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STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (S P C)
Have 10 years of diversified experience including world-class Canadian Company Master’s in Mechanical Engineering from Concordia University, Canada Published Papers in International Journals Lead Assessor ISO 9000:2000, QMS ASQ Certified Quality Engineer Six Sigma Black Belt Candidate Provided Consultancy and Training within and outside the country
IN GOD WE TRUST, ALL OTHERS BRING DATA
• • • • • • • • • • GDP growth rate GNP Inflation rate Development projects Export Import Trade deficit/surplus Stock exchange Shares trend Budget • • • • • • • • • • % of Rejection (PPM) No of late deliveries No of complaints No of breakdowns Defects prioritization Process variation Vendor performance No of suggestions Employee performance Rework, returns.
What is SPC? SPC stands for Statistical Process Control Collection. analyzing and interpreting data An activity which transforms input into output by utilizing resources Measuring and monitoring performance 4 .
5 . Statistical Analysis is a critical skill in quality Improvement and problem-solving.What is SPC? Statistics helps us make sense out of data. and transform crude numbers into useful information and knowledge.
and statistics. damned lies. (Charles H Grosvenor) 6 . but liars will figure. (Benjamin Disraeli) Figures don’t lie.The Misuse of Statistics There are three kinds of lies: lies.
Strong Engineering knowledge PLUS Good Statistical Skills LEADS TO Excellent Problem Solver 7 .Could we just replace all Engineers with Statisticians? Statistics is not a substitute for Engineering judgment! Process Knowledge and Experience are still vital to problem-solving.
Benefits of SPC Factual decision Waste reduction Increased monitoring Operator involvement COPQ reduction Customer satisfaction 8 PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT .
Why SPC External Pressure Internal Improvements Survival 9 .
PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL WITH FEED BACK VOICE OF THE PROCESS STATISTICAL STATISTICAL METHODS METHODS PEOPLE EQUIPMENT MATERIALS METHODS ENVIRONMENT THE WAY THE WAY WE WORK/ WE WORK/ BLENDING OF BLENDING OF RESOURCES RESOURCES INPUTS PROCESS/SYSTEM PRODUCTS PRODUCTS OR OR SERVICES SERVICES CUSTOMERS CUSTOMERS IDENTIFYIGN IDENTIFYIGN CHANGING NEEDS CHANGING NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS AND EXPECTATIONS OUTPUTS VOICE OF CUSTOMERS 10 .
The Process selected or followed having inadequate capability.THREE BASIC REASONS OF NON-CONFORMITY 1. The process is not properly controlled 11 . 3. The work activity standard not defined or not understood by the concerned 2.
SPC – A Continuous Improvement Tool PLAN – Implementation of SPC • • • • • • • • • Does the data exist? If so. is it readily available in the current format? Where is the data to be collected from? How many staff are available and who is going to collect? What should be the format of data collection? When to be collected and at what frequency? What will be the possible outcome of SPC? Concerned Personnel are trained for conducting and analyzing data? Who will be responsible for the collection. analysis and interpretation of data? 12 .
free) 13 .SPC – A Continuous Improvement Tool DO – Data Collection • • • • • Appropriate process is identified Proper format has been given Operator / Process has been trained enough Equipment if needed is properly maintained Factual data (biased .
SPC – A Continuous Improvement Tool CHECK – Data Analysis • Data is represented and analyzed by using an appropriate graph. chart or SPC tool. • Interpretation of data 14 .
& interpretation. for continuous 15 .SPC – A Continuous Improvement Tool ACT – Recommendations for improvements • Based on data analysis suggestions are made improvement.
ATTRIBUTE DATA and its Types DATA VARIABLE LOCATIONAL 16 .
DATA and its Types ATTRIBUTE DATA Counted data or attribute data answers to the questions of “how many” or “how often.” Examples are: • How many of the final products are defective? • How often are the machines repaired? • How many people are absent each day? • How many days did it rain last month? 17 .
” This data is generally measured with some instrument or device.” “what volume. Examples are: • How long is each item? • What is the diameter of the product? • How long did it take to complete the task? • What is the weight of the product? 18 .DATA and its Types VARIABLE DATA Measured data (variable data) answers to the questions like “how long.” “how much time” and “how far.
06 psi 10.542 seconds Examples Data Examples .7 inches 32. of scrap items audit points lost paint chips per unit defective lamps 10 scratches 6 rejected parts 25 paint runs 19 Types of Data length volume time width of door gap lug nut torque fan belt tension 1.DATA and its Types Variable Characteristics measurable continuous Attribute countable discrete units or occurrences good/bad no. of defects no. of defectives no.
