You are on page 1of 196

The Pharmaceutical

Presented to Geoffrey Poitras
Bus 417
Thursday, March 16, 2006
Industry Analysis Sarah Vefghi
Merck Richard Li
Aventis Nicole Yau
Pfizer Taraneh Ahrabian
Industry Analysis
Market Leaders, Regulatory
Bodies, Industry-wide Issues,
and Future Trends
Typical Value Chain of a
Pharmaceutical Product using
Discovery of Marketing of
the Product the Product
Top Ten Companies
In Terms of Market Capitalization

Pfizer 182.15 B
Johnson & Johnson 180.88 B
GlaxoSmithKlein 141.87 B
Roche Holding 135.28 B
Novartis 128.65 B
Sanofi-Aventis 122.80 B
Astra Zeneca 75.70 B
Merck 72.71 B
Eli Lilly & Co. 64.67 B
Wyeth 62.78 B

Source: Yahoo Finance

Top-Selling Drugs, 2004
(US Only)
Lipitor (Pfizer) $7.7B
Zocor (Merck) $4.6B
Prevacid (Abbott Laboratories) $3.8B
Nexium (AstraZeneca) $3.8B
Procit (Ortho Biotech) $3.2B
Zoloft (Pfizer) $3.1B
Epogen (Amgen) $3.0B
Plavix (Bristol-Myers Squibb) $3.0B
Advair (GlaxoSmithKlein) $2.9B
Zyprexa (Eli-Lilly) $2.8B

Source: IMS health

Top-Selling Drugs, 2004
Lipitor (Pfizer) $12.0B
Zocor (Merck) $ 5.9B
Plavix (Bristol-Myers Squibb) $ 5.0B
Nexium (AstraZeneca) $ 4.8B
Zyprexa (Eli-Lilly) $ 4.8B
Norvasc (Pfizer) $ 4.8B
Advair (GlaxoSmithKlein) $ 4.7B
Erypo (Ortho Biotech) $ 4.0B
Prevacid (Abbott Laboratories) $ 3.8B
Effexor (Wyeth) $ 3.7B

Source: IMS health

Therapeutic Class Breakdown
Cholesterol: Sales in the US in $ thousands

Rank Drug 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001

Class total $16,010,920 $15,592,602 $13,894,757 $12,496,154 $11,006,308

1 Lipitor $8,399,533 $7,746,955 $6,804,854 $6,116,171 $5,165,850

2 Zocor $4,381,611 $4,597,781 $4,399,563 $4,099,135 $3,500,183

3 Pravachol $1,724,129 $2,001,587 $2,035,540 $1,793,978 $1,549,669

4 Crestor $830,150 $609,045 $53,853 ***** *****

5 Lovastatin $261,616 $192,146 $165,777 $84,267 $5,686

Therapeutic Class Breakdown
Proton Pump Inhibitors/Stomach Acid (US sales, $
Rank Drug 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001

Class Total $12,852,128 $12,717,451 $13,020,888 $11,469,581 $9,927,509

1 Nexium $4,352,092 $3,789,754 $3,074,833 $1,944,948 $507,313

2 Prevacid $3,784,552 $3,854,954 $4,070,358 $3,582,523 $3,457,069

3 Protonix $2,377,496 $2,374,994 $1,865,819 $1,168,755 $660,851

4 Aciphex $1,247,670 $1,329,731 $1,296,022 $1,025,522 $738,163

5 Omeprazole $543,432 $679,786 $1,204,521 $91,771 *****

Theraputic Class Breakdown
Antidepressants (US sales only, $ thousands)

Rank Drug 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001

Class Total $12,501,029 $13,389,505 $13,170,384 $11,622,163 $11,421,888

1 Zoloft $3,084,635 $3,149,054 $2,912,770 $2,582,327 $2,254,131

2 Effexor XR $2,572,845 $2,612,375 $2,135,076 $1,535,200 $1,090,440

3 Lexapro $2,104,152 $1,761,198 $1,003,054 $99,383 *****

4 Wellbutrin XL $1,483,816 $1,060,680 $124,452 ***** *****

5 Cymbalta $667,345 $80,702 ***** ***** *****

Sales Data

Sales in prescription drugs increasing

Up 5.4% in 2005 from 2004
Sales of $251.8B
Generic Growth up 20.6% during 2005

Source: IMS health

2003 Pharmaceutical Sales by
World Audited 2003 Sales % of Global % Growth
Market ($ billion) sales ($) (constant $)

North America 229.5 49% 11%

European Union 115.4 25% 8%

Rest of Europe 14.3 3% 14%

Japan 52.4 11% 3%

Asia, Africa and 37.3 8% 12%


Latin America 17.4 4% 6%

TOTAL $466.3 100% 9%

New Drug Development
The New Drug Approval Process
Government regulatory body for the industry

Imposes requirements on product testing, safety, effectiveness,

and marketing of pharmaceutical products

Monitors for proper manufacturing and labeling standards

Also responsible for food, medical devices, and cosmetics


The FDA approval does not mean a product is harmless

Source:, prev presentation
New Drug Application
FDA reviewers key decisions:
Whether the drug is safe and effective in its proposed
use(s), and whether the benefits of the drug outweigh the
Whether the drug's proposed labeling (package insert) is
appropriate, and what it should contain.
Whether the methods used in manufacturing the drug and
the controls used to maintain the drug's quality are
adequate to preserve the drug's identity, strength, quality,
and purity.

