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Lecture 1


Associate Professor V.V. Zhukovska
1. Stylistics as a branch of linguistics. The
need for stylistics.
2. The object and subject-matter of stylistics.
3. Branches of stylistics: literary stylistics and
linguostylistics, stylistics of language and
stylistics of speech, decoding and encoding
stylistics. New trends in stylistic research.
4. Basic notions of stylistics: style, norm,
stylistic context, expressive means, stylistic
device, convergence, image.

/ .. ,
.. , .. , .. . .:
, 1991. . 7-48.
.. .
.: , 1981. . 7-82.
Galperin I.R. Stylistics. M.: Higher School, 1977. P. 9-32.
.. .
.: :
, 2003. . 6-36.

. - : -
, 2010. 240 .
What is stylistics?
The term "stylistics" originated from the
Greek stylos and Latin stulys, meaning
a pointed stick sharp at one end and flat on
the other, used for waxing plates.
What is stylistics?

The word stylistics was firstly attested

in Oxford English Dictionary (1882) in the
meaning the science of literary style, the
study of stylistic features.

Stylistics began to flourish in the XXth

Stylistics is the study of style in
spoken and written text (The
Linguistics. Encyclopedia 2003).

Style is a manner of expression in writing

or speaking.
Individual style
love is a place My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
& through this place of If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
love move If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
(with brightness of peace) I have seen roses damask'd, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
all places And in some perfumes is there more delight
yes is a world Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
& in this world of
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
yes live I grant I never saw a goddess go;
(skilfully curled) My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
all worlds And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.
e. e. cummings
Style is the set or sum of linguistic features
characteristic of some author, genre,
period etc.
Newspaper/ research article
Style is a consistent occurrence in the text
of certain items and structures, or types of
items and structures, among those offered
by the language as a whole.
official style\ conversational style
What is stylistics?
Stylistics is a sub-discipline of
linguistics concerned with the systematic
analysis of style in language and how this
can vary according to such factors as genre,
context, historical period and author
(Crystal and Davy 1969: 9, Leech 2008:
Analyzing style means describing
systematically the formal features of a
text to determine their functional
significance for the interpretation of
the text.
i.e. how and why a text works as it
does, and how the reader comes from
the words on the page to its meaning.
Is stylistics a linguistic or literary studies
With its base in linguistics, stylistics
provides a systematic rigorous analysis
of both literary and non-literary
Stylistics is interdisciplinary in scope, it
borrows from such disciplines as
philosophy, cultural theory, sociology,
history, psychology and of course
This interdisciplinary approach
is viewed as one of the advantages
and inspiring potentials of
Stylistics arises from the assumption
that one and the same idea can be
rendered differently due to the
conditions of communication.
The old man died.

The old man joined the majority.

The old man kicked the bucket.
Stylistics is a functional-communicative
linguistic discipline, that studies the language
in action and is aimed at answering the
question how the units and categories of the
given language are used for solving particular
communicative tasks in different spheres and
situations of communication (presentation of
emotions, delivering information etc.)
( 2008: 15)
Arnold 1985)
The scope of interest of stylistics
1) the aesthetic function of language;
2) expressive means in language;
3) synonymous ways of rendering one and the
same idea;
4) emotional coloring in language;
5) stylistic devices;
6) functional styles;
7) the interrelation between language and
8) individual style of a writer.
To do stylistics is to explore language,
and, more specifically, to explore creativity
in language. Doing stylistics thereby
enriches our ways of thinking about
language and exploring language offers a
substantial purchase on our understanding
of (literary) texts [Simpson, 2004: 3].
The subject-matter of stylistics
Deep into that darkness peering, long I
stood there wondering, fearing,

Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal

ever dared to dream to dream before
(E. Poe).
The blonde I had been dancing withs
name was Bemice Crabs or Krebs
(J. Salinger)
I want to teach my son a foreign
language. Certainly, madam.
French, German, Russian? Which
is the most foreign?
You sleep here she murmured in a
voice light like a childs breath, offering
him a lamp. Buenos noches, senorita,
he said politely, taking it from her
(J. Conrad).
And the woman answered him, I am thy
mother. Thou art mad say so, cried the
Star-Child angrily. (O.Wilde)
I love my love, and my love loves me

