A/B, G1-1401, G1-1402, G1-1403, G1- Uty
1404, G1-1405, G1-1419, G1-1420 G1-2713 A/C, B1-2200 A, C1-2203
A/B, G1-1438 A/B, G1-1439 A/B, A, G1-2112 A (GEN)
G1-1440 A/B, G1-1441, A/B, G1- G1-2713 B, B1-2200 B, C1-2203 B,
1206, G1-1504 A/B, G1-2112 B (KESC)
Uty
Nill

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Introduction

3608 DIESEL ENGINE SPECIFICATION

Operating Speed ; 700 to 1000 rpm


Idle Speed ; 350 rpm
Number of cylinders; In Line 8
Type ; 4- stroke , Turbocharged-
After- cooled
Rotation ( viewed ; CCW
from flywheel)

Starting Method; Air Motor

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Introduction

3516 DIESEL ENGINE SPECIFICATION

Operating Speed ; 700 to 1000 rpm


Idle Speed ; 350 rpm
Number of cylinders; Vee 16
Type ; 4- stroke , Turbocharged-
After- cooled
Rotation ( viewed ; CCW
from flywheel)

Starting Method; Electric Motor & Air Motor

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OPERATION OF DIESEL ENGINE

There are two classes of diesel engine

Two stroke diesel engine

Four stroke diesel engine

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FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION

The Intake Stroke

The Compression Stroke

The Power Stroke

The Exhaust Stroke

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INTAKE STROKE

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COMPRESSION STROKE

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POWER STROKE

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EXHAUST STROKE

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MAIN PARTS OF DIESEL ENGINE

- Crankshaft

- Cylinder

- Piston

- Camshaft

- Gear Train

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MAIN PARTS OF DIESEL ENGINE ( Contd.)

The crankshaft is that part of an engine which translates linear piston


motion into rotation. Generally more than one piston is attached to the
crank to provide a smoother delivery of power to the rotating part.

CRANKSHAFT

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Main Parts of Diesel Engine ( Contd.)

Camshaft controls the operation of cylinder valves ( inlet &


exhaust ) Push rod type

Once the engine has been started , the lube oil , fuel oil pumps
will be driven by engines gear train.

Two gear Train :Front and Rear Gear train

Flywheel reduces the irregularities in the motion of the crank


shaft

Water pumps circulates the cooling water through cylinder


jackets and radiator

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Main Parts of Diesel Engine ( Contd.)

GEAR TRAIN

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ENGINE AUXILIARY SYSTEM

Air Starting System

Air Intake & Exhaust System

Lube Oil System

Fuel System

Cooling System

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Air Starting System

The basic function of an Air Starting System is to turn the


engine flywheel enough to get the engine running .

Air starting motor can be used to turn the engine flywheel with
enough RPM to start the engine

BLGs air starting system consists of

Air Compressors ( C1-2114 &C1- 2106)


Air reservoir ( F1- 2104)
Solenoid Valve ( ASSV)
Air driven motor ( Start-Up motor)

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Air Intake and Exhaust System

The fuel system and ignition starts at engine speed above


50rpm

The maximum cranking speed of the air motor is 150


rpm.Pinion of the motor engages with the gear flywheel .

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Air Intake and Exhaust System

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Air Intake and Exhaust System

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Air Intake and Exhaust System

The components of the air inlet and exhaust system control the
quality and amount of air available for combustion
Clean inlet air from the air cleaner and silencer is pulled through
air inlet by compressor wheel
The rotation of the compressor wheel causes compression of
the air and forces it through an elbow to aftercooler
The aftercooler lowers the temperature of the compressed air
before it enters the air plenum

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Air Intake and Exhaust System

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Turbocharger

A turbocharger is an exhaust gas driving a compressor unit.


The idea behind a turbocharger is to make some of the waste
energy from the exhaust gases perform some useful work,
making the engine more efficient. The compressor unit
compresses the incoming air .The compressed air is then
used in the engine to combust fuel

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Fuel System

Fuel transfer pump is located on the left rear side of the front
housing
Fuel from the supply tank is pulled through primary fuel filter by
the transfer pump
The fuel transfer pump pushes the fuel through the fuel filter
housings and the fuel supply manifold
The fuel flows through the fuel supply manifold to fuel inlet line
on the right side of each cylinder head
Only part of the fuel is used for injection
The remaining fuel flows from the fuel outlet line to fuel return
manifold and then back to the supply tank
This constant flow of fuel helps cool the injector

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Fuel System

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Fuel Injectors

Atomized Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber when


rocker arm pushes the top of the injector down
The movement of the rocker arm is controlled by camshaft
through lifter assembly and pushrod.
The amount of fuel injected is controlled by rack .The
movement of Rack is controlled by GOVERNOR

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Fuel Injectors

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Valve System Components

The valve system components control the flow of inlet air and exhaust
gases into and out of the cylinders during engine operation
The Valves are actuated by : Cam followers, Pushrod ,Rocker arm
,Bridge assemblies .
Each pair of valve are actuated by separated bridges which contact the
rocker arm
The camshaft has three lobes for each cylinder, two lobes operate the
valves and one operates the fuel injector
As each camshaft turns, the lobes of the camshafts cause lifters to go
up and down
This movement makes push rods move the rocker arms
Movement of rocker arms makes the bridges move up and down in the
cylinder head
There are two intake and two exhaust valves for each cylinder
Valve springs cause the valves to close when the lifters move down
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Valve Lash

Valve lash is the internal clearance between Rocker arm and


bridges .

Inlet Valve Lash:.62-.8mm

Exhaust Valve lash : .8mmto 1.02mm

Measeured through Feeler gauge

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Valve System Components

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Turbocharger

The turbine side of the turbocharger is connected to the


exhaust manifold and compressor side is connected to the
aftercooler
The exhaust gases go into the turbocharger and push the
blades of the turbine wheel
This causes the turbine wheel and compressor wheel to turn
The additional compression of air through turbocharger gives
the engine more power because it makes it possible for the
engine to burn additional fuel with greater efficiency

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Turbocharger

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Lubrication System

The lubrication system uses external oil pump to pull oil from
the engine sump
It also employs a prelube pump that provides oil to lubricate the
bearings before engine start up
There are two prelube systems. The intermittent prelube system
operates for a short period of time immediately before the
engine is started
The continuous prelube system will operate continually when
the engine is not operating

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Lubrication System

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Lubrication System

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Lubrication System

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Cooling System

Cooling system consit of Two Circuits

Jacket water circuits; Supply coolant to cylinder heads ,


Turbocharger

Low temperature Circuit: Csupply coolant to aftercooler and Oil


cooler

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Cooling system

Two gear driven Pump ( G1-2135)


After-cooler ( E1-2133)
Oil cooler ( E1-2133)
Jacket water pump ( G1-2137)
Expansion tank ( F1-2134)
Radiators ( C1-2132 & C1-2102)
Regulators

Jacket water pump delivers coolant to cylinder block,


cylinder head, and turbocharger

Low temperature cooling pump delivers oil to aftercooler


and oil cooler

Temperature regulators maintain the temperature of the


water to cylinder block

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Cooling system

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Cooling system

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