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# Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes

## FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002

www.fluentusers.com

## 2-1 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

What is CFD?
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting
fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related
phenomena by solving mathematical equations that represent physical
laws, using a numerical process.
Conservation of mass, momentum, energy, species, ...
The result of CFD analyses is relevant engineering data:
conceptual studies of new designs
detailed product development
troubleshooting
redesign
CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation.
Reduces the total effort required in the laboratory.

## 2-2 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## How does CFD work?

FLUENT solvers are based on the Fluid region of
finite volume method. pipe flow
discretized into
Domain is discretized into a control
finite set of
finite set of control volumes volume
control volumes
or cells. (mesh).
General conservation (transport) equation
for mass, momentum, energy, etc.,
Eqn.

t V
dV V dA dA S dV continuity 1
A A V x-mom. u
unsteady convection diffusion generation y-mom. v
energy h
are discretized into algebraic equations.

## 2-3 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Solver

## Equations solved on mesh

Pre-Processing
Transport Equations Physical Models
Solid Mesh mass
Turbulence
Modeler Generator species mass fraction
phasic volume fraction Combustion
energy Multiphase
Equation of State Phase Change
Supporting Physical Models Moving Zones
Solver
Moving Mesh
Settings

Material Properties
Boundary Conditions
Post-Processing
Initial Conditions

## 2-4 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Problem Identification and Pre-Processing

2. Identify the domain you will model.
3. Design and create the grid.
Solver Execution
4. Set up the numerical model.
5. Compute and monitor the solution.
Post-Processing
6. Examine the results.
7. Consider revisions to the model.

## 2-5 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Problem Identification and Pre-Processing
2. Identify the domain you will model.
3. Design and create the grid.

What results are you looking for, and how will they be used?
What physical models will need to be included in your analysis?
What simplifying assumptions do you have to make?
What simplifying assumptions can you make?
Do you require a unique modeling capability?
User-defined functions (written in C) in FLUENT 6
User-defined subroutines (written in FORTRAN) in FLUENT 4.5
What degree of accuracy is required?
How quickly do you need the results?

## 2-6 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
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## Identify the Domain You Will Model

Problem Identification and Pre-Processing Gas
2. Identify the domain you will model.
Cyclone
3. Design and create the grid
Riser

## How will you isolate a piece of the

complete physical system?
Where will the computational domain
begin and end?
Do you have boundary condition
information at these boundaries?
Can the boundary condition types
accommodate that information? L-valve
Can you extend the domain to a point
where reasonable data exists? Gas Example: Cyclone Separator
Can the problem be simplified to 2D?
2-7 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017
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## Design and Create the Grid

Problem Identification and Pre-Processing

## Can you benefit from Mixsim, Icepak, or Airpak?

2. Identify the domain you will model. Can you use a quad/hex grid or should you
3. Design and create the grid.
use a tri/tet grid or hybrid grid?
How complex is the geometry and flow?
Will you need a non-conformal interface?
What degree of grid resolution is required in
triangle quadrilateral each region of the domain?
Is the resolution sufficient for the geometry?
Can you predict regions with high gradients?
tetrahedron hexahedron
Do you have sufficient computer memory?
How many cells are required?
How many models will be used?

pyramid prism/wedge
2-8 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017
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meshes can provide high-quality
solutions with fewer cells than a
comparable tri/tet mesh.
Align the gridlines with the flow.

meshes show no numerical
meshing effort by using a tri/tet
mesh.

## 2-9 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Hybrid Mesh Example

Valve port grid
tet mesh
Specific regions can be
meshed with different
cell types. hex mesh
Both efficiency and
accuracy are enhanced
relative to a hexahedral
or tetrahedral mesh
alone.
Tools for hybrid mesh
generation are available
in Gambit and TGrid. wedge mesh

## Hybrid mesh for an

IC engine valve port

## 2-10 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Non-Conformal Mesh Example

Nonconformal mesh: mesh in which grid nodes do not match up
along an interface.
Useful for parts-swapping for design study, etc.
Example:
3D Film Cooling Problem
Coolant is injected into a duct
from a plenum
Plenum is meshed with
tetrahedral cells.
Duct is meshed with
hexahedral cells.

## Plenum part can be replaced with new

geometry with reduced meshing effort.

## 2-11 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Set Up the Numerical Model

Solver Execution
4. Set up the numerical model. For a given problem, you will need to:
5. Compute and monitor the solution.
Select appropriate physical models.
Turbulence, combustion, multiphase, etc.
Define material properties.
Fluid
Solid
Mixture
Solving initially in 2D will Prescribe operating conditions.
provide valuable experience
with the models and solver
Prescribe boundary conditions at all
settings for your problem in a boundary zones.
short amount of time. Provide an initial solution.
Set up solver controls.
Set up convergence monitors.

## 2-12 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Solver Execution

## The discretized conservation equations are

4. Set up the numerical model.
5. Compute and monitor the solution. solved iteratively.
A number of iterations are usually required to
reach a converged solution.
Convergence is reached when:
Changes in solution variables from one iteration
to the next are negligible.
Residuals provide a mechanism to help
A converged and grid- monitor this trend.
independent solution on a Overall property conservation is achieved.
well-posed problem will
The accuracy of a converged solution is
provide useful engineering
results! dependent upon:
Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models.
Grid resolution and independence
Problem setup

## 2-13 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Examine the Results

Post-Processing
6. Examine the results. Examine the results to review solution and
7. Consider revisions to the model. extract useful data.
Visualization Tools can be used to answer
such questions as:
What is the overall flow pattern?
Is there separation?
Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form?
Examine results to ensure Are key flow features being resolved?
property conservation and Numerical Reporting Tools can be used to
correct physical behavior. calculate quantitative results:
High residuals may be
Forces and Moments
attributable to only a few
cells of poor quality. Average heat transfer coefficients
Surface and Volume integrated quantities
Flux Balances

## 2-14 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Consider Revisions to the Model

Post-Processing Are physical models appropriate?
6. Examine the results.
Is flow turbulent?
7. Consider revisions to the model.
Are there compressibility effects?
Are there 3D effects?
Are boundary conditions correct?
Is the computational domain large enough?
Are boundary conditions appropriate?
Are boundary values reasonable?
Can grid be adapted to improve results?
Does solution change significantly with
adaption, or is the solution grid independent?
Does boundary resolution need to be improved?

## 2-15 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## Unix Operating System Basics

Basic Unix commands issued in xterm window:
pwd - prints the name current working directory
ls - lists the files in the current directory
cd - change working directories (cd .. to go up one directory).

The script cptut is used for copying required tutorial files. Type cptut
at the shell prompt to see how to use it.

## !Note: It is recommended that you restart FLUENT for each tutorial to

avoid mixing solver settings from different tutorials.

## 2-16 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017

Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

## PC (NT/ 2000) Operating System Basics

PC users will find tutorials under c:\Fluent.Inc\fluent6.x\
tut\. This directory is write-protected.
Save files to your home directory, c:\users\fluent\.
Fluent can be started from the command prompt or from the start