Drug Approval Process
Average of 10 - 15 years and $800 million - $1 billion to nurture
a drug from initial discovery to market
Academic and Laboratory Research

Testing done on animals

Phase 1: Drug given to a small number of healthy people to test

its safety

Phase 2: Drug administered to 100 or more people with the

disease that it was intended to treat

Phase 3: Rigorous testing done on larger groups of ill patients

FDA Review Approval/Disapproval

Source: (and prev. presentation)

Pre Clinical Tests
The beginning of the drug approval process
To see the potential effects on humans, tests are
performed on:
Isolated tissues
Cell Cultures

Company decides whether to put the drug into the

human testing process, based on the marketability of
the product, their financial situation
On average, only one compound in a thousand will
actually make it to human testing
The IND Filing

The goal is to provide pre-clinical data of sufficient quality

to justify the testing of the drug in humans
FDA has 30 days to review the Investigational New Drug
(IND) application
Must be filed annually until the completion of clinical
At this time patents are usually applied for; patents last
generally for 20 years
About 85% of all IND applications move on to begin clinical
If they succeed, 20% chance of the product making it to
the market
Phase I
Duration: 1 to 3 years
Sample size: less than 100 patients
Test on: Healthy volunteers
If passed this Phase, chances of the product
reaching to the market will be 30%
Begins to analysis and develop the drugs
safety profile
How the drug is absorbed, metabolized and
Phase II
Duration: 2 years
Sample size: 100 300 patients
Test on volunteers who suffer from the
Upon passing this Phase, chances of the
product reaching to the market will be 60%
To evaluate the drug's safety and assess side
Establishes the optimal dosage of the drug
Phase III
Duration: 3-4 years
Sample size: >1000 patients
Test on volunteers who suffer from the disease
If passed this phase, chances of the product reaching
to the market will be 70%
Verifies the drugs effectiveness in its intended use
Assessment of long term effects
NDA Filing

Upon desirable results from Phase III, New Drug

Application (NDA) will be submitted
NDA contains data supporting the efficacy and safety
of the drug
Approval can take 2 month to several years, but on
average, it takes around 18 to 24 months
Drugs are subject to ongoing review, making sure no
adverse side effects appear from the drug.
After FDAs approval, the drug can be marketed and
Generally last 20 years
Since most companies file for patent during pre-clinical trials,
usually the patent is only good for another 10 years or so after it
gains FDA approval
What can be patented


DNA and RNA sequences

Proteins, enzymes, antibiotics

Antibodies, antigens
Micro-organisms, cell lines, hybrids
Key Points about the Clinical
To bring a drug through all phases of the clinical
trial process, it costs around:
$800 M - $1 B
10-15 years

Key factors that determine the quality of a

company's pipeline:
one or more successful products on the market

a large pipeline of candidate drugs with some in

enough cash to fund the development of their
new drug candidates
Drug Discovery Process
Drug Approval in Canada
Health Canada is in charge of new drug
Works in tandem with FDA
Manufacturer must file New Drug Submission
Two generation reproduction studies are
Notice of Compliance granted if NDS is
Facts and Figures
Advertising Costs

$1.3B spent on magazine advertising last


$2.4B spent on cable and television network

last year
Research and Development

$ 39.4B spent on R&D in 2005 by

PhRMA members
Up from $37B in 2004
Up from $2B spent in 1980
Generic Drug Sales
Industry Market Capitalization

Healthcare Industry 2558.25 B

Major Drug Manufacturers 1060.70 B

Source: Yahoo Finance

Industry Ratios
Major Drug Manufacturers and the Healthcare Sector

Healthcare Sector:

18.82 13.24 1.57 0.01 12.16 8.94 -49.27

Troubles the Pharmaceutical
Industry is Facing
Patent Expiration

2006: Patents expire on $17 billion in sales

for prescription drugs

Expected loss of $25 billion in sales over the

next three years for blockbuster drugs

Expected loss of $40 billion expected in total

Source: IMS health

Patent Exposure
Patent Protection
However, drugs may have several patents

Specific delivery method

Specific product/molecule
Specific manufacturing process
Specific medical indication
How molecules react
Specific Combination
Fixed dose/combination of several molecules

Drug Backlash
People needing medical attention are
increasingly rejecting manufactured
Push towards more natural healing
methods to avoid unpleasant side-effects
Natural Healing is growing and becoming
big business
Food is being used as a substitute for
Substitutes for Drugs -
Dark chocolate is being pegged as the
next new thing to combat blood pressure
and prevent heart problems could it
replace Aspirin?
Cherries and berries are being used by
many elderly people with mild arthritis
rather than joint medication
Drug Substitutes cont
Olive oil, fish oil, and flax seeds are
being used to treat high cholesterol
Cleansing methods involving apple
juice and olive oil are being used to
pass gallstones
Surgery and the subsequent medication
needed are being shoved aside
Image Issues
Pharmaceutical companies depend on
ailments to succeed
This can create an image problem, as
patients have become far less trusting
Pharmaceutical companies are being
accused of withholding potentially
valuable preventative and alternate
healing information from patients
Pricing Problems
American Association of Retired Persons disagreeing
with price increases:
Prices up 7.1% for brand-name drugs in 2004
inflation was only 2.7%
Lipitor could increase price by 5% next year
From 1999-2004, Drug prices increased by 35.1% on
average; inflation was only 13.5%
Generic drug prices increased only 0.5% in 2004
More competition

Source: Ad Med News

Safety Issues
People worry about side-effects of
Example: Accupril, a blood pressure
medication, may cause kidney disease
and/or failure
Patients worry than side-effects may be
worse than the original problem being
Safety Issues cont

The Vioxx crisis sent the Pharmaceutical

Industry into a tailspin
There are questions as to whether or not patients
can ever trust that their medications are safe.
The Industry is now left to recover from a
Case of Bad PR

Drug Instructions

There are worries that people who are

immigrants (and therefore speak different
languages) or who are illiterate cannot
properly read instructions
Taking drugs improperly can lead to the drug
not being effective or worse: overdose
Side-effects can be magnified
Immediate Death may result

Source:, Does Intelligence Really Matter?

