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Why is marketing important?

What is the scope of marketing?

What are some core marketing concepts?
How has marketing management changed in
recent years?
What are the tasks necessary for successful
marketing management?
Consumers :
It has helped introduce and gain acceptance of new
products that have eased or enriched peoples lives.
Producers :
It can inspire enhancements in existing products as
marketers innovate to improve their position in the
Gov/society :
Successful marketing builds demand for products
and services, which, in turn, creates jobs.
Making products available in stores?
Maintaining inventories?

All of the above, plus much more!

Marketing is the activity, set of
institutions, and processes for
creating, communicating,
delivering, and exchanging offers
that have value for customers,
clients, partners,
and society at large. (American Marketing
Association, dalam Kotler dan Keller, 2012)

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 4 of 25

Marketing is a societal process
by which individuals and
groups obtain what they need
and want through creating,
offering, and freely exchanging
products and services of value
with others (Kotler and Keller, 2012)

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 5 of 25

Marketing management is the art
and science of choosing target
markets and getting, keeping, and
growing customers through
creating, delivering, and
communicating superior
customer value.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 6 of 25

Information, and
A marketer is someone who seeks a response -
attention, a purchase, a vote, a donation - from
another party, called the prospect. If two
parties are seeking to sell something to each
other, we call them both marketers.
Structure of Flows in a Modern Exchange Economy

Sumber daya Sumber daya

uang Pasar uang
sumber daya

Pajak Pajak
barang uang

Jasa/uang Pajak
Pasar Pasar Pasar
pemanufaktur pemerintah konsumen
Pajak/ Pajak
Pajak Pajak
uang barang

uang uang
Barang dan Barang dan
jasa jasa

Industry Market
(a collection (a collection
of sellers) of Buyers)