800 people failed Out of 300 steel rods.6 Ibs On the last SSBB exam.DATA and its Types Is the following data continuous or discrete? . 12 proved to be defective A heat treatment lasted 6 hours and 18 minutes 20 . A station wagon weighs 3478. . . .
QUALITY TOOLS Quality Control Tools (Mostly dealing with) Numerical data Seven Basic QC Tools Graphs Check Sheets Pareto Diagrams Cause & Effect Diagrams Scatter Diagram Histograms Control Chart 21 .
What are 7-QC Tools Graphs Scatter Diagram Pareto diagram Diagram Cause & Effect Histograms Control Chart Check Sheets 22 .
23 . vendor performances. quality losses. yearly sales vs expenses. productivity & efficiency. “APPLICATION” For representation of rate of defectives.Graphs Examples: Line graph. Pie chart Purpose: To represent data with lines and shapes for Their better understanding and analysis. Bar graph. rework. rate of Absentees. rejections.
1995 Week 1 Burns Misrun Bad Finish Porosity Flash Color IIII IIII I IIII I IIII I III IIII III II Plastic Footer Operator________ Totals Purpose: Forms/Formats specially prepared to enable data to be collected simply by check marks. check sheets for process Distribution check sheet for defective items check sheet for defect location 24 . Application: Used by inspectors during checking of the process.g.Check Sheet Switch Assembly op236 Chart began July 12. e.
processes and systems. 25 . And facilitate decision making priority wise. rejects.Pareto Diagram Purpose: To graphically represent quality problems or their associated cost in order of their significance. reworks or complaints in products. Application: Commonly used to show types of defects.
Cause & Effect Diagram Purpose: A graphical tool to find out the reasons for problems and carryout their root cause analysis through brain storming. Application: Commonly used for analyzing the causes of problems which occur in products & processes or systems eg. reason for customers’ complaints. reasons for low productivity. People Methods Don’t measure Bad coffee Make too strong Fail to clean Old coffee Materials Machinery Dirty coffeepot 26 . reason for poor paint. reasons for high absenteeism. Outputs: Identification of most contributing causes with consensus.
Outputs: Positive correlation. effect on the strength of metal.Scatter Diagram Purpose: To study and evaluate the interrelationship between two characteristics. moisture effect on elongation. correlation Negative correlation. 27 . Application: Commonly used to investigate the effect of one characteristic on other e. No.g. temp. ink viscosity effect on the registration in the printing.
thickness. Outputs of a histogram Average (x) Standard Deviation (s) Normal Distribution curve 28 . length. e. g.Histogram Purpose: To display the spread (shape) of the data Application: Used to display key quality characteristics of variable data. tensile strength. hardness.
An unstable process is often characterized by a histogram that does not exhibit a bell-shaped curve 4. A stable process is predictable 3. most of the points fall near the centerline or average 29 . Histogram requires a minimum of 50-100 data points 6. In a bell-shaped curve. Frequency column graphs display an static picture of process behavior 5. A stable process is characterized by a ‘Histogram’ exhibiting unimodal or bell-shaped curve 2.HISTOGRAM 1.
The centerline divides the curve into two symmetrical halves 8.46 percentage of data 12. Very few points are outside the curve 10.26 percentage of data 11. Three sigma limits contain 99. Some of the points approach the minimum and maximum values 9.HISTOGRAM 7. One sigma limits contain 68.73 percentage of data 30 . Two sigma limits contain 95.
5%) 6σ (99.Normal Curve – Bell Shaped Curve 2σ (68%) µ 4σ (95.7%) 31 .
Application: To show whether or not a process is in control. np chart. A control line and control limits (based on + 3 standard deviations) are placed on the graph to help analyze the patterns in data. It is used in monitoring key Quality Characteristics during continuous processes.c-chart. u-chart 32 .Control Charts Purpose: To display variation by a line graph in a time ordered fashion. Common Types: For variable data For Attribute data XR-chart .p.chart.individual X moving range chart . .
Theory of Variation “Variation exists in Nature” 33 .
Control Charts are line graph that display a dynamic picture of process behavior Control Charts require 100 data values to calculate upper and lower control limits But. it requires only periodic small subgroups to continue to monitor the process 34 . Edwards Deming Control Charts are the most powerful tools to analyze variation in most processes either manufacturing or administrative.Control Charts • • • • • The Control Chart will tell you whether your process is in statistical control – W.
Md and R charts: for sample medians and ranges. X charts: for individual measures.Types of Shewhart Control Charts Control Charts for Variables Data X and R charts: for sample averages and ranges. X and s charts: for sample means and standard deviations. Control Charts for Attributes Data p charts: % age Defectives np charts: Defectives c charts: Number of Defects u charts: Average number of defects 35 . uses moving ranges.