Drug Instructions Cont

Around 300,000 adverse drug effects take place each

year in US hospitals alone
Many undesirable drug effects are preventable
FDA will introduce new prescription drug instructions
Known in industry as Package Inserts
First revision in 25 years

Generic Growth

Generic prescriptions grew from 33% in 1990 to 54%

in 2004
Global generic sales estimated to grow from $29
billion in 2003 to $49 billion in 2007
Ave. brand-name drug price: $84.21
Ave. generic drug price: $30.56
Generic manufacturers retain $5 more in profits

Source: IMS health

Aging Population:
Baby Boomers
This could be a new opportunity for the
Pharmaceutical Industry
Baby boomers will be needing more
medical care, including medication
Baby boomers want to continue living full,
active lives into old age, and there is room
for the Pharmaceutical Industry to help
46 million adults (non-institutionalized) in the U.S. (2003)
21% of adults (non-institutionalized) in the U.S. (2003)
23 million suffering worldwide. Estimated of 1.37 million people in the US were
diagnosed with cancer in 2005
about 1 in 3 lifetime risk; 38% of women and 43% of men
The average cost of cancer treatment is well over $100,000 per person.
Estimated $280 billion spent on treatment drugs for cancer annually. More than
$100 Billions in US
Estimated 18.2 million people in the United States, or 6.3% of the population
165 million cases worldwide (2003)
$132 billion spent in direct and indirect costs in America (2002)
Heart Disease
25 million adults in the US
Heart disease and stroke cost US around $214 billion annually. ($115 billion
direct) (2002)
Weight Loss Drugs

FDA panel recently approved an over-

the-counter fat-blocking drug
Manufactured by GlaxoSmithKlein
Is not a magic bullet users will still
need to control what they eat
Potential for misinterpretation by patients
Weight Loss Drugs cont
The Pharmaceuticals track record for magic
diet pills is quite poor
Fen- Phen a very, very dangerous diet drug that
needed to be pulled off the shelves brought the
dangers of diet pills to light
However, if a truly safe, magic bullet-type
diet drug were produced, it would most likely
become the best-selling drug of all time

Source: Dr. Andrew Weil, Eating Well for Optimum Health

Bottling Food
To keep up with the natural healing
trend, many companies are making pills
out of foods with healing properties
This is good for patients who cannot eat
the actual food to due allergies,
sensitivities, or taste issues
Purity of pill can be an issue; it is important
to read labels carefully
North America vs. Europe
Market Cap Trends
Pfizer dropped from 205.1B in 2004 to
182.15B as of early 2006
Roche has risen from 87.4B to 135.28B in the
same amount of time
European Pharmaceutical Companies are
putting much more emphasis on Research
and Development not so with North
American firms

Source: The National Post, Financial Post, January 21, 2006

Ethical Issues with Drug Testing
SFBC International Inc. is the largest private
centre for drug testing in North America
US senate is cracking down on SFBC
Questions as to whether or not they are truthfully
reporting methodologies and results of clinical trials
Questions as to whether or not they are truthfully
reporting their financials
Ethical Issues cont
The Miami-Dade County Unsafe Structures
Board has also cracked down on the SFBC
They are giving them a chance to correct defects
at their facility in Miami
There was fear that there is a lack of safety
and integrity over their testing methods
Participants may have been subject to unsafe and
dangerous situations

Does the SFBCs Problem
Really Impact the Industry?
It is forcing people to think about the
way their over-the-counter and
prescription drugs are being tested is covering this in an
ongoing report titled Big Pharmas
Shameful Secret putting a less-than-
flattering spotlight on the industry
In Summary
What to look for in a pharmaceutical
Promising new drugs in the pipeline
Patents on existing blockbuster drugs
Patents on the drug itself
Patents on the development, delivery
Success and track record of existing drugs
Mission statement
To provide society with superior products and
services by developing innovations and
solutions that improve the quality of life and
satisfy customer needs, and to provide
employees with meaningful work and
advancement opportunities, and investors
with a superior rate of return.
Company Overview
a global research-driven pharmaceutical company
dedicated to putting patients first. Established in
1891, Merck discovers, develops, manufactures and
markets vaccines and medicines to address unmet
medical needs. The company devotes extensive
efforts to increase access to medicines through far-
reaching programs that not only donate Merck
medicines but help deliver them to the people who
need them. Merck also publishes unbiased health
information as a not-for-profit service
Management Committee
Richard T. Clark, CEO and president, Merck & Co., Inc., 2005; (1972)
David W. Anstice, president, Human Health-Asia Pacific since 2005 (1974)
Marcia J. Avedon, Ph.D., senior vice president, Human Resources since 2003(2002)
Willie A. Deese, president, Merck Manufacturing Division since 2005(2004)
Kenneth C. Frazier, senior vice president and general counsel since 1999 (1992)
Peter S. Kim, Ph.D., president, Merck Research Laboratories (MRL) since 2003 (2001)
Judy C. Lewent, executive vice president and chief financial officer since 2005 (1980)
Adel A.F. Mahmoud, M.D., Ph.D., chief medical advisor, Vaccines and Infectious Diseases,
Merck Vaccine Division (MVD) since 2005 (1998)
Margaret G. McGlynn, president, Merck Vaccine Division (MVD) since 2005 (1983)
J. Chris Scalet, senior vice president, Global Process and Services, and Chief Information
Officer since 2006
Bradley T. Sheares, Ph.D., president, U.S. Human Health since 2001 (1987)
Per Wold-Olsen, president, Human Health - Intercontinental since 2005 (1973)
Executive Compensation
Company Statistics

Market Capitalization: $77.07 Billion

Total Sales Worldwide: $22.01 Billion

Total Shares Outstanding: 2.2 Billion

Stock price: $35.23 (March 15, 2006)