Consumer Markets,
Business Markets,
Global Markets,
Nonprofit and Governmental Markets.
The marketplace is physical, such as a store you
shop in;
The marketspace is digital, as when you shop on
the Internet.
Metamarkets are the result of marketers packaging
a system that simplifies carrying out these related
product/service activities.
Ex : The automobile metamarket consists of
automobile manufacturers, new and used car
dealers, financing companies, insurance
companies,mechanics, spare parts dealers, service
shops, auto magazines, classified auto ads in
newspapers, and auto sites on the Internet.
1. Needs, Wants, and Demands
2. Target Markets, Positioning, and Segmentation
3. Offerings and Brands
4. Value and Satisfaction
5. Marketing Channels
6. Supply Chain
7. Competition
8. Marketing Environment
Needs are the basic human requirements such as
for air, food, water, clothing, and shelter.
Humans also have strong needs for recreation,
education, and entertainment.
Five types of needs :
Stated needs (The customer wants an inexpensive car.)
Real needs (The customer wants a car whose operating
cost, not initial price, is low.)
Unstated needs (The customer expects good service from
the dealer.)
Delight needs (The customer would like the dealer to
include an onboard GPS navigation system.)
Secret needs (The customer wants friends to see him or
her as a savvy consumer.)
Needs become wants when they are directed to
specific objects that might satisfy the need.
Wants are shaped by our society (culture and
individual personality).
Demands are wants for specific products
backed by an ability to pay.
Companies must measure not only how many
people want their product, but also how many
are willing and able to buy it.
Negative demandConsumers dislike the product and may even
pay to avoid it.
Nonexistent demandConsumers may be unaware of or
uninterested in the product.
Latent demandConsumers may share a strong need that cannot
be satisfied by an existing product.
Declining demandConsumers begin to buy the product less
frequently or not at all.
Irregular demandConsumer purchases vary on a seasonal,
monthly, weekly, daily, or even hourly basis.
Full demandConsumers are adequately buying all products put
into the marketplace.
Overfull demandMore consumers would like to buy the
product than can be satisfied.
Unwholesome demandConsumers may be attracted to products
that have undesirable social consequences.
Negative demand Conversional marketing
No demand Stimulational marketing
Latent demand Developmental marketing
Falling demand Remarketing
Irregular demand Synchro marketing
Full demand Maintenance marketing
Overfull demand De-marketing
Unwholesome Counter marketing
Marketers start by dividing the market into
They identify and profile distinct groups of buyers
who might prefer or require varying product and
service mixes by examining demographic,
psychographic, and behavioral differences among
Marketer decides which present the greatest
opportunitieswhich are its target markets.
For each, the firm develops a market offering that
it positions in the minds of the target buyers as
delivering some central benefit(s).
Companies address customer needs by putting forth a
value proposition, a set of benefits that satisfy those
The intangible value proposition is made physical by
an offering, which can be a combination of products,
services, information, and experiences.
A brand is an offering from a known source.
A brand name such as McDonalds carries many
associations in peoples minds that make up its image:
hamburgers, cleanliness, convenience, courteous
service, and golden arches. All companies strive to
build a brand image with as many strong, favorable,
and unique brand associations as possible.
The buyer chooses the offerings he or she perceives to
deliver the most value, the sum of the tangible and
intangible benefits and costs to her.
Value, a central marketing concept, is primarily a
combination of quality, service, and price (qsp), called the
customer value triad.
Value perceptions increase with quality and service but
decrease with price.
We can think of marketing as the identification, creation,
communication, delivery, and monitoring of customer
Satisfaction reflects a persons judgment of a products
perceived performance in relationship to expectations.
If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer
is disappointed. If it matches expectations, the customer is
satisfied. If it exceeds them, the customer is delighted.
Communication channels
Deliver and receive messages from target buyers.
Distribution channels
Display, sell, or deliver the physical product or
service(s) to the buyer or user.
Service channels
Carry out transactions with potential buyers.
Marketers clearly face a design challenge in
choosing the best mix of communication,
distribution, and service channels for their
A longer channel stretching from raw materials
to components to finished products carried to
final buyers.
Includes all the actual and potential rival
offerings and substitutes a buyer might
The task environment
Includes the actors engaged in producing, distributing, and
promoting the offering.
These are the company, suppliers, distributors, dealers, and target
customers. In the supplier group are material suppliers and service
suppliers, such as marketing research agencies, advertising
agencies, banking and insurance companies, transportation
companies, and telecommunications companies. Distributors and
dealers include agents, brokers, manufacturer representatives, and
others who facilitate finding and selling to customers.
The broad environment
Consists of six components: demographic environment, economic
environment, social-cultural environment, natural environment,
technological environment, and political-legal environment.
Marketers must pay close attention to the trends and
developments in these and adjust their marketing strategies
as needed. ingenuity.
1. The Production Concept
2. The Product Concept
3. The Selling Concept
4. The Marketing Concept
5. The Holistic Marketing Concept
Consumers prefer products that are widely
available and inexpensive. Managers of
production-oriented businesses concentrate on
achieving high production efficiency, low costs,
and mass distribution.
Consumers favor products offering the most
quality, performance, or innovative features.
Consumers and businesses, if left alone, wont
buy enough of the organizations products. It is
practiced most aggressively with unsought
goodsgoods buyers dont normally think of
buying such as insurance and cemetery plots
and when firms with overcapacity aim to sell
what they make, rather than make what the
market wants.
The job is to find not the right customers for
your products, but the right products for your
Based on the development, design, and
implementation of marketing programs,
processes, and activities that recognize their
breadth and interdependencies.
Holistic marketing acknowledges that
everything matters in marketingand that a
broad, integrated perspective is often
People reflects, in part, internal marketing and the fact that
employees are critical to marketing success.
Processes reflects all the creativity, discipline, and structure
brought to marketing management.
Programs reflects all the firms consumer-directed activities. It
encompasses the old four Ps as well as a range of other marketing
activities that might not fit as neatly into the old view of
Performance as in holistic marketing, to capture the range of
possible outcome measures that have financial and nonfinancial
implications (profitability as well as brand and customer equity),
and implications beyond the company itself (social responsibility,
legal, ethical, and community related).
Finally, these new four Ps actually apply to all disciplines within
the company, and by thinking this way, managers grow more
closely aligned with the rest of the company.
Developing market strategies and plans
Capturing marketing insights
Connecting with customers
Building strong brands
Shaping market offerings
Delivering value
Communicating value
Creating long-term growth