816 1.577 0.880 1.282 2.693 2.115 2.059 2.924 1.184 0.419 0.223 1.004 1.078 36 .326 2.136 0.777 0 0 0 0 0 0.076 0.704 2.864 1.483 0.023 0.267 2.847 2.128 1.729 0.Process Control Chart Factors Sample (Subgroup) Size (n) Control Limit Factor for Averages (Mean Charts) (A2) UCL Factor for Ranges (Range Charts) (D4) LCL Factor for Ranges (Range Charts) (D3) Factor for Estimating Sigma ( = R/d2) (d2) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.534 2.575 2.970 3.373 0.337 0.308 3.
CONTROL CHARTS TERMINOLOGY • CENTER LINE (PROCESS AVERAGE) • UPPER CONTROL LIMIT (UCL): HIGHEST POINT BEFORE PROCESS IS OUT OF CONTROL • LOWER CONTROL LIMIT (LCL): LOWEST POINT BEFORE PROCESS IS OUT OF CONTROL 37 .
CONTROL CHARTS THE BASICS CONTROL CHART Upper Control Limit X (Grand Average or (Expected Result) Lower Control Limit X (observations) 38 Y (results) .
CONTROL CHARTS VARIATION CONTROL CHARTS DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN: NATURAL VARIATION (COMMON CAUSE) UNNATURAL VARIATION (SPECIAL CAUSE) UNNATURAL VARIATION NATURAL VARIATION UNNATURAL VARIATION 39 UCL Average LCL .
40 .Drift A gradual change of a mean or average of a population.
Shift A sudden or Step change in the mean or average of a population 41 .
CONTROL CHARTS XBAR .R CHART STEPS DETERMINE SAMPLE SIZE (n=2-6) DETERMINE FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING COLLECT 20-25 DATA SETS (Around 100 data points) AVERAGE EACH SAMPLE (X-bar) RANGE FOR EACH SAMPLE (R) AVERAGE OF SAMPLE AVERAGES = X-double bar (defines center line) AVERAGE SAMPLE RANGES = R-bar (defines center line) 42 .
UCL = (D4)(RBAR ) LCL = (D3)(RBAR ) 43 .R CHART STEPS XBAR CONTROL LIMITS: (A2)(RBAR ) .UCL = XDBAR + .LCL = XDBAR .(A2)(RBAR ) - R CONTROL LIMITS: .CONTROL CHARTS XBAR .
Process (Out-of-Control) A process is said to be ‘Out-of-Control’ if any point falls outside the control limits in average or range chart When a process is ‘Out-of-Control’. then special causes of variation are present in average or range chart Control limits are the boundaries set by the process which alert us to process stability and variability 44 .
Process (Out-of-Control) Average Range Average Range Out-of-Control In-Control In-Control Out-of-Control Process Out-of-Control Average Range Out-of-Control Out-of-Control Average Range In-Control In-Control Process In-Control 45 .
n=4) Find X and R of each sample. 28 7 3 Total 150 75 46 . 4 6 5 5 The X chart is used to Sum 20 24 32 24 control the process mean. X 5 6 8 6 The R chart is used to R 2 5 3 2 control process variation.X bar and R Chart Sample Number 1 Values 2 7 3 8 6 3 6 9 8 9 4 7 6 6 5 25 Select 25 small samples (in this case.
128 1.575 2.023 0.729 3.267 2.059 Values A2 D4 D3 d2 1 4 6 5 5 Sum 20 X 5 R 2 Sample Number 2 3 4 25 7 6 7 3 9 6 8 8 6 6 9 5 24 32 24 28 6 8 6 7 5 3 2 3 Total 150 75 47 .X and R Charts n 2 3 4 1.693 2.282 0 0 0 1.880 1.
059 Sample Number 1 2 3 4 4 7 6 7 6 3 9 6 5 8 8 6 5 6 9 5 20 24 32 24 5 6 8 6 2 5 3 2 25 X = 150 / 25 = 6 A2R = 0.729 D4 D3 3.0 9 48 .A2R = 6 .8 – – – UCLR = – 4R =–2.729(3) = 2.267 2.8 – D – LCLR = D3R = 0(3) = 0 Values R = 75 / 25 = 3 – – Sum X R 28 7 3 Total 150 75 σ = – R /d2 = 3/2 5 .X and R Charts n 2 3 4 A2 1.023 0.2.880 1.693 2.575 2.2 – UCLX = X + A2R = 6 + 2.282 d2 0 0 0 1.128 1.2 – LCLX = X .2 = 8.282(3) = 6.2 = 3.