Total employee hired worldwide: 61,500 (Dec

--approximately 31,900 employed in the US
Geographic Revenue Segments
Revenues by Region (2003-2005)


20000.0 All Other Countries

Millions of Dollars

15000.0 Japan

10000.0 Europe,Middle East and

5000.0 United States

2005 2004 2003
Revenue Drivers
Major Products I

#2 selling cholesterol drug in the world

Zocor reduces cholesterol by blocking an enzyme in the liver

helps produce cholesterol

$4.4 billion sales worldwide (2005)

-drop 16% from $5.2 billion in 2004
-represent 20% of the company revenue
-lost patent in Canada and some European countries (2003)

Will lose patent in US (June 2006)

-expect a huge sales decline
-only $2.3 to $2.6 billion for 2006
Major Products II
Most prescribed osteoporosis medicine in the world

Inhibits bone removal by osteoclasts (cells that break down

bone material)

$3.2 billion sales worldwide (2005)

-14.5% of total sales

Will lose patent in US (Feb 2008)

-expect a huge sales decline after that time
Major Products III
Cozaar / Hyzaar
High blood pressure drug

Cozaar is a angiotensin II antagonists (AIIAs)

Angiotensin is a hormone that causes blood vessels to narrow

Cozaar is 2nd most prescribed AIIA in US and the top-seller in Europe

Hyzaar, Cozaar and a diuretic, removing water from the blood and lessens blood

$3 billion sales worldwide (2005)

- 8% increase over 2004
-13.6% of total revenue
Major Products IV

Drug for chronic asthma and relief of

symptoms of allergic rhinitis

$3 billion sales worldwide (2005)

- 13% increase over 2004
- 13.6% of total sales
Joint Ventures
Sanofi-Aventis S.A. in 1997
(provide pharmaceuticals and vaccines for animals)

Sanofi Pasteur S.A. in 1994

(develop and market vaccines in Europe)

Johnson & Johnson in 1989
(develop and market nonprescription medicines for U.S. consumers)
Joint Ventures II

Astra AB (Astra) in 1982

(develop and market Astra products in US)
-Equity income of $833.5 million in 2005, $646.5 million in 2004

Schering-Plough in 2000
(develop and market new prescription medicines in the cholesterol management and respiratory
therapeutic areas in US)
-Equity income of $570.4 million in 2005, $132.0 million in 2004

H. Lundbeck A/S in 2004

(Exclusive development and commercialization of a sleep disorder drug )

Bristol Myers Squibb in 2004

(jointly develop clinical and marketing strategy for a diabetes drug)
Acquisitions & Divestitures

Increased ownership of Banyu from 51% to 99.4%,

costing $1.5427 billion (2003)
-Japan is the worlds second largest pharmaceutical market
-Banyu is one of Japans top 10 pharmaceutical companies
-strengthens Mercks position in Japan

Acquired Aton Pharma (2004)

-privately-held biotech
-novel treatments for cancer and other serious diseases
Acquisitions & Divestitures II
Medco Health Spin-Off(2003)
-Medco: high volume, low margin mail-order pharmacy
-Merck shareholders get 0.1206 share of Medco per Merck

Sold its 50% stake in J&J/MSD Europe

to J&J for $244 million
-continue to benefit through royalties
- regain the rights to potential future products that switch
from prescription to over-the-counter status in Europe
New Corporate Strategy
Called Mercks Plan to Win

Developed by more than 200 of Mercks

senior managers

Announced on Dec 15, 2005

Mercks Plan to Win
Focusing the research and development
efforts on nine priority disease areas
-Nine disease areas: Alzheimers disease, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular
disease, diabetes, novel vaccines, obesity, cancer, pain and sleep

-Become acknowledged leader in treating or preventing disease by

1) building scientific leadership in these areas
2) pursuing acquisitions and licensing opportunities that help
their work in the labs
Mercks Plan to Win
completely redefining discovery and
development process

-redefining our research and development model

-increasing the productivity of our pipeline

-use the most advanced scientific techniques to

improve our rates of success throughout the R&D
Current R&D Pipelines
R&D Expenditures
Mercks Plan to Win
create a new commercial model to provide all the customers the
right information, at the right time, in the right way
- more information resources through easily accessible channels
1) Internet 2) health professionals

- two products per sales representative

1) focused and more value

- A more targeted consumer education

- expect to reduce the companys US spending per brand by 15%-20%

within next 5 years
Mercks Plan to Win
Emerging pharmaceutical markets

- build a long-term leadership position

in those markets

- double the sales in those markets to $2

by 2010
Mercks Plan to Win
create a lean and flexible cost
- includes all general and administrative processes, global
commercial processes, product development and lifecycle
management process and developing partners to which
they can outsource non-core activities

eg. sell or close five manufacturing sites and two preclinical

sites and cut 7,000 positions world-wide by the end of 2008
RISK Factors
$2.5 Billion annual sales in 2003
-#1 arthritis and acute pain medicine outside the US
-#2 in the US

Use >18months will cause heart attack and stoke

Voluntarily withdraw worldwide (Sep 30, 2004)

share price dropped from $45.07 to $33.00(one day)

$27 billion in market cap was erased

9,650 Vioxx liability lawsuits has been filed (Dec 31, 2005)

19,100 plaintiffs has involved (Dec 31, 2005)

The company spent $285 Million in legal defense during 2005

Increase the reserve amount to $685 Million for legal fees

through 2006 and 2007 (Dec 2005)

Unpredictable outcomes in lawsuits, substantial damages, fines,

criminal penalties
Patents Expiration
Other Risk Factors
Failure in developing and acquiring commercially successful
- decline in sales of Zocor and fosamax needs
new pipeline

