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By : Angkita W Kirana, S.

Hum
When I hotly plunge into writing, nothing bothers me.
Im always thinking what to write, what words are
better I try to follow grammar rules, but in general
that ends in failure.
Igor Ivanov
(Siberia)
n
I. Pre-writing
u
m
Generating ideas, planning,b and organizing your ideas
e
r
.
O
n
II. Writing
n
t
u
h
Using your ideas to
m write a first draft
e
b
e
r
.
O
n
III.Revising and Editing
t
h
Improving what eyou have written
PRE-WRITING
Pre- means before
Prewriting means the work done by the
writer before the paragraph is actually
written
Prewriting strategies includes the
decisions you make and the steps you
take (whether written or not) before
you write a draft of your paragraph
Three major decisions in pre-writing
1. Choose a subject that you are interested in and
know about
2. Choose an audience
3. Choose on a purpose : what exactly do you want
to communicate?
BRAINSTORMING
Brainstorming
What is it???

The writers allow the storm in their brains to flow


onto the paper without worrying about organization or
grammar
BRAINSTORMING is A process of
listing any idea of one topic or
A quick way to generate a lot of
ideas on a subject.
What is the Purpose?
Is to come up with a list of as many ideas
as possible without worrying about how
you will use them

Words, phrases, sentences, questions


The steps of brainstorming :
1. Begin with a broad topic.
2. Write down as many associations as you can.
3. Add more items to your list by answering the
questions of what, who, when, where, why,
how.
4. Group the items on the list that go together.
5. Cross out items that do not belong.
Example:
Listing
Topic : My arrival in the U.S.
List some random ideas :
My brother meeting me
Problems with customs
First impression of the U.S.
Alone at JFK Airport
What I was afraid of
My first U.S. meal
Topic: Superstitions
1. Lists some random ideas:
- Friday 13th - Dont walk under ladder
- Eat scrambled eggs for breakfast - Dont step on cracks
on day of a game
- Breaking mirror - Wear green when I fly
- Wear lucky T-shirt for games - Look four-leaf clover
- Always wear pearl necklace - Use lucky shoelaces
- Dont stay on 13th floor in tennis shoes
in a hotel
- Sit in center of room for tests - Never start a trip on Friday
- Switch watch to right wrist for test
Next steps
2. Selects the idea which is related to one topic.
In other word, the ideas are classified
Topic: Superstitions
SCHOOL:
always wear pearl necklace
sit in center of room for tests
switch watch to right wrist for test
TRAVEL:
never start a trip on Friday
dont stay on 13th floor in a hotel
wear green when I fly
SPORTS:
wear lucky T-shirt for games
use lucky shoelaces in tennis shoes
eat scrambled eggs for breakfast on day of game

OTHERS ARE OMITTED


Next steps
3. Write a paragraph
Example:
Superstitions affect several aspects of my life. First of
all, I have a lot of superstitions about school, especially
tests. For example, I always wear the pearl necklace that
my grandmother gave me when I have to take a test. I
think it brings me good luck. When I get to school, I
always find a seat right in the middle of the room, sit
down, and then switch my watch to my right wrist before
the test begins. Another superstition that I really believe
in is about travelling. I will never start a trip on a Friday.
When I have to stay in a hotel, I refuse to sleep in a room
on the 13th floor. For me, it is unlucky - number. On the
Continued
first day of the trip, I always wear something green.
Finally, like many other athletes, I am very
superstitious when it comes to my sport, tennis. When
I dress for a match, I always wear the same white T-
shirt with my initials on it. I also use shoelaces in my
sneakers. On the day of the match, I always eat the
same thing: eggs and a muffin. So, in short, I am
superstitious about many aspects of my life.
Now try with your own topic:
Step I:
_______________________
_______________
_______________________________
Step II:
A:
A.1.
A.2.
B:
B.1
B.2.
B.3
And so on

_______
_______
_______
Step III: (Combine into one paragraph)
______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
CLUSTERING
Narrowing the Subject to A Topic
A subject is a broad area of information.
You must narrow the subject to a topic in order to write
a single paragraph.
You must move from a general subject to a more specific
topic.
Audiences are more interested in details about a narrow
topic than a broad subject.
Narrowing a subject is a Good Writing
What are the steps?
1. Write your topic in the center of a piece of paper
and draw a circle around it.
2. Think about your topic and write any idea that
come to mind in circles around the main circle.
3. Connect these ideas to the center circle with a line.
4. Think about each of your new ideas, write more
related ideas in circle around them, and connect
them to their corresponding ideas with a line.
5. Repeat the process until you run out of ideas.
Example 1:

How to be a good
teacher Various kinds of
teachers

Teachers

The using of visual aids The ways of teaching


in teaching English English
Example 2 :
General Topic More Specific Topic

Various kinds of teachers

How to be a good teacher


Teachers

The ways of teaching English

The using of visual aids in teaching


English
FREEWRITING

Is writing as much as you can, as fast as
you can, without worrying about
mistakes
Steps in Freewriting :
1. Write the general topic at the top of the page
2. Start writing, and write as much and fast as you can.
3. Dont stop for any reasons
Dont worry if your mind wander away from your original
idea.
Dont worry about mistakes.
4. Read your freewriting. See if there are any ideas you can
develop from your own writing.