A2R = 6 .282(3) = 6.575 2.128 1.282 0 0 0 1.2 = 8.8 – – LCLR = D3R = 0(3) = 0 Mean Values A2 X and R Charts D4 D3 d2 1 4 6 5 5 Sum 20 X 5 R 2 Sample Number 2 3 4 25 7 6 7 3 9 6 8 8 6 6 9 5 24 32 24 28 Total 6 8 6 7 150 5 3 2 3 75 – UCL X = 8.0 LCL R = 0 49 – UCL R = 6.2 – – X = 6.8 Range R = 3.729(3) = 2.2 – UCLX = X + A2R = 6 + 2.880 1.2 – – – LCLX = X .0 – LCL X = 3.023 0.267 2.693 2.729 3.8 – – – UCLR = D4R = 2.8 .059 X = 150 / 25 = 6 – – R = 75 / 25 = 3 – A2R = 0.2.2 = 3.n 2 3 4 1.
Trend Analysis Examples of Trends A Stable Process 50 .
Trend Analysis Examples of Trends 51 .
One or more points outside control limits. 2. 52 . Four or five consecutive points beyond 1 sigma limits. (same side) 3. Two or three consecutive points outside 2 sigma limits but still inside control limits. A run of 9 consecutive points on one side of the central line. 5. (same side) 4. Six points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing.TEST FOR CONTROL CHARTS 1.
7. 53 . 8.TEST FOR CONTROL CHARTS 6. Fourteen points in a row alternating up and down. Eight points in a row on both sides of the center line with none in zone “C”. Fifteen points in a row in zone “C” (up & down).
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS CAUSES CORRECTIVE ACTION Tool Wear Tired Operator Change in Material Composition Mixed Material from Various Suppliers New Operator or Machine Modification of Production Method Change in Inspection Device Regular Rotation of Operator Environment (Temperature. Repair or Sharpen Tool Investigate Material Keep Consistent Material Supply Check Out Machine Capability Examine Operator Methods and Instructions Check Out Calibration of Measuring Devices Adjust Environment. if controllable 54 . Humidity) Schedule Maintenance Repair Machine Use Alternate Machine Change.
not attributes. not control Variables. data involved Normal Distribution Inherent capability (Process Width) is compared to specifications (Design Tolerance) Requires Process First to be In Control 55 .Process Capability Differs Fundamentally from Control Charting Focuses on improvement.
Process Capability A process is capable when its spread on the normal curve is narrower than the tolerance range Process variation is compared engineering specifications to 56 .
Process Capability .Applications Evaluation of new equipment Reviewing tolerances based on inherent variability of a process Assigning equipment to product Routine process performance audits The effects of adjustments during processing 57 .
Process Capability (PC) is the range in which "all" output can be produced.
Definition: PC = 6 σ
µ 6σ (99.7%)
Process Capability Chart
Process output distribution
Output out of spec
5.010 4.90 4.95 5.00 5.05
Output out of spec
LSL Tolerance band USL
Inherent capability (6 ) σ
This process is CAPABLE of producing all good output.
Lower Spec Limit
Upper Spec Limit
® Control the process.
This process is NOT CAPABLE. CAPABLE
® INSPECT - Sort out the defectives
Process Capability Process Capability Formula: Cp = Design Spec Width / Process Width Cp = (USL-LSL) / 6σ (σ = R-bar / d2 ) Thumb Rule: Cp > 1.00 Cp < 1.33 Cp = 1.00 Capable Capable with tight control Incapable 61 .
LSL) / 3σ Cpu = (USL . Cpu) Cpl = (Xbar .Process Capability Process Capability Index (account for Mean Shifts): Cpk = Min (Cpl.Xbar) / 3σ 62 .
Process Capability Cpk Negative.0 Meaning Process Mean outside Spec Limits Portion of process spread falls Outside Specs Process spread falls within Spec Limits For Six Sigma. an approximate value of Cpk = 1.5 63 .1. 0 .0 > 1.
(a) Process Capability: C pk Variations Cpk = 1.0 LSL USL LSL USL LSL USL (d) Cpk = 1.60 (f) Cpk = 0.0 (e) Cpk = 0.33 Cpk = 3.80 LSL USL LSL USL LSL USL 64 .0 (b) (c) Cpk = 1.
Process Capability (Desired Performance) / (Actual Performance) Note that average performance is not centered between the spec limits This curve is the The shaded areas represent distribution of data from the percentage of off-spec the process production Voice of Customer Voice of Process 65 .
Process Capability Analysis • • • • Do Nothing Change the Specifications Center the Process Reduce Variability 66 .
20 1.30 1.00 1.40 1.500 2700 967 318 96 27 6.8 67 .33 1.Cpk vs.10 1.50 PPM 317. PPM Cpk 0.
Link between SPC and SIX SIGMA OPTIMIZATION 68 .
EXERCISES EXERCISES Case Study 1: X-bar and R Chart Case Study 2: Histogram Case Study 3: Process Capability MINITAB EXERCISES 69 .
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