Failure in regulatory approval

Competition from other products

1) More efficiency 2) price pressure

Unexpected future changes in government laws and regulations

Financial Results
Financial Highlights
Key Ratios
Stock Chart (6 Months)
Stock Chart (3 Years)
Stock Chart (5 Years)
Statement of Income
Balance sheet (Part I)
Balance sheet (part II)
Statement of Cash Flows (Part I)
Statement of Cash Flows (Part II)
lots of cash
Maybe cheap
Reletively inexperienced core managements
Tons of lawsuits against Vioxx
Weak pipeline
Unpredictable corporate restructuring
Key revenue drivers near expiration
Foreseeable intense products competition

Company Overview
Headquartered in Paris, France
# 1 in Europe, # 3 worldwide in the
pharmaceutical industry
Present in more than 100 countries
throughout the 5 continents.
5,3% Market share
Total number of shares: 1,401,306,569
Capitalization (): 105,238,126,592
as of 3/2/ 06
Formed in Aug 20, 2004 when Sanofi-
Synthelabo merged with Aventis
Sanofi- Synthelabo was formed in 1999
when Sanofi merged with Synthelabo
Aventis was formed in 1999 when
Rhone-Poulenc S.A. merged with
Hoechst Marion Roussel
Chairman and CEO: Jean- FranDeputy
Compensation paid: 2.74 million
Granted 740,000 stock options
Senior Executive VP: Gerarad Le Fur (02-08)
Compensation paid: 1.73 million
Granted 377,000 stock options
Executive VP : Hanspeter Spek
Senior VP : Jean-Claude Armbruster, Gilles Brisson, Pierre
Chancel, Gilles Lhemould, Helnz -Werner Meler, James
Mitchum, Christian Lajoux, Marie-Helene Lalmay, Jean-Pierre
Kerjouan, Oliver Jacquesson, Nicole Cranois
CEOG Finance: Jean-Claude Leroy
Shareholder Relations: Pierre-Michel Bringer
Investor Relations: Sanjay Gupta
Note: 4,185,530 options granted -> senior management
7 Therapeutic Areas
Cardiovascular: Aprovel Avapro
Function: anti -hypertension
Thrombosis: Plavix Lovenox Clexane
Function: anticoagulant
Oncology: Taxotere Eloxatine
Function: Cancer treatment
Metabolic Disorder : Lantus Amaryl
Function: Insulin for diabetes
Central Nervous system : Stilnox/ Copaxone
Function: Insomnia, reduce frequency of relapse
Internal medicine : Allegra Ketek Telfast
Function: Anti- infectives
Major Revenue Drivers
Products sales Q4 05 Q4 05 % Sales FY 05 FY 2005 %
Lovenox 572 9% 2143 13.80%
Plavix 518 16.90% 2026 20.20%
Taxotere 425 15.50% 1609 12.80%
Eloxatin 423 19.50% 1564 30.60%
Stilnox/Ambien 430 19.10% 1519 10.60%
Allegra 160 -58.50% 1345 -9.10%
Lantus 345 45% 1214 47.50%
Tritace 285 4% 1009 2.40%
Copaxone 256 24.90% 902 13.90%
Aprovel 231 13.20% 892 0.70%
Amaryl 135 -28.60% 677 23.80%
Actonel 89 18.70% 364 4.60%
Depakine 80 2.60% 318 18.40%
Xatral 91 24.70% 328 -2.10%
Nasacort 72 -5.30% 278 14%
Total 4112 6.80% 16188 16.80%
Selected Key Products
Lovenox treatment for thrombosis
Selected Key Products
Lantus: 24 hr insulin for metabolic disorder
(blockbuster drug for Sanofi-Aventis)
Revenue by business segment &
Geographic area

Cardiovascular/Thrombosis: 39%
Central Nervous System: 29% ; Oncology: 11%
Internal Medicine: 18% ; Others: 3%
Business Strategy
Ambitious research to ensure sustainable
growth ( R&D investments)
Innovation for basic medicines and vaccines
Global Presence to ensure growth
Mobilized resources
Recent Event
Filed lawsuit with Procter & Gamble against Roche and
Glazosmithkline for misleading advertising about the
osteoporosis medication (Boniva)

Start of hearings of motion for preliminary injunction in

the Allegra" patent infringement case. Oct27,05

Entered into an agreement to transfer its rights of

Exubera, an inhaled human insulin, to Pfizer. Alliance
formed in 98, jointly developed Exubera (human insulin)
Alliance with . .
Roche in 2006 , will develop shikimic acid by
fermentation for Tamilflu supply chain

Pfizer in 98, jointly developed Exubera (an inhalation

device for recombinant human insulin)

Bristol-Myers Squibb in 97, jointly developed anti-

hypertensive agent: Aprovel/Avapro/Karvea

Procter & Gamble in 97, jointly developed Actonel,

treatment and prevention of osteoporosis .
Growth 04-05
Strongest Performance Products
in 05
New Product launch in 2005
Risk Factors
Integration of the Sanofi-aventis and Aventis
- diverted managements focus from other strategic
Incurred substantial debt in acquisition of Aventis.
- (16 billion at Dec2004)
Depend on US market
- US market is dominated by major US companies
- Exchange rate risk : /$
- Potential changes in health care policies in US
Foreign exchange rate risk
- particularly sensitive to movements in /$,
/$ and /$
R&D portfolio (Cpd in
Pre- Phase I Phase Phase IIb Phase Total
clinical IIa III

Cardiovascular 5 3 2 4 1 15
Thrombosis 4 1 1 3 1 10
Central Nervous
10 6 3 2 7 28
Oncology 7 4 3 1 4 19
4 4 3 2 1 14

Internal Medicine 9 6 4 2 1 22

Vaccines 9 2 4 4 2 21
Total 48 26 20 18 17 129
R&D portfolio updated on January 31, 2006
2005 consolidated Income Statements
Consolidated Balance Sheet 1
Consolidated Balance Sheet 2
Cash Flow Statement 1
Cash Flow Statement 2
Benchmark Stock Indices
French pan-sector index - CAC 40
European pan-sector indices
- Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50
- FTS Eurofirst 100, FTS Eurofirst 80
European pharmaceutical index
- Dow Jones Stoxx Pharma
American pan-sector indices
- NYSE International 100,
- NYSE World Leaders
5 Years Stock Comparison


One Year Stock History
Three Years Stock History
Financial Ratios - Price Ratios

Sanofi - aventis Industry

P/E 16 N/A

P/S 3.88 3.58

P/BK Value 2.35 3.36
Financial Ratios ..

