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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes

FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002


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Introduction to CFD Analysis

2-1 Fluent Inc. 12/6/2017


Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

What is CFD?
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting
fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related
phenomena by solving mathematical equations that represent physical
laws, using a numerical process.
Conservation of mass, momentum, energy, species, ...
The result of CFD analyses is relevant engineering data:
conceptual studies of new designs
detailed product development
troubleshooting
redesign
CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation.
Reduces the total effort required in the laboratory.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

How does CFD work?


FLUENT solvers are based on the Fluid region of
finite volume method. pipe flow
discretized into
Domain is discretized into a control
finite set of
finite set of control volumes volume
control volumes
or cells. (mesh).
General conservation (transport) equation
for mass, momentum, energy, etc.,
Eqn.

t V
dV V dA dA S dV continuity 1
A A V x-mom. u
unsteady convection diffusion generation y-mom. v
energy h
are discretized into algebraic equations.

All equations are solved to render flow field.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

CFD Modeling Overview


Solver

Equations solved on mesh


Pre-Processing
Transport Equations Physical Models
Solid Mesh mass
Turbulence
Modeler Generator species mass fraction
phasic volume fraction Combustion
momentum Radiation
energy Multiphase
Equation of State Phase Change
Supporting Physical Models Moving Zones
Solver
Moving Mesh
Settings

Material Properties
Boundary Conditions
Post-Processing
Initial Conditions

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

CFD Analysis: Basic Steps

Problem Identification and Pre-Processing


1. Define your modeling goals.
2. Identify the domain you will model.
3. Design and create the grid.
Solver Execution
4. Set up the numerical model.
5. Compute and monitor the solution.
Post-Processing
6. Examine the results.
7. Consider revisions to the model.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Define Your Modeling Goals


Problem Identification and Pre-Processing
1. Define your modeling goals.
2. Identify the domain you will model.
3. Design and create the grid.

What results are you looking for, and how will they be used?
What are your modeling options?
What physical models will need to be included in your analysis?
What simplifying assumptions do you have to make?
What simplifying assumptions can you make?
Do you require a unique modeling capability?
User-defined functions (written in C) in FLUENT 6
User-defined subroutines (written in FORTRAN) in FLUENT 4.5
What degree of accuracy is required?
How quickly do you need the results?

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Identify the Domain You Will Model


Problem Identification and Pre-Processing Gas
1. Define your modeling goals.
2. Identify the domain you will model.
Cyclone
3. Design and create the grid
Riser

How will you isolate a piece of the


complete physical system?
Where will the computational domain
begin and end?
Do you have boundary condition
information at these boundaries?
Can the boundary condition types
accommodate that information? L-valve
Can you extend the domain to a point
where reasonable data exists? Gas Example: Cyclone Separator
Can the problem be simplified to 2D?
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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Design and Create the Grid


Problem Identification and Pre-Processing

Can you benefit from Mixsim, Icepak, or Airpak?


1. Define your modeling goals.
2. Identify the domain you will model. Can you use a quad/hex grid or should you
3. Design and create the grid.
use a tri/tet grid or hybrid grid?
How complex is the geometry and flow?
Will you need a non-conformal interface?
What degree of grid resolution is required in
triangle quadrilateral each region of the domain?
Is the resolution sufficient for the geometry?
Can you predict regions with high gradients?
Will you use adaption to add resolution?
tetrahedron hexahedron
Do you have sufficient computer memory?
How many cells are required?
How many models will be used?

pyramid prism/wedge
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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Tri/Tet vs. Quad/Hex Meshes


For simple geometries, quad/hex
meshes can provide high-quality
solutions with fewer cells than a
comparable tri/tet mesh.
Align the gridlines with the flow.