We make a living by what we get, we make a

life by what we give (W.Churchil)
Stylistics does not study or describe
separate linguistic units, it studies their
stylistic function.
Stylistics is interested in the
expressive potential of language
units, their functioning and
interaction in conveying ideas and
emotions in a certain text or
communicative context.
There is no separate stylistic level of

Stylistics pertains to all language levels

and investigates language units from a
functional point of view.
1) Stylistics is
a) a branch of literary criticism
b) a sub-discipline of linguistics
c) an independent branch of applied
d) a science that teaches how to write well
2) Choose the correct statement
a) a stylistic level of language embraces the
expressive means and stylistic devices
b) a stylistic level of language comprises
emotive colorings of language units
c) there is no stylistic level of language as
stylistics deals with expressive potential
of units of all levels
d) there is no stylistic level of language as
stylistics is not a linguistic discipline
3) The subject-matter of stylistics
a) is language as a system of units
b) is speech as realization of language
c) is reflected in its branches (phonetic
stylistics, morphological stylistics, etc.)
d) depends on the communicative situation
4) Each branch of stylistics deals with
a) inventory of language units of a given
b) linguistic peculiarities of the units
c) style-forming potential of structural
elements of the text
d) style-forming potential and functional
peculiarities of units of the given level
5) The distinguishing feature of stylistics is
a) its orientation on appropriateness of the
use of language means for rendering
thoughts and emotions under different
conditions of communication
b) its interdisciplinary character
c) its concern with studying style
d) all variants are correct
Stylistic research is multidimensional.
It developed through centuries into a
new thoroughly-developed linguistic
When did stylistics begin to flourish?
Historical development

When did the first considerations on

style evolve?
Predecessors of stylistics

Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC) Cicero (106 BC-43 BC) Quintilian (35 AD-96 AD)
Aristotles Rhetoric
In Book I (I.2), rhetoric is defined as

the faculty of discovering the possible

means of persuasion in reference to
any subject whatever
In Book III (I.1), Aristotle points out that

it is not sufficient to know what one

ought to say, but one must also know
how to say it.
Quintilians Institutio oratoria
Plain style is for purposes of instruction.

Intermediate style is for charming or

conciliating an audience.

Grand style is for moving an audience
Poetics and Linguistics Association (PALA)
International Association of Literary
Semantics (IASL)

Language and Literature

Journal of Literary Semantics
Ukrainian stylisticians
Russian stylisticians
4. Types of stylistics.

Author Reader
Key terms of stylistics
realized realized realized
within one within a within the
sentence superphrasal whole literary
unit or work
expressiveness = intensification
The expressive means (EM) of a
language are those phonetic,
morphological, word-building, lexical,
phraseological and syntactical forms which
exist in the language-as-a-system for the
purpose of logical and/or emotional
intensification of the utterance [Galperin,
1977: 27].
Phonetics pitch drawling
melody drawling of certain
stress syllables
pausation whispering
a sing-song manner of

Morphology grammar means (e.g. word-building means

shifts in tenses, the (e.g. the usage of
usage of obsolete diminutive suffixes to
forms as in He hath add some emotional
brethren) colouring to words as
y(ie) in birdie, and
let in streamlet, piglet)
Mr. Smith was an extremely unpleasant
Never will he go to that place again.
In rushed the soldiers!
It took us a very, very long time to get
Is not she cute!
Fool that he was!
generative models, intentionally intensifying
some property of a language unit in an
unpredictable and original way.

Overuse makes SDs lose their originality,

become trite, and, sometimes, be fixed in
Metaphor = A is B
Life is a dream/nightmare.
Life is a train that stops only once and
Life is an elaborate novel or a primitive
short story depending on who writes it.
Life is
Imagery is a descriptive language used in
literature to evoke mental pictures or
sensory experiences.
An image may be visual (pertaining to the
eye), olfactory (smell), tactile (touch),
auditory (hearing), gustatory (taste),
abstract (appealing to what may be
described as the intellect) and
kinaesthetic (pertaining to the sense of
movement and bodily effort).
The fog comes kinaesthetic image
On little cat feet. auditory, tactile,
visual images
It sits looking kinaesthetic image
Over harbor and city visual image
on silent haunches auditory image
and then moves on. kinaesthetic image
Thank you!!!