Sanofi-Aventis Industry

Debt/ Equity 0.16 0.29

Current Ratio 0.8 1.6
Quick Ratio 0.5 1.1

Interest Coverage 2.9

Leverage Ration 2 2.2
Bk Value/ Share 19.12 10.69
Financial Ratios - Investment

Investment Returns (in%) SNY Industry

ROE 14%
ROA 6.9 % -0.7 %
ROC -1.2 %

= 0.75


Market Cap 120.52B 64.74B 77.32B 191.01B 279.14M

Employees 96,439 42,600 63,000 106,000 126
Qtrly Rev Growth 38.80% 6.40% 0.30% -8.90% 28.30%
Revenue 34.10B 14.65B 22.01B 51.30B 26.41M
Gross Margin 74.85% 76.28% 76.61% 83.77% 81.78%
EBITDA 12.81B 4.39B 9.28B 20.92B -5.95M
Operatin Margins 32.09% 24.91% 26.62% 29.90% -27.75%
Net Income 7.58B 2.00B 4.63B 8.09B -12.26M
EPS 2.83 1.813 2.105 1.09 -0.35
P/E 15.91 31.6 16.8 23.82 25
PEG (5 yr expected) 1.38 1.84 5.03 2.39 1.29
P/S 3.54 4.4 3.49 3.72 7.35
Analysis from financial
Dividend Rate = 0.78
Dividend Yield = 1.7 %
Payout Ratio = 29%
Dividend: 2003: 1.02 2004: 1.2
2005: 1.52
Net sales: + 9.3 %
EPS : + 25.7% (18.2% in 2004)
Adjusted EPS: +25.7% at 4.74
( average number of shares: 1,336.5 m)
Analysis from financial statements 2
Operating income: +18.7% at 9,072 m
(33.2% of net sales)

Adjusted net income : + 26.1% at 6,335m

Net Profit Margin: 18.56

LT Debt: 4,750 (8,654 in 2004)

Analysis from financial statements 3

Gross margin ratio : + by 1.2 points in 2005

- Strong sales, favorable product mix,
purchasing efficiencies

R&D Expenses : + 2.0% ( 3,961 million)

- Discontinuation of some R&D collaborations
and impact of pre-acquisition restructuring
DCF Valuation
ROE = 14% ; b = 29%
=> g = ROE * (1-b) = 0.0994

=> D(1) = 0.78 ( 1+ 0.0994) = 0.8575

Assume WACC = 12%
DDM = D1/ (k g) = 41.62


License License
income income

selling& general expense cost of gd sold

Require financial disclosures in US GAAP

Classification difference : eg Exceptional items and
intangible assets
Mission Statement
We will become the world's most valued company to patients,
customers, colleagues, investors, business partners, and the
communities where we work and live

We dedicate ourselves to humanity's quest for longer, healthier,
happier lives through innovation in pharmaceutical, consumer, and
animal health products
Line of Business
Pfizer Inc. is a research-based, global
pharmaceutical company.

It discovers, develops, manufactures

market leading prescription medicines
for humans and animals as well as
many of the worlds best known
consumer healthcare products.
Company Statistics
Market capitalization: US$191.31 billion
Average Volume (3 months): 33,466,600
Employees (worldwide): 106,000
Annual R&D expenses as a % of revenues: 14.5% in 2005
Largest markets: North America, Europe and Japan
Stock symbol: PFE (NYSE)
Stock price: US$25.95 ( closing price as of March 15, 2006)
52 week Range: 20.27 -29.21
Number of outstanding common shares: 7.53 billion
Dividend Yield: 0.81 (3.12%)
P/E: 23.59
Pfizer Performance in one Year
Henry A. McKinnell (1972), Chief Executive Officer (12th CEO in
Pfizers history)
David Shedlarz (1976), Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice Chairman
Karen Katen (1974), Executive Vice President, Vice-Chairman of Health
John LaMattina (1977), Senior Vice President, President of Pfizer Global
Research and Development
Peter Corr (2000), Senior Vice President of Science and Technology (from
Yvonne Jackson (2002), Senior Vice President of Human Resources (from
Executive Stock Options
Major Acquisitions
Deal completed in April, 2003
US$55.97 billion
Identifiable intangible assets: US$37.07 billion
Goodwill: US$21.40 billion
Issuance of 1.8 billion shares of Pfizer common stock (29%
180 million options on Pfizer common stock
6,000 shares of Pfizer Series A convertible perpetual preferred stock
(convertible into approximately 15.5 million shares of Pfizer
common stock)

Deal completed in June, 2000
Geographical Division of



60% All other countries

40% US


2005 2004 2003
Sources of Revenue
Therapeutic Area
Cardiovascular and
9% metabilic diseases
2% Central nervous system
Arthritis and pain

44% Infectious and

respiratory diseases


5% Opthamoology
Endocrine disorders
Major Products I
Treatment for elevated LDL cholestrol level
best-selling pharmaceutical product in the world
Worldwide sales of $12 billion in 2005
An increase of 12% compared to 2004
Accounts for 39% of all lipid-lowering prescriptions
More than 2.5 times its next competitor