For complex geometries, quad/hex


meshes show no numerical
advantage, and you can save
meshing effort by using a tri/tet
mesh.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Hybrid Mesh Example


Valve port grid
tet mesh
Specific regions can be
meshed with different
cell types. hex mesh
Both efficiency and
accuracy are enhanced
relative to a hexahedral
or tetrahedral mesh
alone.
Tools for hybrid mesh
generation are available
in Gambit and TGrid. wedge mesh

Hybrid mesh for an


IC engine valve port

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Non-Conformal Mesh Example


Nonconformal mesh: mesh in which grid nodes do not match up
along an interface.
Useful for parts-swapping for design study, etc.
Helpful for meshing complex geometries.
Example:
3D Film Cooling Problem
Coolant is injected into a duct
from a plenum
Plenum is meshed with
tetrahedral cells.
Duct is meshed with
hexahedral cells.

Plenum part can be replaced with new


geometry with reduced meshing effort.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Set Up the Numerical Model


Solver Execution
4. Set up the numerical model. For a given problem, you will need to:
5. Compute and monitor the solution.
Select appropriate physical models.
Turbulence, combustion, multiphase, etc.
Define material properties.
Fluid
Solid
Mixture
Solving initially in 2D will Prescribe operating conditions.
provide valuable experience
with the models and solver
Prescribe boundary conditions at all
settings for your problem in a boundary zones.
short amount of time. Provide an initial solution.
Set up solver controls.
Set up convergence monitors.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Compute the Solution


Solver Execution

The discretized conservation equations are


4. Set up the numerical model.
5. Compute and monitor the solution. solved iteratively.
A number of iterations are usually required to
reach a converged solution.
Convergence is reached when:
Changes in solution variables from one iteration
to the next are negligible.
Residuals provide a mechanism to help
A converged and grid- monitor this trend.
independent solution on a Overall property conservation is achieved.
well-posed problem will
The accuracy of a converged solution is
provide useful engineering
results! dependent upon:
Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models.
Grid resolution and independence
Problem setup

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Examine the Results


Post-Processing
6. Examine the results. Examine the results to review solution and
7. Consider revisions to the model. extract useful data.
Visualization Tools can be used to answer
such questions as:
What is the overall flow pattern?
Is there separation?
Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form?
Examine results to ensure Are key flow features being resolved?
property conservation and Numerical Reporting Tools can be used to
correct physical behavior. calculate quantitative results:
High residuals may be
Forces and Moments
attributable to only a few
cells of poor quality. Average heat transfer coefficients
Surface and Volume integrated quantities
Flux Balances

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Consider Revisions to the Model


Post-Processing Are physical models appropriate?
6. Examine the results.
Is flow turbulent?
7. Consider revisions to the model.
Is flow unsteady?
Are there compressibility effects?
Are there 3D effects?
Are boundary conditions correct?
Is the computational domain large enough?
Are boundary conditions appropriate?
Are boundary values reasonable?
Is grid adequate?
Can grid be adapted to improve results?
Does solution change significantly with
adaption, or is the solution grid independent?
Does boundary resolution need to be improved?

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

Unix Operating System Basics


Basic Unix commands issued in xterm window:
pwd - prints the name current working directory
ls - lists the files in the current directory
cd - change working directories (cd .. to go up one directory).

The script cptut is used for copying required tutorial files. Type cptut
at the shell prompt to see how to use it.

To start Fluent 6: % fluent 2d &

!Note: It is recommended that you restart FLUENT for each tutorial to


avoid mixing solver settings from different tutorials.

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Fluent User Services Center Introductory FLUENT Notes
FLUENT v6.0 Jan 2002
www.fluentusers.com

PC (NT/ 2000) Operating System Basics


PC users will find tutorials under c:\Fluent.Inc\fluent6.x\
tut\. This directory is write-protected.
Save files to your home directory, c:\users\fluent\.
Fluent can be started from the command prompt or from the start
menu:
Command Prompt (recommended startup)
fluent 2d
Start Menu
Start Programs Fluent Inc Fluent 6.x

!Note: It is recommended that you restart Fluent for each tutorial for
both Unix and NT systems to avoid mixing solver settings from
different tutorials.

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