But Lipitor performance has slowed down

Slowdown in lipid-lowering market
Increased competition:
April 2006: US generic prevastitin (Prevachol)
June 2006: generic simvastatin (Zocor)
Major Products II
Worlds most-prescribed branded antihypertensive
4th best-selling drug in the world

Worldwide sales of $4.34 billion in 2003

9.60% of total company sales

Sales increased by 5% in 2005

Patent expirations in many EU countries
Maintains exclusivity in Canada, US, Japan, and
Major Products III
Most- prescribed anti-depressant in US
#10 best selling drug in the world
Loses market exclusivity in US in June 2006
Since Feb 2005 Pfizer follows FDA rule of
including a Black-Box warning that anti-
depressants elevate the risk of suicidal thinking in
children and adolescents
Suspension of Bextra
The market for pain- relievers changed since
withdrawal of Vioxx in Sep 2004
In April 2005 FDA decided the increased risk
of rare but serious skin reactions from Bextra
require it to be withdrawn from market
This suspension cost Pfizer $1.2 billion
One major reason for declined revenues in
Filings in 2006
Pfizer has completed 17 filings for
approval of new medicines since 2001,
11 of which are approved and on the
Patent Expirations
Drug Expiration Year Annual Sales (2005) % of Total Sales
Zithromax 2005 2025 4%
Zoloft 2006 3,256 6.7%
Norvasc 2007 4,706 9.6%
Zyrtec 2007 1,338 2.6%
Aricept 2010 346 0.7%
Lipitor 2010 12187 24%
Xalatan 2011 623 1.25%
Viagra 2012 1,645 3.8%
Detrol 2012 544 0.92%
Celebrex 2013 1,730 4%
Xalacon 2015 1372 1.5%
Genotropin 2015 481 1.1%
Lyrica 2013 291 0.7%
Total 61%
Research & Development
6,000,000.00 7,442,000 7,131,000

Dec-05 Dec-04 Dec-03 Dec-02 Dec-01 Dec-00 Dec-99 Dec-98 Dec-97
Major Drugs in the Pipeline
LATE STAGE Development
HIV/AIDS (FDA fast-track
desig.) Maraviroc UK-427,857 a mechanistically unprecedented CCR-5 inhibitor
Schizophrenia & Bipolar asenapine a 5HT2/D2 antagonist
Disorder (co-development with Akzo Nobels Organon healthcare unit
Malaria Treatment Zithromax/ chloroquine
Atherosclerosis Lipitor/torcetrapib a combination to elevate HDL cholesterol and lower LDL
Lung Cancer Treatment PF-3512676 a toll-like receptor 9 agonist for non-small lung cancer
Cancer edotecarin a next-generation topoisomerse inhibitor for cancer
Cancer* SU-11,248 a novel angiogenesis inhibitor
COPD/ASTHMA roflumilast a novel anti-inflammatory agent distinct from existing treatments
Diabetes Exubera an inhaled insulin system
HIV/AIDS capravirine a novel antiviral compound active against resistant strains of HIV
Insomnia indiplon a unique non-benzodiazepine GABA modulator
Macular Degeneration* Macugen a novel anti-VEGF therapy
Anxiety Disorder pregabalin a neurologic agent develoepd by Pfizer
Pipeline Expansion
Pfizer's pipeline continues to grow and
now consists of 235 total projects:
including 152 novel compounds and 83
product enhancements.

Pipeline is now 8 percent larger than at

the end of 2004
Combines torcetrapib (a CEPT inhibitor to raise HDL)
with Lipitor
Continues in Phase 3 clinical trial
Cardiovascular disease remains #1 killer worldwide
with a residual risk of 60 to 70%
Pfizers goal to prove increasing HDL and decreasing
LDL can reduce this risk far beyond todays possible
Torcetrapib/Atorvastatin Clinical Trial Program is the
Largest Ever Conducted by Pfizer: 25,000 Patients
Enrolled in Studies Underway Around the World
Key Drivers in 2006
Prospects for 2006/07
Pfizer Anticipates Sustained Growth of Existing Medicines
and Increasing Contribution from Next Generation of
Innovative Medicines

Pfizer to launch six new medicines in 2006; anticipates

excellent prospects for Sutent, Exubera, Champix
Delivering on industry's broadest pipeline, Pfizer expects
to file five new medicines in 2006-07:
maraviroc for HIV/AIDS
torcetrapib/atorvastatin for cholesterol management
asenapine for schizophrenia
ticilimumab for cancer and a licensed compound
Strategy to Build Shareholder
"This is a time of transformation for Pfizer and our industry," said Hank
McKinnell, Pfizer chairman and chief executive officer.

Productivity Enhancements

The Adapting to Scale initiative will continue to produce substantial cost

savings while creating a more efficient company.

Initiatives to Enhance Shareholder Value

Focused on three important initiatives to leverage cash flow:

increasing our dividend payout and yield
purchasing shares
changing Pfizer's business portfolio, including the recently announced decision to
explore strategic alternatives for Pfizer Consumer Healthcare (PCH).
Source: Pfizer website
Broad-Based Strategy for Success
in Evolving Global Marketplace
R&D productivity gains driving pipeline expansion with 235 total
projects and planned adjusted R&D expense* of $7.8 billion in 2006
Pfizer establishing leadership in new areas of biologics and oncology;
2006 biologics revenues of $1.5 billion expected; oncology pipeline
has 22 mid- and early-stage candidates
Pfizer demonstrating value of its medicines to payers through
compelling pharmacoeconomic data; excellent formulary access
achieved in U.S. Medicare market
While reducing worldwide plant network from 93 to 66, Pfizer
manufacturing investing in new technology and capacity for next
generation of medicines
Financial Forecast Highlights:
Building Shareholder Value
2006 Reported Diluted EPS expected to be $1.52 to $1.56

2006 Revenues and Adjusted Diluted EPS* of about $2.00, expected to be comparable
to 2005 including negative impact of stock-option expensing and foreign exchange

Revenue growth expected to resume in 2007 as growth from new and in-line medicines
more than offsets impact of loss of exclusivity

High single-digit average annual growth anticipated in 2007-08 Adjusted Diluted EPS*

2006 cash flow from operations expected to exceed $16 billion; continued strong growth
in cash flow from operations anticipated over the planning period to more than $19
billion by 2008

Company evaluating strategic options for Pfizer Consumer Healthcare business

The Adapting to Scale Initiative
Adapting to Scale focuses on
enhancing R&D productivity
optimizing the field force
consolidating our network of manufacturing plants
optimizing the procurement of goods and services.
will continue to produce substantial cost savings
while creating a more efficient company.
Adapting to Scale Initiative Cost-
Latest News
March 14
Pfizer Clinician: "First Data to Show that there are Important Differences in Raising
HDL Cholesterol Levels with Torcetrapib and Atorvastatin Depending on Whether
it is Dosed in the Morning or Evening"

TNT Trial Investigator: "The TNT Sub-Analysis Suggests that HDL Cholesterol
May Also Provide Important Therapeutic Benefits that May Result in Further
Reductions in Cardiovascular Risk"

Feb 21
Pfizer Receives FDA Approval for Eraxis to Treat Candidemia, a Potentially Life-
Threatening Bloodstream Infection

Feb 7
Pfizer to Explore Strategic Alternatives for Consumer Healthcare Business

` The objective of the review is to unlock the value of the business for Pfizer
shareholders at a time when market valuations are attractive for large, high-quality
consumer businesses
Performance in 2005
Substantially impacted by loss of exclusivity in
US of

Suspension of Bextra sales

Uncertainty related to Celebrex
Collectively reduced Revenue by $5.7billion
compared to 2004
Performance 2005 contnd
Total Revenue decreased by 2% to $51.3 billion
from 2004
Revenue reduction due to loss of exclusivity by
These four products presented 7% as compared
to 13% of total revenue in 2004
63% decline in revenue from suspension of
Bextra sales and uncertainty about Celebrex
But portfolio of patent-protected products
includes 4 of 25 best-selling pharmaceutical
products with six market leaders in their
therapeutical area
Costs and Expenses
Cost of sales increased 13% in 2005 and decreased 21% in 2004 while
revenues decreased 2% in 2005 and increased 17% in 2004.

Cost of sales in 2005 compared to 2004 increased as a result of:

unfavorable geographic, segment and product mix, and adverse

changes in production volume, among other factors, which reflect the

loss of U.S. exclusivity for certain pharmaceutical products
the uncertainty regarding the selective COX-2 inhibitors
$124 million related to implementation costs of our new AtS
productivity initiative
$73 million in write-offs of inventory and exit costs related to
suspension of sales and marketing of Bextra.
Cost & Expenses contd
Cost of sales in 2004 (which includes legacy Pharmacias product portfolio for
the entire period) compared to 2003 decreased as a result of:

impact of purchase accounting in 2003, which reflected the incremental charge

of $2.7 billion from the sale of inventory
acquired from Pharmacia, adjusted to fair value
merger-related cost savings
favorable product mix

partially offset by:

higher product costs attributable to legacy Pharmacia products;
the unfavorable impact of the weakening of the U.S. dollar
relative to many foreign currencies.
ROE FCF per share

60.00 1.00
50.00 0.80

30.00 ROE
0.40 FCF per share
10.00 0.20

0.00 0.00
Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec-
96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 -0.20 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05

P/E Ratio
D/E Ratio

0.60 70.00
0.50 60.00
0.40 50.00
D/E Ratio P/E Ratio
0.20 20.00
0.10 10.00
0.00 0.00
Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec-
96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05
%Sales to Industry
%Pre-Tax Profit Margin to Industry

160.00 160.00
140.00 140.00
120.00 120.00
100.00 100.00
%Sales to Industry
80.00 %Pre-Tax Profit Margin
60.00 to Industry
40.00 60.00
20.00 40.00
0.00 20.00
De De De De De De De De De 0.00

c- c- c- c- c- c- c- c- c-
96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04

R&D Expense as a % of Revenue

Profit Margin
40.00 17.00
35.00 16.50
30.00 16.00
25.00 15.50 R&D Expense as a % of

20.00 Profit Margin 15.00 Revenue
15.00 14.50

Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec- Dec-
96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05
Gordon Growth Model
DPS1 = $0.76(1+0.0821)= $0.822
Dividend payout ratio b= 42%
Assume WACC k= 10%
P/E= 23.59 = b*(1+g)/(k-g)
g= 8.21%
DDM: DPS1/(k-g) = $45.92
For 2005, Pfizers pharmaceutical peer group consisted of the following companies:
Abbott Laboratories, Amgen,AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers ,Squibb Company, Eli Lilly and
Company, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Merck and Co., Schering- Plough
Corporation and Wyeth (New Peer Group).
Prior to that, Pfizers pharmaceutical peer group :
Abbott Laboratories, Baxter International, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company,
Colgate-Palmolive Company, Eli Lilly and Company, Johnson & Johnson,
Merck and Co., Schering-Plough Corporation, and Wyeth (Old Peer Group).
The Fisher Approach
Functional Factor
Superior R&D

Leader in 6 therapeutical areas

People Factor
Educated and experienced management

Essential Investment Characteristic

Strong competitive position

Prospective cost-saving movements

The Price of the stock

12.6 % below 52 week high and 28 % above 52 week low

High P/E ratio

Excellent long-time management team
Very Strong prospective cost-saving
Promising products in pipeline
Strong R&D
Extensive financial resources